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From Its Earliest Settlement to 1912 










The sturdy stuff of all their sires 

Was molded in the race of them 
Who builded first their wayside fires 

Along the primal forests' hem. 
Who dared the wilderness and fought 

With wild men single-handed there; 
Who cleared the underbrush and wrought 

Out destiny with patient care 1 

In their small clearings, here and there, 

By creek and river, as they fared, 
The settler's cabin braved despair 

And challenged death and dared 
The awful loneliness that hushed 

The hope that still survives — 
The mad'ning silences that crushed 

The brightness out of lives ! 

They were the heroes of the race 

Who conquered by the might 
Of manhood ; who stood face to face 

With God and knew the right, 
And did it with a fearless trust 

That brooked no shriv'ling doubt ; 
Who did the things that ever must 

Be done — as bravely did without ! 

It was the sons of hardy sires — 

And not one whit less hardy these — 
Who kindled first their wayside fires 

On the wide prairies without trees, 
Where the dread desolation swept 

Across their spirits, day and night : 
Strong men struggled and women wept 

For loneliness beyond requite ! 

Such were the men and such their wives 
Who laid the corner-stones of State : 

Who gave, in sacrifice, their lives 

That we might here become the great 


Rich Commonwealth, which now we hold 

\~ our fair heritage to-day — 
Far-spread splendors of grain and gold. 

With wealth which cannot pass away ' 

But they have passed — are pas.Mng now — 

The remnants of the pioneers; 
With the deep furrows on their brow, 

Yet with cheeks unblanched by fear- : 
While heads are bent and steps are slow. 

Their spirits are unconquered yet ' 
They go the way all heroes go — 

But we will not forget ! 

* II \RLES Bl We'll AKI). 

Des Moines. Iowa., July i ;. mil. 


Louisa, though the smallest county in the state, and containing one hundred 
and fifteen thousand acres less than the average, has a history, which, in some 
respects, is fully as important, and. in most respects, is as well worth preserving 
as that of any of Iowa's ninety-nine counties. It is a matter of keen regret .that 
the importance of preserving our local history, has not only never been properly 
recognized, but has often been entirely lost sight of. For many years after the 
settlement, and even long after the organization of the county, we had no news- 
paper here, and because of neglect on the one hand, and destructive fires on the 
other, we now have only fragmentary files of such newspapers as were published. 
The early settlers were too busy making history to give much time, or take much 
thought, toward recording or preserving it, and so it happens that, while the 
affairs of the county from the very beginning were transacted in a fairly busi- 
nesslike manner, and while we have much important and interesting matter con- 
cerning the official doings of those early days, it is still a lamentable fact that 
many papers and documents which must have at one time been among the county 
archives are missing, nor are they to be found in print. Beginning with the 
entry of the late John Hale, and soon after of W. S. Kremer. into the service 
of the county, much greater care was taken toward recording official transac- 
tions, and preserving official papers. The writer has heard Mr. Hale describe 
the almost indescribable confusion in which he found the papers in the clerk's 
office when he entered it — all kinds of documents in the same pigeon hole without 
any order or system, papers of all kinds and dates piled upon the tables and scat- 
tered upon chairs or on the floor, or thrown in the corners of the room — and 
most of the old files which we still have show us, by the labels in his own hand- 
writing, that it was John Hale who sorted and saved them, and they still remind 
us how greatly we are indebted to his thoughtfulness and care. It is hoped that 
those who peruse this history will, if they should find it "full of omissions." 
charge at least a part of them to circumstances which cannot now be remedied. 

Other omissions there will be. due to. various causes. Some of these omis- 
sions will be due to the failure of those who have important documents in their 
possession to make the fact known, and other omissions may be charged to the 
fact that this work is done amid the interruptions of business, and because of the 
anxietv of the publishers to complete, and of many of the subscribers to receive 
the promised history. One could easily spend years in making a detailed investi- 
gation of any one of the several subjects presented by the history of a county 
created three quarters of a century ago, and within whose borders is the historic 
spot where, more than a century and a half before the county existed was held 
the first council between the white man and the red man in the valley of the 



mighty Mississippi. Nevertheless, it is hoped that this work will pass for an 
attempt at a County History, and even this could not be claimed for any previous 
publication concerning Louisa county. The work done by O. I. Jamison, pub- 
lished in the Columbus Junction Gazette in 1906 and 1907 is of very great value, 
and would have been far more so if his health and life had been spared to complete 
it as he had planned. Most of the writings which have heretofore passed for 
county histories are so inaccurate that they often hinder more than they help, 
although considerable valuable material has been taken, after making some cor- 
rections, from the County Album published in 1889 by the Acme Publishing 
Company. A sample of quite a number of mistakes in that work is its statement 
that John Bevins was the first postmaster of Wapell". when in fact he was never 
postmaster here at all. 

As stated in the prospectus, the chief energies of the writer of this work 
have been devoted -to a study of the early days, of the things which happened, 
and the men who lived, forty or fifty years ago, or more. These events and the 
men who were concerned in them are not only of much greater interest and 
importance, historicallv, than those of a later date, but their history is much more 
difficult to secure; besides, the later events, even if important, can hardly be said 
to have passed into history, and the accounts of them are comparatively accessible. 

This work contains a number of important tables or groups of facts, some of 
which will be found in the body of the work and Mime in the Appendix. Atten- 
tion is called to the list of Charters. Caws, Treaties, etc.. which bear upon our 
County history. If, as was said In one of Iowa's noted constitution makers 
"Law is history," then the table of laws and charters ought alone to justify this 
publication. The material for it has been taken from official publications, and 
from Dr. Thorp's "American Charters, Constitutions and Organic Laws" and 
Dr. Shambaugh's "Documentary Material Relating to Iowa History." both of 
which are official to students of history. 

Another list which will he found in Chapter X contains the names of the 
county officials from the organization of the county to the present time; also 
senators and representatives and other kindred information. This was a very 
difficult list to prepare and it is possible that some errors may be found in it. 
although great pains have been taken in its preparation. 

In the chapter on the Military history of the county will be found an alpha- 
betical list of all the soldiers who enlisted from Louisa county 'luring the war of 
the Rebellion, so far as could lie learned. 

For the most part, an effort has been made to merely state the facts of our 
county history in a plain and unvarnished way. In the preparation of this work, 
two serious difficulties have been encountered, one was to know what should be 
included and what should be left out. Another was to know how to arrange and 
in what chapters to put the things that were included. Tt goes without saying, 
that many people would have excluded things which have been made use of, and, 
would have included many of those that have been left out. This is a matter of 
judgment upon which the author is by no means infallible. 

The liberality of the publishers has been such that nearly every known source 
of information concerning our early history has been sought out. 

The author is under obligations to lion. L. R. Harlan. Curator of the State 
Historical Department, and to Hon. Johnson Prig-ham, State Librarian; to John 


M. Helmick, Esq. of Davenport; to Rev. T. O. Douglas of Grinnell ; and to 
present and former residents of Louisa county too numerous to mention, though 
it is proper to say that special thanks are due to Mrs. J. L. Kent, Mrs. Martha 
McDill. J. R. Smith. Ed. Hicklin. Col. J. W. Garner. Oscar Hale, W. S. Kremer 
and X. W. McKay. Special thanks are also due to Hon. C. A. Kennedy for his 
persistent and successful efforts in getting information from the government 
records at Washington. But, to those who are familiar with recent develop- 
ments in Iowa Historical research, it will be readily believed that the greatest 
assistance has come from the publications of the Iowa State Historical Society 
at Iowa City, and from the writings of Dr. B. F. Shambaugh, facile princeps 
among Towa historians. The library of the Iowa State Historical Society is a 
wonderful mine of information, and Dr. Shambaugh and his assistants have 
explored it so thoroughly, and are so uniformly accommodating, that he who 
seeks information there needs but "ask and he shall receive." 

Because of relationship to some, and an intimate acquaintance with many of 
those who reared our county structure, this work has been largely a labor of 
love, my chief regret being that I have not had more time and leisure to devote 
to it. Arthur Springer. 

Wapello, Iowa, January — , 1912. 




















































History of 

Louisa County 




First in order of time, though perhaps not first in interest, are the records to 
be found in the rocks. The geological history of Louisa county contains some 
facts of considerable interest. The latest division of geological time is called the 
Pleistocene ; it includes the present and "reaches back to that special series of 
events which have brought about the present relations of land and sea, the con- 
ditions of climate, peculiarities of soil," etc. Before the beginning of this period 
Iowa had for ages lain beneath the sea level, and we can read in the rocks which 
grew then the record of many of the living forms which once inhabited these 
waters. The rocks in the southern part of the county and in Des Moines county 
abound in fossil remains of crinoids, sometimes called "feather stars," and other 
related forms of sea life ; while Buffington creek, in Elm Grove township, is noted 
as the locality from which came a remarkable collection of fish fossils, many of 
which are described in Vols. 6 and 7, of the Illinois Geological Survey. These 
fossil remains show that huge fish once inhabited this region. Eventually the 
land uprose from the sea and became a part of the dry land. This period is 
called by some the Ozarkian stage. Afterward, for a time. Iowa became, in the 
language of the late Professor Calvin, "a fair and sunny land, clad in forests 
of tropical species and revelling in all tropical luxuriance. Birds of gay plumage 
flitted back and forth in the open glades ; savage beasts related to the lion and 
the tiger sought the shady recesses ; herbivorous animals not very different from the 
elk, the camel, the rhinocerous and the horse found pasture in the grassy savan- 
nas, while troups of monkeys swung from branch to branch, and from treetop 
to treetop, and stirred the woodland with noisy exclamations." 

Then came the great change which, with its centuries of unparalleled precipi- 
tation of snow, brought on the age of the glaciers, during which there descended 
from the north and northwest great ice fields, covering nearly the entire state 



with an ice sheet, hundreds and perhaps thousands of feet in thickness. Prior 
to the coming of the glaciers and after the land had become elevated, the surface 
seems to have been carved into river valleys and streams, while channels were 
cut through rocks and shales to the depth of 200 to 600 feet. 

In boring a deep well near Lone Tree there was discovered an old valley, or 
channel, doubtless of the Iowa river, some 200 feet below the level of the present 
river. In the same way it has been found at Fort Madison that there is a channel 
of the Mississippi deeper than the present stream and walled in by rocks 250 feet 
high. This old channel was west of the present one, and future borings may 
show that it found its way through the central or western part of this county. 
Indeed, an observer of the United States geological survey claims to have located 
a river bed beginning just north of Columbus Junction and extending south and 
southeast through this county into Henry county: he traces it in part by a depres- 
sion in Elm Grove township which is some two miles wide, while in places it is 
forty feet below the elevation of the adjacent land. How long in the past it has 
been since the beginning of man's occupation no one can tell, much less the ages 
of preparation for man's existence. Hills and valleys, woods and prairies, are 
recent additions to the surface of the earth in comparison to the previous periods 
in geologic time. Where prairies now are found forests may have flourished 
once upon a time, and the leveling process of years may have worn the hills 
into plains. 

That the people sought the favored spots as they had been taught to regard 
them, one needs only to suggest a search for the oldest homes and settlements 
in any county in this part of Iowa. Moving along the valleys the first settler 
selected his home site on account of two things, namely, wood and water, which 
for him would be available at all times. Therefore the oldest portions are not 
necessarily the most prosperous since they may have been planted upon the poorer 
sections of land, the settler not appreciating, until in after years, the waiting 
wealth in the prairie soil. 

No one stops now, in his observation of the distribution of population, to 
inquire whether the first comers looked with wonder upon the scene and waited 
for men of science to determine the soil structure, or to set at ease the minds of 
the curious when they came upon peculiar or uncommon formations. 

Could the world lie seen in one's imagination before the streams, or trees, 
the hills or valleys were formed, when the rocks deep down in the earth began 
in take shape, and then believe that ages upon ages of time have passed while 
other layers of rock have been deposited, it might assist him in studying some 
common things found along the rocky ledges in many parts of the county. 

The fossils found in our rock tell of a period long past when the living ani- 
mals were so numerous that their bony skeletons have formed whole systems of 
rocks. Then it must be remembered also, that the geologist does not count time 
by years, but by ages. He. like the astronomer, must deal with longer units of 
time in his measurements. 

Therefore we need only think of the world as very, very old and to remem- 
ber that, with the scientist, as with the Psalmist, a thousand years are but as 
yesterday. Geologists tell us that twice this vicinity was covered with great sheets 
of ice and that marks were left upon the surface then exposed that are found 
and recognized today. These glaciers helped to produce very peculiar changes 


upon the surface of the earth but a detailed discussion of them would be foreign 
to the purpose of this work. 

Each county has its own peculiar form and features and Louisa is no excep- 
tion. Indeed it may be said to possess more than ordinary interest since it borders 
upon the great Mississippi River, and the confluence of two of Iowa's most 
important rivers lies within its borders. 

Probably the first scientist to cross any part of this county for the purpose 
of learning and describing something of its structure was a member of the party 
of which D. D. Owen was the head. In his report for 1852 on the Geology of 
Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota,. Mr. Owen says that one B. C. Macy, follow- 
ing up the Iowa and Cedar Rivers, found himself in a land of swamps, through 
which he traveled for some distance, incidentally contracting a dangerous inter- 
mittent fever. But conditions in this respect have improved greatly since that 
time ; they began improving before the war, and most of the swamps and marshes 
had disappeared before the advent of the present "era of drainage," to which 
we will refer hereafter. 

In general it may be said that Louisa County is geologicallv in four sections, 
rather distinctly marked having two uplands and two lower areas. The latter 
lie along the Mississippi and Iowa chiefly, while the former are found between 
the two low areas and in the west and south. The townships of Eliot, Wapello. 
Oakland, and Port Louisa contain the great portions of the lowlands. Scien- 
tists would divide the lowlands into two parts, one called "Alluvium," which 
lies near the streams and is formed by the deposit of material from flowing 
water, and the other "terrace or low plain" which is slight!}' higher and further 
from the streams than the first named. 

The Mississippi bottoms are fully five miles wide on both the northern and 
the southern boundaries of the county and probably are over two miles else- 
where. Two prominent features of this portion of the land are known as the 
Muscatine slough, extending along the western edge of the bottoms almost 
to the Iowa River, and the Great Sand mound in the northern corner of Port 
Louisa township, extending over the county line. Perhaps Lake Klum is also 
of importance enough to be included with these two mentioned, since it is 
approximately a mile and one half in length connecting with the Muscatine 
slough in section twenty-five, township seventy-four north of range three west. 

Along the Iowa and Cedar Rivers the lowlands are from two to six miles 
in width and they extend diagonally through the county from northwest to 
southeast, the widest portion being in Oakland and Wapello townships, the lat- 
ter having long been known as Wapello prairie. Near the junction of the Cedar 
and the Iowa Rivers the bluffs of the uplands on either side approach each other, 
the western side being much nearer the river and for six miles they run nearly 
parallel, three miles apart until near Bard station. Where Long Creek enters 
the Iowa River they separate. The narrowest portion of this lowland is less than 
two miles in Jefferson and Eliot townships. In the former a low area includes 
a number of lagoons or sloughs indicating a former river channel. Here one 
finds Stone Lake, Myerholz Lake, Keever Slough, Spitznogle and Parson's 
Lakes, with minor bayous, not possessing recognized names. 

The higher land previously mentioned between the two rivers is estimated 
to be not less than one hundred feet above the surrounding territorv and about 


nine miles in width on the Muscatine County line. From here it tapers to a 
width of two miles easl of Wapello, and then continues for perhaps eight miles 
farther south stopping abruptly at the Iowa River. It is noticeable that this 
highland is marked off by a steep bluff line on the eastern side which causes 
the streams in this area to flow westward toward the Iowa River, although 
these sources are much nearer the Mississippi. 

It is said that the highest point in the county, nearly nine hundred feet, is 
in the southeastern part of Morning Sun township. From this western eleva- 
tion there is a moderate slope toward the northeast the streams flowing in that 
direction until they reach the lowlands. 

A feature which suggests the condition of the underlying strata is found 
in section eighteen of township seventy-three north, range three west, this being 
near the Concord schoolhouse and in the civil township of Morning Sun. Here 
a sink hole, as it is called, which is common in some sections of the state, is 
found, in dimensions five to eight rods across and twenty feet deep, indicating 
a subterranean cavern in the lower limestone. 

\s mentioned in the beginning, characteristic geologic changes are found 
in all sections of this county bv means of which scientists determine what names 
to apply to the exposed strata. These names are not familiar to those un- 
acquainted with such terms, but in the observation of common bluffs or of the 
material drawn from deep wells any one may readily understand the great 
differences that are found in even nearby areas of land. 

It is said that artesian wells might be obtained very readily in this county 
should they be desirable, and the lowlands are adapted to such undertakings 
where it is supposed a "copious flow may be found anywhere" at a depth of 
from twelve to fourteen hundred feet. On the uplands water is secured in 
ordinary wells at various depths ranging from thirty to three hundred feet. Shal- 
low wells are subject to a loss of the supply since they do not penetrate the per- 
manent source called "drift gravel" which the deeper wells reach. It appears 
further, that there are many sources of water in the form of springs along the 
ravines west of the Iowa River, which issue from between beds of shale known 
as the "Upper Burlington and Kinderhook shales." 

Among the lowlands, especially where the soil is sandy, the driven well is 
verv common, and abundant quantities of the best water are found at a depth 
of about twenty feet. The water supply about Wapello and in Oakland and 
Concord townships is obtained bv driven wells and is practically inexhaustible. 
At the time the Baxter Brothers Company located their large canning factory 
at Wapello, they had some doubts as to whether the water supply obtained by 
driven wells would be sufficient for their purposes, but after testing the matter 
thoroughly with a steam pumping outfit, they became thoroughly convinced that 
it would. 

Other economic products include the common building materials of stone 
and sand, as well as clay products, with traces of coal and natural gas. Build- 
ing stone is abundant in certain sections, exposures of this nature being found 
in the south and southwestern parts of the county. The kind of strata to which 
building stone belongs are found along the bluffs west of the Mississippi River 
and south of the Iowa in Eliot, Wapello, and Morning Sun townships. There 
are. however, other "outcroppings" along the streams in Columbus City and 


Elm Grove townships. The best stone is taken from what is called the Upper 
Burlington bed and all of the present working quarries use this stratum. For- 
merly the lower beds were worked on the farm of J. D. Anderson south of 
Elrick Junction, but it appears that the weathering of this rock has lessened 
materially its value for building purposes. The principal quarries of the pres- 
ent are located near Morning Sun on Honey Creek, and on Long Creek and it- 
tributaries in Columbus City and Elm Grove townships. 

The quarry of Charles B. Wilson in section twenty-eight, a mile and a half 
east of Morning Sun, furnishes rock from the Burlington bed as named above. 
This quarry extends for approximately a quarter of a mile on either side of 
Honey Creek, and from the excavations now made, one may judge that a large 
amount of stone has been removed. There is a small amount of waste material 
in comparison to the amount removed and many acres of land are yet available 
for working ; while the labor of opening the quarry is not heavy. Just across 
the railway tracks in section twenty-nine is the quarry of W. C. Bryant, where 
more than seven feet of pure limestone is available "for heavy foundations, 
bridge piers and other masonry work, besides walls and finishings." The analy- 
sis of rock found in these quarries commends it for the manufacture of Port- 
land cement, and also for an excellent quality of white lime. These two quar- 
ries appear to be limitless in the material available, and are moreover conveniently 
situated for shipping. 

In section twenty-seven of Morning Sun township the "Ackenbaum" quarry 
is located. This lies on Gospel Run and when the face of the rock is exposed 
there is a light covering of soil similar to what is called "loess." Quarries of 
less importance are found in other parts of Louisa County, especially along 
Buffington and Long Creeks. There is the old Wasson quarry, later controlled 
by C. J. Gipple, located in a low terrace along the south branch of Long Creek 
in section twenty-three. The same rock is found in other parts of the same 
vicinity on Long creek and in section fourteen of Elm Grove on Buffington 
Creek. In section three of Columbus City township J. E. Gray and J. M. 
Marshall have opened the white rock found there. As one moves farther west- 
ward in the county the rock are less frequently exposed, because of the heavy 
"drift" in that portion. 

The names of those conducting commercial quarries with the kind of stone 
and means of handling it as it has been reported are mentioned here ; all the 
work is described as "hand work." The product is building, macadam, rip rap, 
and rubble stone, of a gray subcrystalline limestone nature. The owners are, as 
found in reports. Mrs. Churchman at Cairo ; J. M. Marshall, J. E. Gray and 
J. H. Jones, Columbus Junction ; W. C. Bryant. W. A. Steele, and Chas. B. Wil- 
son of Morning Sun ; and John Ackenbaum at Newport. Stone from the Wilson 
quarry has undergone engineering tests in the department at Ames. The 
Churchman land now belongs to Frank P. Brown and the Ackenbaum property 
is owned by D. L. Morris. 

The Clay products from Louisa County for the year 1908 amounted to about 
eight thousand dollars. Institutions for such manufacture have been in operation 
at Columbus Junction, Morning Sun, and across the river east of Wapello. 

Brick and tile in sufficient quantity to supply local demand have been made at 
these three points, but there is no work being done at the Wapello institution 


just now. Some brick products have been used in sidewalks, notably that of 
the Morning Sun factory. The clay used in the plant at Columbus Junction is 
taken from a low terrace-like extension of the upland lying between the Iowa 
River and Short Creek, the loess formation here consisting in part of a calcareous 
element. Brick made from this formation have an especially fine texture 
according to the judgment of men versed in such matters. 

Coal measures, according to signs remaining, were once deposited over a 
large part of the county, either in independent sections or more or less contin- 
uous sheets. These, however, have been almost entirely removed by the con- 
tinual and heavy denudation through the years of erosion subsequent to that 
deposit. Nearly all that remains to indicate the former deposit is found within 
four hundred acres. The region so described is located chiefly "in the west bluff 
of the Iowa River in the adjoining corners of sections sixteen, seventeen, and 
twenty-one in Union township." Here, it is said, a few inches of coal appear 
in the rock formations of grayish white sandstone, and dark shale. In digging 
wells also signs of coal have been found. The only recorded output of coal is 
given as "forty bushels in 1862." Small quantities have been found and used 
for fuel, yet no indications have suggested a profitable development. Money 
has been spent, and wasted in prospecting, where no coal could lie found. 

We find in the Wapello Republican of January 30, 1 866, the following item 
in regard to coal: "We are informed that a vein of coal some four feet in 
thickness has been found on the farm of Judge Springer, south of Columbus 
City, in this county." 

And in an issue cf the same paper published in September of that year, it is 
said that J. F. Schill reported that he had discovered a vein of cannel coal, 
twenty inches thick, on Long creek, six miles northwest of Wapello. These 
reports were not borne out by the facts. 

Down near Morning Sun, in the fall and winter of i8(>8-0, a Mr. Price 
Hughes did a great deal of digging for coal. According to the newspaper reports 
he went down something over 220 feet and spent all of his own spare change, 
and some six or seven hundred dollars that was contributed by people who relied 
upon his claims that he could get coal at less than 200 feet. When he had gone 
down about 130 feet, and was confident that coal was but a few feet away, his 
work was written up in glowing fashion by a correspondent of the Wapello 
Republican. In response to that communication we find the following in a sub- 
sequent issue of the same paper, dated at Iowa City, January 6, 1869: "In your 
paper of last week I observed that some correspondent gave you the progress 
of Mr. Hughes in his search for coal near Morning Sun. This reminds me 
that I had promised some of the Morning Sun citizen- to call on Dr. White. State 
Geologist, and get his opinion on coal matters in Louisa count)-. I have called 
on the Doctor, and I assure you he does not flatter coal mining in that region. 
He says that Louisa, Johnson and Des Moines counties have no coal, for this 
reason: that during the Glacial period they were passed over by an immense 
glacier moving in an almost direct north and south line, which entirely stripped 
these counties of all deposits of coal. He says that the rock on the surface 
in Louisa county is the bed rock for all the coal in the state, and if any coal is 
found in your county, it will be on top of the rock, in some basin or hollow 
where it was protected from the moving mountain of ice. T remarked to the 


Doctor that Mr. Hughes warranted coal at less than two hundred feet. lie 
remarked : 'Tell your people at Morning Sun that 1 will zvarrant them none at 
any depth.' W. E. I!." 

These initials look very much like those of the Hon. W. E. Blake, who was 
then going to law school at Iowa City. Mr. Hughes "came hack" at Dr. White 
and "W. E. B." in a communication from Morning Sun, dated February 26, 
i860, in which, among other things, he said: "A few weeks ago I noticed a let- 
ter in your paper from Iowa City giving the opinion of the State Geologist, and 
so far as I can learn I believe I know more about the indications of coal than 
Mr. White does about making tin cups. I have found the indications of coal 
here the same as I have found elsewhere where I have found coal, and I intend 
to test the matter . . . Let me say, Mr. Editor, that I believe there is coal 
in this county, and I do not think the ice of Tinman White swept it quite all 

The allusion to Dr. White as "Tinman White" was doubtless due to the fact 
that the Doctor, many years before that, had been a partner with his brother in a 
hardware store in Burlington. However, some weeks after the above com- 
munication, Mr. Hughes had thoroughly convinced himself that in fighting 
against "mother nature" and "father science," he was engaged in an unequal 
combat, and he wrote an article acknowledging his mistake, and making some 
amends for his former flippant and sarcastic reference to our worthy and emi- 
nent State Geologist. Since then there has been very little coal prospecting in 
Louisa County. 

There is a tradition that at one time the Indians secured lead from some- 
where on Long creek and we find in the Wapello Republican of June 7. i860, 
an item of interest on this line under the heading of Lead Ore. "We under- 
stand from Mr. Jesse Vanhorn, of Marshall township, that a fine specimen of 
this ore was found near the mill he formerly owned in the Long creek timber 
a few days ago. It is known that the Indians used to get plenty of lead in this 
neighborhood years ago but we believe the exact locality was not known to the 
white men." It is not known, yet. 

More than twenty years ago natural gas was first discovered in this county. 
It was early in December in 1890, according to Mr. F. M. Witter, who made 
some study of the matter, that Mr. F. L. Estle, who lived in section three, town- 
ship seventy-five north, range four west, sunk a well on his farm. At a depth 
of one hundred feet he struck a flow of gas which readily burned, but in two or 
three days it ceased to flow. About the same time, Mr. R. M. Lee at a [joint 
just west of the first well, a half mile or more, bored for water. At one hun- 
dred feet he failed to find a flow of water and stopped boring. In the evening 
he began to remove his casing and succeeded in raising it several feet. During 
the night he beard a great roaring, and on approaching the abandoned well with 
a lantern the gas suddenly took fire and shot high into the air, making a fright- 
ful noise. In course of time the flame was extinguished and the gas was piped 
into the house where it was used for fuel and light. Later it was used in the 
same way in neighboring houses, one being more than a mile away. The gas 
was carried over the ground in common pipe of different dimensions. The well 
.at one time supplied twelve fires and sixteen lights. Afore than a score of wells 


have been found to furnish gas, some furnishing a supply for many years. The 
pressure has been measured in at least fifteen of these and found to be from 
four to ten and one half pounds, the higher pressure being in the deeper wells. 
A short distance below the gas area a good flow of water is obtained. Many 
interesting facts are related concerning these wells, and the results of such 


The first people to inhabit Louisa county were the Mound Builders. This 
ancient race disappeared before historic times and is known only by such of its 
works as have survived the destructive elements of time. Whence it came, and 
when, how long it remained in the land and whither it departed, may never be 

Earthen walls, mounds, figures, ditches and pits, implements of war and of 
art, of the chase, of husbandry and the home, made of stone, metal, bone and 
shell, point to a people far in advance of savagry, a people of fixed habitation 
and living under something akin to government. 

Louisa county had its full share of this ancient race. The high bluffs of the 
Mississippi and the Iowa rivers were their favorite dwelling places. The rich 
valleys below may have been their fields and the adjacent streams and forests 
their hunting grounds. 

Toolesboro must have been a place of some importance among them, for 
here are found some of their most extensive works. It required the labor of 
man for many days to construct the great mounds and walls still in evidence on 
the river bluffs about this village. There was also an ancient work, now oblit- 
erated, called a fort, adjacent to these mounds. A description and sketch of 
this interesting work will be found in connection with some observations taken 
from Mr. Newhall's "Sketches of Iowa." As there are no pits in evidence to 
indicate the place whence the earth was taken, we can only infer that it was 
loosened with a flint hoe, or other crude tool, and borne in baskets to the place 
of deposit, as fragments of such baskets made of bark, have been found in 
mounds at other places. 

Modern civilization tends to level and obliterate these evidences of an inter- 
esting past. The spade of the curiosity seeker, and the plow of the farmer grad- 
ually remove these traces of our ancient inhabitants. It is greatly to the credit 
of the people of Toolesboro to preserve one and the chief of these great ruins. 
The fine mound on the border of this village is the largest known to exist in 
Iowa, and its sacred contents have never been disturbed. Many of its sister 
mounds have been opened and destroyed, and the earth walls near by have been 
almost leveled by the plow. 

But scientific exploration is not to be condemned. Without such aid history 
would have no record of primeval people. The Davenport Academy of Science 
has for many years conducted many well advised explorations of the ancient 
mounds and works found in the valley of the Mississippi river. Its collection 
of Mound Builder antiquities is the finest in the United States. In conducting 



its field work it has been careful to preserve all relies discovered, giving to each 
localitv due credit for all contributions and being especially careful to restore 
the disturbed works t<> their former condition. Its museum is open to the public. 
It is known throughout both our country and Europe, and many antiquarians 
visit it for study in this interesting field. 

Many years ago the academy opened some of the Toolesboro mounds, and 
secured, in addition to the usual stone axes. Hint spears and arrow heads, etc.. 
a number of axes and implements made of native copper. Nearly a dozen cop- 
per axes were secured. In size they range from five to eight inches long, having 
a cutting edge of two to three and a half inches and are from a half to one and 
a quarter inches thick. They are made of native copper and were beaten and 
ground into shape. The outside of each was heavily coated with the green oxide 
of copper, on removal of which the pure metalic copper appeared. This collec- 
tion of copper axes is unique and valuable because some of the axes were 
wrapped in a coarse cloth with an outer wrapping of bark. This cloth is fossilized 
by the copper salts but it shows the fibre and the weaving with remarkable dis- 
tinctness. The texture of the cloth was about as coarse as very heavy buck or 
linen toweling. The threads of both warp and woof were the same size and 
tightly twisted. 

Extensive Mound Builders works are also found in the eastern part of Grand 
View township, on the bluff overlooking the Mississippi. The most noticeable 
of these works is an area of about two acres enclosed by two parallel w : alls of 
earth, five to six feet high, and a ditch nearly as deep, and a circular excavation 
at the west side about a hundred feet in diameter and twenty feet deep. At the 
foot of the bluff below this pit are two natural flowing springs, one of sulphur 
water and the other pure. 

The Davenport Academy of Science is famous among antiquarians, for two 
specimens of ancient art found in this vicinity. These are the "Elephant Pipes." 
One of these was taken from a mound on the farm of F. Haas, by Mr. Haas 
and Rev. A. Blumer, a zealous member of the academy, and the other was 
picked up by a farmer, whose name is unknown, and given to Mr. Blumer. 
These are now preserved in the museum of the academy. These pipes are made 
of a dark brown stone, quite hard and well polished. The bowl of the pipe is 
carved out of the back of the elephant, and the base of each is convex upward. 
They are each about four inches long, two and a half inches high and one and 
one-eighth inches thick. The body is comparatively large. The feet, tail and 
proboscis are well formed, but there is an absence of tusks. Other pipes similar 
in material and form were found here, representing mostly some beast, bird or 

Mounds are to be found in many of the prominent bluffs of the county. 
Implements of war and the chase are quite uniformly scattered over the county. 
Many stone axes are found and flint arrow heads, spear heads, knives, scrapers 
and hoes have been very common. The number and size of these earthworks, 
and the abundance of these works of art representing both war and peace, attest 
the uniformity with which these people inhabited the county as well as their 
number and the length of time they lived in possession. 

Taking the whole country, the most extensive earthworks are found in the 
level river valleys and not on the bluffs. The most extensive series of embank- 


merits, figures and mounds, are to be found in the state of Ohio. Wisconsin 
contains an embankment representing- an elephant. The largest mound in the 
United States is the Cahokia mound in Illinois, a few miles above St. Louis. 
This is a stupendous pile of earth, — a parellelogram. 700 feet by 500 feet and 
90 feet high, and covers six acres; and a causeway 150 feet wide and 300 feet 
long leads to the top. A similar but smaller pyramid is near Saltzertown, Mis- 
sissippi. — 600 feet by 400 feet, and 40 feet high, covering about five" acres. The 
"great serpent" in Adams county, Ohio, is 700 feet long, and the "alligator" in 
Licking county. Ohio, is 250 feet long. Near Wheeling, West Virginia, is a 
huge mound 900 feet in circumference and 70 feet high. 

We cannot certainly .know the purpose for which these works were erected. 
Ditches and embankments were probably for defense. Animal figures for 
Deities and mounds were sepulchral or sacrificial. 

The Mound Builders can only be mentioned in the most general terms. It 
was an ancient race. It had disappeared before the Columbian discovery; the 
modern Indian had no tradition of it, and great trees showing an annular growth 
of many centuries have grown and fallen on its works. It was numerically 
strong; for the huge masses of earth piled up in its great pyramids, and count- 
less mounds and embankments point to united effort of a numerous people 
covering a large period of time. This people had permanent dwellings, for a 
nomad people would have neither motive nor ability for such construction. 
They cultivated the soil. The sites of their settlements were adjacent to rich 
valleys, instruments adapted to husbandry are found in the locality, and people 
in such numbers could not otherwise exist. Thev attained to a fair degree of 
civilization, for they used implements of stone, metal, shell and bone and wove 
cloth. They had commercial relations with most regions, for their copper came 
from the Lake Superior region, where their ancient mines are still to be seen : 
their mica from New Hampshire or the Carolinas, and their obsidian from 
Nevada or Mexico, and sea shells must have come from the gulf or the Atlantic. 

They were largely given to pursuits of peace, for otherwise they would not 
riave been driven from their homes bv the savage tribes, who later possessed 
the land. They were under no general government, for if they had been they 
could have successfully opposed the invading foe. They were under some form 
of local government, for their mighty works could onlv be accomplished by a 
power compelling united effort. 

Such numbers .would hardly desert the vast territory by common consent, 
and it is hardly possible that a pestilence carried them away. We may infer 
that most of them were destroyed by an invading tribe or tribes. Their savage 
foes would naturally covet their granaries and stores and would find this docile 
race easv victims of their savage greed, and might have no use for slaves except 
for torture. They may gradually have been driven south for there was an old 
tradition among the Toltec Mexicans that their ancestors came from the north- 

One of the most entertaining and instructive works on early Iowa history 
is Newhall's "Sketches of Iowa." published in 1840. Mr. Newhall was at that 
time a resident of Burlington and was a writer and speaker of some prominence ; 
was at one time interested in the town site of Florence in this county, and was 
a frequent visitor to the county; and we shall have frequent occasion to use 


extracts from his work. He was much interested in the Mound Builders and 
his work contains the only description we have been able to find of the old fort, 
near Toolesboro. It is found in an article on "Antiquities and Mounds." After 
indulging in some speculation concerning who the Mound Builders were and 
from whence they came, he speaks of having examined this old fortification at 
I Hack Hawk on the north side of the Iowa river, and then says: "The site of 
the town itself is marked and striking. A portion of the village is located under 
a high precipitous bluff. Upon ascending this, the country sweeps off in a 
very gradual descent of beautiful prairie. Upon the margin of this bluff (which 
is of great height, and nearly perpendicular towards the river) there are eight 
conical mounds, averaging from twenty to thirty feet in height, and about eighty 
feet in circumference at the base, with a small area or terrace upon their sum- 
mits. From the top of these mounds the view is almost boundless, embracing 
every point of the compass. Indeed from the Falls of St. Anthony to the mouth 
of the Ohio, I know of but few panoramic views so extensive and so varied. 
Overlooking the broad Mississippi, and the wide and extended prairies of Illinois 
in the east, the 'Flint Hills' in the south, and the high bluffs of Bloomington in 
the north, I was particularly struck with the different points that could be 
brought to bear upon each other by a line of telegraphs or beacon lights upon a 
wide extent of country. A few feet in the rear appear indistinct vestiges of 
the old fort, now almost obliterated by the work of time. The embankment is 
of earth, and, in many portions, can be distinctly traced, enclosing an area of 
five or six acres, the angles and bastions exhibiting the form of an octagonal 
crescent. It evidently appears to have been constructed for the purpose of 
defense, the points of the angles and intervening flanks showing, conclusively, 
a knowledge of the engineering and military science. Opposite the mounds and 
upon the western side of the fort, the early settlers of the place informed me 
that, previous to the grounds having been plowed up, a distinct lane or covert 
way was visible, formed by two parallel embankments, and leading some eighty 
or ninety feet to a spring ; although at the present time, this embankment is 
scarcely perceptible, the work of the plow having obliterated nearly every trace 
of its outline. Within the fort T have discovered detached fragments of pottery, 
pieces of pitcher handles, urns, etc., unlike anything of the present day, also 
several flint spears, or javelins. Some of the pottery bore the visible marks of 
being glazed, and the distinct impression of diagonal marks forming diamonds 
and fluted rims, evincing much skill and workmanship. Many of the neighbors 
informed me that, on excavating some mounds, a few miles distant, several well 
formed furnaces had been discovered ; in fact, all the ware discovered in the 
fort, bore conclusively the process of heat, i. e., of having been baked. Many 
of the most aged Indians of the Sac and Fox tribes have been interrogated 
upon the subject and history of this fort, but they have no tradition more than 
a sort of innate reverence for the neighborhood of mounds, viewing them in 
the light of consecrated places." 

On page 234 Mr. Newhall gives a diagram or sketch of this ancient work 
and in order that our readers may have a better idea of it than can be given 
otherwise, we have procured a cut of it. After this cut was made we caused 
it tn be published in the Wapello Tribune, accompanied by a request for any 
one who was familiar with the matter to locate the point where the spring used 


PlftUC LIB... 


to be, as shown in the sketch; after seeing the sketch Mr. Anson Kimball 
designated the place where in his opinion the spring undoubtedly was, at one 
time, and this place is on the lands now owned by C. L. Mosier, and would 
seem to be at about the proper distance and in about the proper direction from 
the mounds which are still standing on the bluffs. Mr. Newhall also makes 
some interesting observations upon the similarity between the works at Tooles- 
boro and some that are found in Ohio. We quote again : "The reader must 
observe the striking similarity between these works and those described on the 
banks of the Muskingum. The situation of those works is on an elevated plain, 
above the present banks of the Muskingum on the east side, and about half a 
mile from its junction with the Ohio. They consist of walls and mounds of 
earth, in direct line, and in circular form. On each side are several openings 
resembling gateways. Allusion is also made to a covert way of two parallel 
walls of earth, leading toward the river. 

"Atwater, in allusion to the same 'works," remarks : 'On the outside of 
the parapet I picked up a considerable number of fragments of ancient potter's 
ware. This ware is ornamented with lines, some of them quite curious and 
ingenious, on the outside, and has a partial glazing on the inside. The frag- 
ments, on breaking them, look quite dark, with brilliant particles appearing as 
you hold them to the light." 

"The similitude is so striking that I could not give a better description to 
those I picked up at Black Hawk. Many gentlemen, familiar with the antiquities 
of Ohio, among whom was Governor Robert Lucas, instantly recognized the 




The destiny of nations is often affected by incidents which at the time appear 
to be of little significance. That were a rash prophet who. in advance, would 
have predicted the changes that have been made in the world's map and in its 
history following the trip of the two frail canoes, which, in the summer of 
1673, carried Louis Joliet. "an envoy of France to discover new countries," 
and Jacques Marquette, "an ambassador from God to enlighten them with 
the gospel,*' down the "Ouisconsin" in search of the great water whose mag- 
nificence had long been heralded by the natives of the north and west. 

And yet, with the beginning of this little expedition really began the history 
of the Mississippi valley, now one of the most magnificent empires in the world. 
Professor Weld in his admirable address "On the Way to Iowa," referring to 
the Mississippi valley, says : "Toward this region the tide of world empire has 
been setting for three-quarters of a century and is not yet even at its height. 
The financier may' turn his eyes toward Wall street or Threadneedle street. 
The student may plan his pilgrimage to Cambridge or Leipsig. The artist may 
long for the inspiration afforded by the Louvre, or the galleries of Florence, 
but the teeming millions of the over crowded places of the world with hands 
restless to do and hearts ready to dare, turn eager faces toward this 'great 
central basin of North America.' " 

Of course there is a sense in which it may be said that the voyages and 
explorations of Cartier and Champlain, of Jean Nicollet and Father Brebeuf, 
of Radisson and Grosseilliers, all have a necessary historic connection with the 
Mississippi valley, but nevertheless, for all practical purposes the history of 
this great valley begins on the 10th of June, 1673. when the Jesuit missionary 
and his companions came to the portage between the Fox and the Wisconsin 
rivers. Here, in the words of Marquette, these pioneers of the west "left the 
waters flowing to Quebec to float upon those which would conduct us thence- 
forward to strange lands." 

It is evident from Marquette's narrative that at this time, if not before, they 
recognized the gravity, if not the importance, of their undertaking, for he says : 
"The guides returned, leaving us alone in this unknown land in the hands of 
Providence." Shortly before this, Marquette had been warned that the distant 
nations, to whom he was endeavoring to go, were savage and warlike and 
"never spared the strangers," and that the Great River abounded in monsters 



which would devour both men and their canoes. But the gentle Marquette had 
no fear. His only answer was: "I shall gladly lay down my life for the 
salvation of souls." 

After seven days they reached the mouth of the Wisconsin and "entered 
happily the Great River with a joy that could not be expressed." They pro- 
ceeded down this new and unknown water without any important adventure 
until near June 25th. At that time Marquette says: "Proceeding south and 
southwest, we find ourselves at 41° north; then at 40 and some minutes, partly 
by southeast and partly by southwest, after having advanced more than sixty 
leagues since entering the river, without discovering anything. At last, on the 
25th of June, 1673, we perceived the footprints of men by the water's edge, 
and a beaten path entering a beautiful prairie. We stopped to examine it, and 
concluding that it was a path leading to some Indian village, we resolved to go 
and reconnoitre; we accordingly left our two canoes in charge of our people, 
cautioning them strictly to beware of a surprise. Then M. Jollyet and I under- 
took this rather hazardous discovery, for two single men, who thus put them- 
selves at the discretion of an unknown and barbarous people." 

The narrative of Marquette proceeds as follows: "We followed the little 
path in silence, and, having advanced about two leagues, we discovered a village 
on the banks of the river, and two others on a hill a half league from the former." 
Then, recommending themselves to God, they continued on without being dis- 
covered until they got so near that they could hear the Indians talking. Deem- 
ing it time to announce themselves they did so with a loud cry, and halted. At 
this cry the Indians rushed from their cabins and seeing the "Blackgown" 
(Indian name for a Jesuit), they deputed four of their old men to speak with 
the strangers. The narrative then proceeds: "Two carried tobacco pipes, well 
adorned and trimmed with many kinds of feathers. They marched slowly, 
lifting their pipes toward the sun, as if offering them to him to smoke, but yet 
without uttering a single word. They were a long time coming the little way 
from the village to us. Having reached us at last, they stopped to consider us 
attentively. I now took courage, seeing these ceremonies which were used by 
them only with friends. ... I therefore spoke to them first, and asked 
them who they were ; they answered that they were Illinois, and in token of 
peace they presented their pipes to smoke." 

We may properly pause in the narrative here to locate the historic spot upon 
which these two white men first set their foot on Iowa soil, and where they first 
encountered the savages, and saw their villages. Until a comparatively recent 
date historians, with some misgivings, have fixed this spot as being near Mont- 
rose, in Lee county. But Professor Laenas Gifford Weld, in a verv scholarlv 
article, entitled "Joliet and Marquette in Iowa." published in the Iowa Journal 
of History and Politics, in January. 1903, has practically settled the question 
in favor of this county. Professor Weld's article is accompanied by a copv of 
a portion of Dr. Shea's fac simile of Marquette's original map, and his observa- 
tions and conclusions will be much better understood of course by consulting 
the map. Therefore we have had the map copied. Professor Weld, after giv- 
ing a brief outline of Marquette's story of his voyage, says: "Marquette's 
narrative, just cited, is so vague with reference to topographical details and so 
inconsistent with respect to geographical positions that little dependence can 

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be placed upon it, except when taken in connection with the accompanying map. 
This last will be made the subject of somewhat careful examination, its genuine- 
ness being assumed as thoroughly established. We have to note in the first in- 
stance that the latitudes as given upon Marquette's map are in error, all being 
about one degree too far south, except Akansea, the southermost part reached, 
which is correctly placed at 33° 40'. Herewith is presented a carefully prepared 
copy of a portion of Dr. Shea's fac simile of the original, much reduced. The 
parallels of latitude are as indicated by the marginal figures in the original, 
while the meridians of longitude are separated by intervals obtained by multi- 
plying the average latitude interval of one degree by the cosine of 40 degrees, 
the 'middle latitude' — in accordance with a well known mathematical principle. 
The meridian of 91 degrees has been placed near to the mouth of the Wisconsin, 
its true position. On the right hand margin of the map Marquette's latitudes 
are indicated. On the left these latitudes have been increased by one degree ; 
so that, if read from this margin, Marquette's map has been lifted bodily one 
degree in latitude. The dotted sketch on the left of the map represents the 
true course of the Mississippi and, presumably, those tributaries which are noted 
by Marquette. The longitudes along the lower margin, to the left, refer to this 
dotted sketch only. A comparison of Marquette's river with the true course of 
the Mississippi shows that his plot is a marvelously accurate one, as far down 
as the mouth of the Ohio. Inasmuch as means of determining longitude by 
portable instruments were not available in Marquette's day, we can only ex- 
plain the accuracy with which his longitudes are plotted by supposing that care- 
ful note was taken, at least until the latter part of the voyage down stream, of 
distances and courses sailed. Otherwise, it is impossible to explain the close 
conformity exhibited by the accompanying illustration. 

"This discrepancy of one degree in Marquette's latitudes would seem to 
demand explanation. Let it be noted that the complete map includes a large 
portion of Lake Superior, St. Mary's river and the straits of Mackinac, regions 
well known to Marquette and the other Jesuit missionaries of the time. Accom- 
panying the Jesuit Relation of 1670-1, prepared by Dablon, is a map of this 
upper lake region entitled, Lac Superieur et autres lieu.r oil sout les Missions 
des Peres de la Compagnic dc Ji'sus comprises sous le noni d'Outaouacs. With- 
out doubt Marquette was familiar with this map, which was probably the work 
of some of his own associates. It is even conceivable that he sketched the upper 
portion of his own map directly from it. The fact that it includes, among others, 
the altogether irrelevant entry, Chemin an Assinipoualak a 120 lieus vers le 
Nordouest, which also appears upon the map of 1670-1, seems to confirm this 
theory. Now upon this map of 1670-1 the latitudes of Mission du St. Esprit. 
of Mission de Ste. Marie, of St. Ignacc and of the Pottawattamie village at 
the head of Green Bay, near to the Mission of St. Francois Xavier, are exactly 
as recorded upon Marquette's map. Whether the mistake is due to the defective 
astrolabe of some Jesuit geographer, or to some other cause, does not concern 
us. The error is evidently reproduced in the upper portions of Marquette's 
map and, supposing that his map was plotted by 'dead reckoning,' would naturally 
be propagated far down the Mississippi. 

"Certain it is that the latitudes upon the map do not agree with those given 
in the narrative. Moreover, those paragraphs describing the voyage from the 

Vol. 1—2 


time at which the explorers entered the Mississippi up to the time of landing- 
near Peouarea are utterly irreconcilable, so far as the latitudes and directions 
are concerned, with the true course of the Mississippi. Neither is it possible to 
interpret them at all satisfactorily upon the assumption that some of the latitudes 
were correctly given by Joliet while others are of Marquette's own determination. 
"While the journal does not specifically state that the latitude vaguely given 
as '40 degrees and some minutes' is that of Peouarea, it is evident from the map 
that this is to be understood. The estimated distance traversed since entering 
the Mississippi — over sixty leagues — is as indefinite as the estimate itself is 
uncertain: If twenty leagues be counted to the degree, in nautical fashion, the 
distance is above 207 statute miles. This would indicate as the place of land- 
ing some point on the river near Port Louisa in Louisa county. The latitude of 
this point is about 41° 12', which is something over a degree greater than that 
of Peouarea as given by Marquette's map and nearly the same amount greater 
than that inferred from the narrative. The stream entering here from the west, 
as shown in the sketch of the true course of the Mississippi, is the Iowa river." 

Further on in his article Professor Weld points out that this error of one 
degree of latitude appears in the location of the curve of the Mississippi between 
Keokuk and Ouincy, and in the location of the mouths of the Illinois, Missouri 
and Ohio rivers. He then gives a diagram comparing Marquette's latitude with 
the true latitude of all stations shown on his map, which have been identified. 
This is referred to in his article as Figure 2, and it is so necessarv to a proper 
understanding of the situation that we have also made a copy of it. 

Professor Weld then proceeds, "Whatever may be the true explanation of 
the latitude errors of Marquette's chart, nothing can more clearlv prove that it 
is an actual plot, made during the course of the voyage, than the manner in 
which he abridges the last stretch of the river and ends its course abruptly at 
latitude 33 40'. There is no speculation as to its course either below that 
point, or above the point at which the stream was first entered. Whatever dis- 
crepancies may have found their way into his narrative as a result, it may lie. 
of 'comparing notes' with Joliet, Marquette's chart is genuine, consistent, and 
honest. In the accompanying diagram the comparison of the latitudes of all 
identifiable stations, as given on Marquette's map, with their true latitudes, as 
taken from a modern chart, is rendered simple and easy. It is evident at a 
glance that the river at whose mouth Marquette locates Peouarea can correspond 
with no other considerable stream than the Iowa. Attention should also be 
called, perhaps, to the southern 'dip' of the Iowa, on the one hand, and of the 
stream indicated by Marquette on the other." 

We may add also that Dr. John Gilmore Shea in his work on "The Discovery 
and Exploration of the Mississippi Valley" (1903). which is our authority for 
such quotations as we make from Marquette's narrative, says in a note on Page 
22, in referring to the Indian villages mentioned by Marquette, "These villages 
are laid down on the map on the westerly side of the Mississippi, and the only 
two given are Peouarea and Moingwena, whence it is generallv supposed that 
the river on which they lay is that now called Des Moines. The upper part of 
the river still bears the name of Moingonan, while the latitude of the mouth 
seems to establish the identity. It must, however, be admitted that the latitude 
given at that day differs from ours generally from 30' to a degree, as we see 

\ Marquette's 
) Latitudes 

I True 

| Latitude! 

St. Esprit 
Ste. Marie 

St. Ignace 

Folh Avoiii0 




R. Pekittanoui — 

R. Ouabouskigou _: 


47 c 


Washburn, Wit. 
Suu/t de Ste. 'Marie 

St. Ignore 
Menominee, Wis. 
|_ Pt. Sable, Green Bug 

■— 44 Berlin, Wis. 

■ — 43 Mouth of Wisconsin II. 

42 G't Eitsfn Rend of Mix* 
Wapsipin iron River 

: — 41 Iowa River 

(t'I. Western Bend of 

Illinois River 
Missouri River 


: — 37 Ohio River 

— 36 


— 34 

Arkansas River 

t— 33° 

Fig. 2. A diagramatic comparison of Marquette's latitudes with the true 
latitudes of all identifiable stations shown upon his map. The dotted lines 
refer to stations other than those along the Mississippi, some of which do not 
appear in Fig. 1. The interrupted line is drawn from Peouarea upon the as- 
sumption that the stream indicated at this point upon Marquette's map is the 
Iowa river. 



in the case of the Wisconsin and Ohio. This would throw Moingwena some- 
what higher up." 

Having established the great probability, if not the practical certainty, that 
this notable event is a part of our county history, we return to the quaint and 
interesting narrative of Father Marquette : "At the door of the cabin in which 
we were to be received was an old man awaiting us in a very remarkable 
posture ; which is their usual ceremony in receiving strangers. This man was 
standing, perfectly naked, with his hands stretched out and raised toward the 
sun, as if he wished to screen himself from its rays, which nevertheless passed 
through his fingers to his face. When we came near him, he paid us this 
compliment: 'How beautiful is the sun, O Frenchman, when thou comest to 
visit us ! All our towns await thee, and thou shalt enter all our cabins in 
peace.' Marquette and Joliet were then taken into this Indian's cabin, where 
they were presented with the calumet, or pipe of peace. They then went, by 
special invitation, to the town 'of the great sachem of all the Illinois,' but the 
narrative does not tell just where this was, unless it is the one referred to as 
being 'on the hill about a half a league away.' " 

He continues: "Having arrived at the great sachem's town, we espied him 
at his cabin door, between two old men, all three standing naked, with their 
calumet turned to the sun. He harangued us in a few words, to congratulate 
us on our arrival, and then presented us his calumet and made us smoke." 

Marquette then gave the sachem some presents, and made a speech, telling 
of the peaceful and religious nature of his visit. His story proceeds : "When 
I had finished my speech, the sachem rose, and laying his hand on the head of 
a little slave, whom he was about to give us, spoke thus : T thank thee, Black- 
gown, and thee, Frenchman,' addressing Jollyet, 'for taking so much pains to 
come and visit us ; never has the earth been so beautiful, nor the sun so bright, 
as today : never has our river been so calm, nor so free from rocks, which your 
canoes have removed as they passed ; never has our tobacco had so fine a flavor, 
nor our corn appeared so beautiful as we behold it today. Here is my son, 
that I give thee, that thou mayest know my heart. I pray thee to take pity on 
me and all my nation. Thou knowest the Great Spirit who has made us all : 
thou speakest to him and hearest his word : ask him to give me health and life, 
and come and dwell with us, that we may know him.' " 

The sachem then gave Marquette "an all-mysterious calumet," and begged 
him not te go further on account of the great danger to which he would be 
exposed. The first Iowa banquet is thus described : "The council was followed 
by a great feast which consisted of four courses, which we had to take with all 
their ways ; the first course was a great wooden dish full of sagamity, that is to 
say, of Indian meal boiled in water and seasoned with grease. The master of 
ceremonies, with a spoonful of sagamity, presented it three or four times to 
my mouth, as we would do with a little child ; he did the same to M. Jollyet. 
For the second course he brought on a second dish, containing three fish ; he 
took some pains to remove the bones, and having blown upon it to cool it, put 
it in my mouth, as he would food to a bird. For the third course they produced 
a large dog, which they had just killed, but learning that we did not eat it, it 
was withdrawn. Finally, the fourth course was a piece of wild ox (buffalo) 
the fattest portions of which were put into our mouths. 


"After this feast we hail to visit the whole village, which consists of full 
three hundred cabins. While we marched through the streets an orator was 
constantly haranguing, to oblige all to see us, without being troublesome. . . . 
We slept in the sachem's cabin, and the next day took leave of him, promising to 
pass back through his town in four moons. He escorted us to our canoes with 
nearlv six hundred persons, who saw us embark, evincing in every possible way 
the pleasure our visit had given them." 

In these simple and earnest words is recorded the "opening incident" in the 
great drama which lias resulted in the partial extinction and permanent banish- 
ment from this great valley, of its former savage masters, and which has trans- 
formed its unexplored and sparsely settled forests and prairies into powerful 
and populous commonwealths. And we of this county may at least take satis- 
faction, if not pride, in the reasonable belief that Iowa history had its beginning 
here; that it was within the present limits of Louisa county that the first white 
man set foot upon Iowa soil, and that the first conference or council, held in 
the Mississippi valley between civilized man and his savage brother, took place 
near our present county seat, between the Iowa river and Muscatine slough. 

It was here that the envoy of France, and the self-styled, but sincere, "am- 
bassador of God" first sought to impress the temporal power of an earthly 
King, and the spiritual glory of a Heavenly Father, upon those "wild republi- 
cans" of the middle west, whose tribal name, Illinois, signified that they were 

As noted by Dr. Salter, in his "Iowa," this incident has been immortalized 
by one of our best loved poets in the closing scene of Hiawatha, and we append 
a few lines, borrowed from that charming poem : 

With a smile of joy and triumph 
With a look of exultation, 

=]: * :|: 

Stood and waited Hiawatha, 
i Toward the sun his hands were lifted. 

Both the palms spread out against it. 
And between the parted fingers 
Fell the sunshine on his features. 

And the noble Hiawatha 
With his hands aloft extended 

dp dp '',: 

Waited full of exultation 

Till the LMack-Robe chief, the Tale-face. 

# * * 

Landed on the sandy margin. 
Then the joyous Hiawatha 
Cried aloud and spake in this wise: 
"Beautiful is the sun, O strangers. 
When you come so far to see us ! 


All our town in peace awaits you, 
All our doors stand open for you ; 

* # ■■:■ 

Never bloomed the earth so gaily, 

Never shone the sun so brightly, 

As today they shine and blossom 

When you come so far to see us ! 

Never was our lake so tranquil 

Nor so free from rocks and sandbars. 

Never before had our tobacco 

Such a sweet and pleasant flavor, 

Never the broad leaves of our corn fields 

Were so beautiful to look on. 

As they seem to us this morning, 

When you come so far to see us !" 

And the Black-Robe chief made answer. 

Stammered in his speech a little, 

Speaking words yet unfamiliar: 

"Peace be with you, Hiawatha, 

Peace be with you and your people. 

Peace of prayer and peace of pardon, 

Peace of Christ, and joy of Mary !" 

Then the generous Hiawatha 

Led the strangers to his wigwam, 

And the careful old Nokomis 

Brought them food in bowls of basswood, 

Water brought in birchen dippers 

And the calumet, the peace pipe, 

Filled and lighted for their smoking. 

All the old men of the village, 

All the warriors of the nation, \ 

* * * 

Came to bid the strangers welcome ; 

"It is well." they said "O brothers, 

That you come so far to see us !" 

Then the Black-Robe chief, the prophet, ;| 

Told his message to the people. 

Told the purport of his mission. 

Told them of the Virgin Mary, 

And her blessed son, the Saviour. 

* * # 

And the chiefs made answer saying 
"We have listened to your message, 
We have heard your words of wisdom, 
We will think on what you tell us. 
It is well for us, O brothers, 
That you come so far to see us!" 




It would be interesting, but apart from our purpose, to follow the further 
travels of Marquette and Joliet. Their friendly reception by the Illinois Indians 
caused Marquette to desire to establish a mission among them, but his life was 
cut short in a little less than two years, and this work fell into other hands. 
At the time of Marquette's visit, the Illinois were divided into several villages, 
some of which were many miles away and west from those visited by Marquette. 
The Illinois are described as of a mild and tractable disposition, though ex- 
tremely warlike. They were skilled in the use of the bow and arrow, and in 
Marquette's time they already had guns, but used them chiefly to terrify by 
their noise and smoke other further western tribes who had little knowledge 
of firearms. They practiced polygamy and were very jealous of all their wives. 
They lived on wild game, such as deer, elk, buffalo, turkeys and prairie chickens 
and they raised corn, beans, and sometimes melons. Their villages consisted 
of cabins quite large, which were lined and floored with rush mats. They used 
wooden dishes and made excellent spoons from the bones of the buffalo. It 
is probable they roamed over a large extent of country on both sides of the 
Mississippi. As a result of their assassination of Pontiac in 1769, a war of 
extermination was commenced against the Illinois by Pontiac's followers, chief 
of whom were the Sacs and Foxes, and it is said that by the beginning of the 
nineteenth century the tribe of Illinois was almost exterminated. 

Another tribe which once roamed over our prairies and inhabited our for- 
ests was that of the Ioways. It is supposed that a descendant of Manhaugan, 
about 1680 founded a village near the mouth of the Iowa river. Soon after, 
we hear of the Ioways with the Winnebagoes on Lake Michigan, and later, 
along Blue Earth river. In 1775 some of this tribe were found on the Ohio 
river during Dunmore's war, but the main body seem to have come down the 
Rock river with the Winnebagoes about this same time, passing thence down 
the Mississippi, probably on both sides of it to the mouth of the Des Moines, 
and up that river across Iowa to the Missouri. 

There has come down an interesting story of the chivalry of this tribe which 
is worth preserving. About 1819 it seems that a member of the Sac tribe had 
treacherously killed an Ioway. Some time afterward, Black Hawk having 
discovered the murderer, decided to deliver him to the Ioways for punishment, 

■ 23 


but the murderer being sick, his brother offered to go in his place. Black 
Hawk, with a few of his braves, took the voluntary prisoner to the vicinity of 
the Ioway village, said to be near lowaville, and the prisoner went forward 
alone to receive his punishment, chanting his death song as he entered the 
hostile village. Black Hawk returned, and on his way back was astonished to 
be overtaken at his first encampment by the prisoner, whom he had just escorted 
to the village and whom he supposed by that time had met a murderer's fate. 
It seems that the lowas were greatly struck with the magnanimity of the Sac 
who had volunteered to suffer torture and death in the place of his sick brother, 
and, after many threats of execution, had not only released him but had given 
him two horses, one for himself and one for his sick brother. 

Soon after the date of this incident, Black Hawk, having learned that the 
loways were about to march against his village on Rock river, made a forced 
march, and reached their village and attacked them while they were celebrating 
their return from a hunt. The victory of the Sacs and Foxes was complete 
and resulted in the transfer of the sovereignty of this region from the loways 
to the Sacs and Foxes. 

But we of Louisa county are more interested in the history of the Sacs and 
Foxes than of any other tribe, because they were here when the first white men 
came to stake their claims. 

Dr. Pickard, from whose lecture on "Iowa Indians" we have borrowed 
quite freely, says that there is an authentic tradition that these two tribes were 
at the mouth of the St. Lawrence river one hundred years before the coming 
of the French. After a long time and having pursued different routes, it seems 
that these tribes came together in the region of Green Bay. At that time it 
seems that the Foxes were called Outagamies, and in 1712 they joined the Eng- 
lish Iroquois in an attack upon the French at Detroit, but were defeated and 
driven by the French over the Wisconsin river. As the result of conflicts with 
the Ottaways and Chippeways on the north, and the Sioux on the west, they 
moved southward and in about 1734 they crossed the Mississippi river above 
Dubuque and established themselves in that region. It was probably not long 
after this that they began to use the region about the mouth of the Iowa river 
as hunting grounds, for we find that in 1795 they were down as far as Mont- 
rose, and a half breed of the Sacs and Foxes had planted an apple orchard 
there. It was about this time that the beautiful and fertile hunting grounds of 
these Indians began to be coveted for the home of the white man, and in pon- 
dering over the various wars and treaties by which the aborigines have lost 
their ancient homes, while we may sympathize with their fate and drop a tear 
upon the grave of a departed race, we must remember that this land was not 
in any proper sense owned by these Indian tribes, nor did they themselves so 
regard it. 

Speaking of this question, Roosevelt, in his "Winning of the West," says : 
"It cannot be too often insisted that they did not own the land; or, at least, 
diat their ownership was merely such as that claimed often by our own white 
hunters. Tf the Indians really owned Kentucky in 1775. then in 1776 it was 
the property of Boone and his associates ; and to dispossess one party was as 
great a wrong as to disposses the other. To recognize the Indian ownership 
of the limitless prairies and forests of this continent — that is, to consider the 


dozen squalid savages who hunted at long intervals over a territory of a thou- 
sand square miles as owning it outright — necessarily implies a similar recogni- 
tion of the claims of every white hunter, squatter, horse-thief, or wandering 

The best authorities estimate that the total number of Indians in the United 
States did not exceed at any time during the nineteenth century, more than 
about three hundred and fifteen thousand; and, if we count five persons to a 
family, this would give to each Indian family a principality of about forty-eight 
square miles, or over thirty thousand acres ; and, applying this arithmetic to 
the present limits of the state of Iowa, we would have had a little over five 
thousand Indians, where we now have more than two and a quarter millions of 
whites. The truth is that the only title known to the Indian was that of posses- 
sion, and that this passed from day to day and from tribe to tribe, according to 
the fortunes of war, or the necessities of the chase. The best and clearest state- 
ment upon this subject is found in an oration delivered by John Quincy Adams, 
in December, 1802, and as his theory and arguments seem to have been fol- 
lowed by our statesmen in their dealings with the Indians, we add a brief 
quotation from that address: "There are moralists who have questioned the 
right of Europeans to intrude upon the possessions of the aborigines in any 
case and under any limitations whatsoever. But have they naturally considered 
the whole subject? The Indian right of possession itself stands, with regard 
to the greatest part of the country, upon a questionable foundation. Their 
cultivated fields, their constructed habitations, a space of ample sufficiency for 
their subsistence, and whatever they had annexed to themselves by personal 
labor, was undoubtedly by the laws of nature theirs. But what is the right of 
a hunstman to the forest of a thousand miles over which he has accidentally 
ranged in quest of prey? Shall the liberal bounties of Providence to the race 
of man be monopolized by one of ten thousand for whom they were created? 
Shall the exuberant bosom of the common mother, amply adequate to the 
nourishment of millions, be claimed exclusively by a few hundreds of her off- 
spring? Shall the lordly savage not only disdain the virtues and enjoyments 
of civilization himself, but shall he control the civilization of a world? Shall 
he forbid the wilderness to blossom like the rose? Shall he forbid the oaks 
of the forest to fall before the axe of industry and rise again transformed into 
the habitation of ease and elegance? Shall he doom an immense region of 
the globe to perpetual desolation, and to hear the howlings of the tiger and the 
wolf silence forever the voice of human gladness? Shall the fields and the 
valleys which a beneficent God has framed to teem with the life of innumerable 
multitudes be condemned to everlasting barrenness? Shall the mighty rivers. 
poured out by the hands of nature as channels of communication between 
numerous nations, roll their waters in sullen silence and eternal solitude to the 
deep? Have hundreds of commodious harbors, a thousand leagues of coast, 
and a boundless ocean been spread in the front of this land, and shall every 
purpose of utility to which they could apply be prohibited by the tenant of the 
woods? No, generous philanthrophists ! Heaven has not been thus inconsistent 
in the works of its hands. Heaven has not thus placed at irreconcilable strife 
its moral laws with its physical creation." 


Indeed, the Indians themselves claimed that they did not understand the 
meaning of the word boundaries, and Mahaska is said to have told Governor 
Clark, at Prairie du Chien, that he claimed no land in particular. 

The first of the Indian treaties that affected the lands of the middle west 
was made at St. Louis in 1804, by which the Sacs and Foxes were supposed to 
have ceded to the United States the greater part of their possessions in Illinois, 
with the right on the part of the Indians to hunt upon all the ceded lands until 
they were wanted for actual settlement. The Black Hawk war was the direct 
result of this latter provision, because under it the Indians were not obliged to 
immediately vacate the land which they had ceded to the government. Within 
the limits of this cession was the principal village of the Sacs, which was also 
the home of Black Hawk. In 1816, another treaty was made with these same 
Indians, which confirmed the treaty of 1804, but Black Hawk did not sign 
either one of these treaties, and seems to have kept many of the Foxes from 
assenting to the treaty of 1804, claiming that it was not binding, because nego- 
tiated by chiefs who were not authorized to make it, but who had been sent to 
St. Louis merely to secure the release of some Indian prisoners. Black Hawk 
and his adherents, who were known as the British band, continued to become 
more and more dissatisfied with the treaty of 1804, and with the loss of the 
lands which they had so long occupied and which held the graves of so many 
of their ancestors. Keokuk and Black Hawk did not agree upon this subject, 
Keokuk being willing to abide by the treaty and to vacate the lands included in 
it ; and in about 1829, Keokuk with many of the Sacs, crossed the Mississippi 
river and settled in this region. Keokuk, Wapello and Poweshiek planted vil- 
lages on or near the Muscatine slough and the Iowa river. It is probable that 
Keokuk's first village was located about six miles southwest of Muscatine on 
the high ground on the west bank of that part of Muscatine slough which has 
been called Keokuk's lake. At least this is the statement made by Hon. J. P. 
Walton in the Annals of Iowa, Vol. 2, Page 56. Mr. Walton says that this 
village occupied nearly fifty acres and that at the time he wrote (1895). there 
were parties yet living in that vicinity who had seen the framework of the 
buildings in the Indian village. He also says that this village was probably 
vacated in the year 1834, but if he means to say that Keokuk had his home 
there until 1834, he is probably mistaken, because we shall find, when we come 
to the treaty of 1832 for the "Black Hawk Purchase," that that document 
locates Keokuk's principal village as being on the west bank of the Iowa river, 
about twelve miles from its mouth, which would indicate that in 1832 Keokuk 
was living down the Iowa river, about six miles below Wapello, not far from 
the old village of Florence. 

Wapello undoubtedly settled on the Iowa river, but just at what point his 
first village was located, it is difficult to say. There is a well recognized site 
of an old Indian village, on the east bank of the Iowa river a short distance 
north of Harrison hill, and it is thought this was the first place of residence 
in this county chosen by Wapello. At the time Lieutenant Lea made his trip 
through this country in 1835 he seems to have learned that Wapello had a 
village on the west bank of the Iowa river just north of the present city of 
Wapello, and probably on the northern part of the land now owned by Mr. 
E. M. Friend, or a little west of it. Poweshiek settled a little further to the 


north; possibly his first settlement was not far from the station of Bard. But 
it is certain that he had a village at the forks of the Iowa and Cedar rivers, 
which was named Kiskkakosh, and that shortly after establishing this village 
he moved again further up the river. About this same time another Indian 
chief, Tama, crossed over from Illinois and established a village on Flint creek, 
in Des Moines county. But Black Hawk, though repeatedly asked by the 
officers and the" agents of the government to do so, refused to leave the Rock 
river country. He still harped upon the fact that the treaty of 1804 was not 
binding, and also claimed that lands could not be sold. He said: "My reason 
teaches me that land cannot be sold. Nothing can be sold but such things as 
can be carried away." At that time Andrew Jackson was president and few 
men understood the Indian problem better than he. It had undoubtedly long 
been a favorite idea with Jackson that the Indians should be moved west of 
the Mississippi river whether they were willing or not, but of course he pre- 
ferred that they should go peaceably. Jackson's attention had been forcibly 
drawn to this subject by the attempt of the Cherokee Indians to establish a 
national government upon the lands they occupied within the state of Georgia. 
Jackson declared that if the Indians chose to remain within the limits of the 
various states they could do so only upon condition that they subject themselves 
to state laws. In that event of course they were to be protected in the enjoy- 
ment of "those possessions which they had improved by their industry, because," 
said Jackson, "it seems visionary to me to suppose that claims can be allowed 
on tracts of country on which they (the Indians) have neither dwelt nor made 
improvements, merely because they have seen them from the mountains, or 
passed them in the chase." In 1830 with the authority of congress, Jackson 
ordered the Indians removed from the lands which they ceded in 1804. 

But Black Hawk hated the Americans anyway, and had no notion of reced- 
ing from the position he had already taken, viz., that the treaty of 1804 did 
not consent that the land on which his village stood should be ceded to the 
United States. It detracts much from the glamour that some writers have 
sought to throw around the character of Black Hawk to know that he could 
not have been sincere in this claim, because he had, on three separate and 
solemn occasions, viz: in 1819, 1822 and 1825, "touched the quill" and assented 
to treaties which reaffirmed that of 1804. Black Hawk's worst adviser was 
undoubtedly the half Winnebago and half Sac, known as White Cloud, or the 
Prophet. He was a crafty and reckless mischief maker, who exercised great 
influence because of his supposed sacred character, and because of his earnest 
and persuasive speech. Dr. Thwaites, in his essay on the "Black Hawk War," 
upon which we have drawn freely, gives an interesting account of the Prophet's 
dress. "In the matter of dress he must at times have been picturesque. An 
eye witness, who was in attendance on a Potawatomi council wherein the wizard 
was urging the cause of Black Hawk, describes him as dressed in a faultless 
white buckskin suit, fringed at the seams; wearing a towering head dress of 
the same material, capped with a bunch of fine eagle feathers ; each ankle girt 
with a wreath of small sleighbells which jingled at every step, while in his 
nose and ears were ponderous gold rings gently tinkling one against the other 
as he shook his ponderous head in the warmth of harangue." The prophet 


and the British agent at Maiden, and many others, coincided with Black Hawk, 
giving him just the advice he wanted. 

In the spring of 1830 Black Hawk and his hand, after an unsuccessful hunt. 
came hack "to find their town almost completely shattered, many of the graves 
ploughed over, and the whites more abusive than ever," and encroashing more 
and more upon the lands at the mouth of Rock river. Things went from bad 
to worse, when, in the spring of 1831, Black Hawk was officially informed of 
the order from Washington for him to go to the west side of the Mississippi. 
It was then, according to Galland's "Iowa Emigrant," that Black Hawk gathered 
his band around him and made them this speech, which is characteristic of the 
man, and seems to fully state his view of his grievances : 

"Warriors : Sixty summers or more have gone since our fathers sat down 
here, and our mothers erected their lodges on this spot. On these pastures our 
horses have fattened ; our wives and daughters have cultivated the cornfields, 
and planted beans and melons and squashes ; from these rivers our young men 
have obtained an abundance of fish. Here, too, you have been protected from 
your old enemy, the Sioux, by the mighty Mississippi. And here are the bones 
of our warriors and chiefs and orators. But alas! wdiat do I hear? The birds 
that have long gladdened these groves with their melody now sing a melancholy 
song! They say, 'The red man must leave his home, to make room for the 
white man.' The Long Knives want it for their speculation and greed. They 
want to live in our houses, plant corn in our fields, and plough up our graves ! 
They want to fatten their hogs on our dead, not yet mouldered in their graves ! 
We are ordered to remove to the west bank of the Mississippi; there to erect 
other houses, and open new fields, of which we shall soon be robbed again by 
these pale faces ! They tell us that our great father, the chief of the Long 
Knives, has commanded us, his red children, to give this, our greatest town, 
our greatest graveyard, and our best home, to his white children ! I do not 
believe it. It cannot be true; it is impossible that so great a chief should com- 
pel us to seek new homes, and prepare new cornfields, and that, too, in a 
country where our women and children will be in danger of being murdered by 
our enemies. No ! No ! Our great father, the chief of the Long Knives, wall 
never do this. I have heard these silly tales for seven winters, that we were 
to be driven from our homes. You know we offered the Long Knives a large 
tract of country abounding with lead on the west side of the Mississippi, if 
they would relinquish their claim to this little spot. We will, therefore, repair 
our houses which the pale faced vagabonds have torn down and burnt, and 
we will plant our corn; and if these white intruders annoy us, we will tell them 
to depart. We will offer them no violence, except in self-defense. We will 
not kill their cattle, or destroy any of their property, but their scutah n'apo 
(whiskey) we will search for and destroy, throwing it out upon the earth, 
wherever we find it. We have asked permission of the intruders to cultivate 
our own fields, around which they have erected wooden walls. They refuse, 
and forbid us the privilege of climbing over. We will throw down these walls. 
and, as these pale-faces seem unwilling to live in the community with us, let 
them, and not us, depart. The land is ours, not theirs. We inherited it from 
our fathers; we have never sold it. If some drunken dogs of our people sold 
lands they did not own, our rights remain. We have no chiefs who are author- 


ized to sell our cornfields, our homes, or the bones of our dead. The great 
chief of the Long Knives, I believe, is too wise and good to approve acts of 
robbery and injustice, though I have found true the statement of my British 
friends in Canada, that the 'Long Knives will always claim the land where they 
are permitted to make a track with their foot, or mark a tree.' I will not, 
however, believe that the great chief, who is pleased to call himself our 
'Father.' will send his warriors against his children for no other cause than 
contending to cultivate their own fields, and occupy their own houses. No ! I 
will not believe it. until I see his arm}-. Not until then will 1 forsake the graves 
of my ancestors, and the home of my youth !" 

In his biography Black Hawk also complains, doubtless with truth, that 
white people had brought whiskey into the village, and cheated the Indians 
without mercy. He says that in the case of one man who continued this "fradu- 
lent practice" openly, he took some of his young braves, went to the man's 
house, and broke in the head of his whiskey barrel. 

At length, confronted by General Gaines, in command of several hundred 
regulars, and sixteen hundred Illinois volunteers under Governor John Rey- 
nolds, Black Hawk crossed over to the west side of the Mississippi river, signed 
another treaty agreeing never again to go on the east side without the permis- 
sion of the government, and, as it was then too late to raise a crop, he and his 
followers spent the remainder of the season wandering about, brooding over 
their wrongs. The following winter he was engaged in making up his war 
party, much of the time being spent about Fort Madison, and much of the 
time in this county. The Black Hawk war, like many other notable things, 
undoubtedly had its beginning in this county. 

Dr. Thwaites says: "On the 6th of April, 1832, Black Hawk and Neapope, 
with about five hundred warriors (chiefly Sauks), their squaws and children, 
and all their possessions, crossed the Mississippi at Yellow Banks, below the 
mouth of the Rock, and invaded the state of Illinois." 

And William L. Toole, one of our earliest and foremost pioneers, in the 
January, 1868, number of the "Annals of Iowa," speaking of the Indian trail 
down the Iowa from Poweshiek's village to Wapello village, then to the village 
of Chief Keokuk, and then across on the north side of the river to the ancient 
mounds at Toolesboro, says : "And on this trail the warriors of those villages 
passed to the Masso-Sepo (Indian for Mississippi) with their ponies, and across 
it to the upper sand-bank (New Boston), some going in canoes down the Iowa, 
taking their arms, ammunition, etc., preparatory to the war of 1832." 

Still another authority for the statement that the starting point for Black 
Hawk's war expedition was in this county, is John B. Newhall, in his "Emi- 
grants Guide." In speaking of Florence, which was once a flourishing and 
promising hamlet, supposed to have been located on the very spot where "Keo- 
kuk's principal village" stood in 1832. Mr. Newhall says: "Florence is un- 
rivalled in beauty of location. It has one of the best ferries upon the Iowa, 
and is surrounded by a densely populated settlement. Here the renowned chief. 
Black Hawk, resided until the Indian hostilities of 1832; and here, 'Beneath 
this green turf, by the riv'let of sands,' repose the bones of his ancestors, where 
they have rested in peace .for centuries. It was for this sacred spot that he 


gave the warwhoop, and rallied forth his countrymen to the last deadly con- 
flict, in defense of their homes, and the graves 

'Where sleep their warriors, where rival chieftains lay. 
And mighty tribes swept from the face of day.' 

"But they were conquered, and this illustrious chief was doomed to wander 
a stranger in the land of his forefathers. His lodge was still standing at the 
time the country was surveyed. The writer lingers with peculiar interest upon 
this spot, having been among the first (White men) to set landmarks of civiliza- 
tion upon the 'Keokuk Reserve,' having laid off the town of Florence, and 
being associated in the ownership of this celebrated 'Indian council house' from 
its transfer from the Indians. We kept it nearly two years in good state of 
preservation, and strangers from far and near came to look upon this last 
monument of Black Hawk. But in an evil hour the sacrilegious work of innova- 
tion had taken its unsparing sway, and the thoughtless denizens razed it to the 
earth for the more profitable culture of a cornfield." 

We may also cite Jesse Williams' "Iowa." published in 1840; referring to 
Township -t, North, Range 2 West, which contains both Toolesboro and Flor- 
ence: he says: "This Township is one of the most noted in the territory. Here 
the celebrated Indian Chief Black Hawk resided until the Indian hostilities of 
1832, — and it is here where the bones of his ancestors have rested in peace for 
centuries, — and it was for this spot, this sacred spot, that he gave the warwhoops 
and rallied forth his countrymen to the last deadly struggle in defense of this, 
the home of their ancestors. His home was still standing at the time when the 
surveys were made; it stood on the south bank of the Iowa in Section 20. The 
village of Florence was located on the south fraction of Section 20." 

The only value of the above quotations from Newhall and Williams is that 
they associate Black Hawk with the vicinity of Florence in 1832; the rest is 
too extravagant to be within the limits of poetic license. To Black Hawk, the 
resting place of his ancestors was at the mouth of Rock river, in Illinois : and 
even had Florence been the "sacred spot," it and all the land around it, as well 
as nearly all of Iowa, was in the undisputed possession of the Indians, and it 
required neither war nor warwhoop to insure them in their possession. 

The early opening of this territory to settlement by the whites, is due to 
Black Hawk's foolhardy war, for had he remained peaceful, he could have 
spent his life here. And Keokuk evidently so understood the situation, for he 
did all in his power to prevent the war. 

One memorable occurrence said to have happened at Keokuk's village, illus- 
trates both the eloquence and the influence of Keokuk. Emissaries sent by the 
Prophet had made inflammatory speeches to the Indians, had supplied them 
with whiskey, and had excited them to such a pitch of frenzv that they declared 
for war. and demanded that he, their chief, should lead them. Keokuk arose 
slowly, folded his blanket across his breast, and said : 

"Braves, I am your chief, to rule you as a father at home, and to lead you 
to war, if you are determined to go; but in this war there is only one course. 
The United States is a great power; and unless we conquer, we must perish. 
I will lead you on one condition only, that we put our old men and the women 


and children to death, and resolve when we cross the Mississippi never to re- 
turn, but perish among the graves of our fathers." 

This speech had the effect of bringing the clamorous braves to a realization 
of the madness of their course, with the result that few of Keokuk's followers 
joined in the Black Hawk war. Black Hawk and his war party received some 
accessions east of the Mississippi, and, after perpetrating a few outrages and 
meeting with some temporary success, the)' suffered a most signal defeat at 
Bad Axe, Wisconsin — a defeat almost as disgraceful to the whites for its wanton 
butchery, as it was disastrous to the . Indians. 

The battle of Bad Axe occurred August 2, 1832, and as a result of it, and 
of the subsequent capture of Black Hawk, a great council was held, to which 
the chiefs who had joined with Black Hawk were summoned. This council 
met September 21, 1832, at Rock Island. The United States was represented 
by General Winfield Scott, and Governor John Reynolds, of Illinois, and the 
Indians were represented by the Sac chiefs Keokuk, or "he who has been 
everywhere," Pa-she-pa-ho, or "the stabber," Wawk-kum-mee, or "clear water," 
and O-sow-wish-kan-no, or "yellow bird," and by the Fox chiefs Wau-pel-la, 
or "he who is painted white," Tay-wee-man, or "medicine man," Pow-sheek, 
or "the roused bear," Kaw-kaw-kee, or "the crow," Mau-que-tee, or "the bald 
eagle," and others of both tribes, there being in all the names of nine Sacs and 
twenty Foxes attached to the treaty, all of them signing by their marks. 

We quote the main parts of this treaty : 

"Articles of a treaty of peace, friendship, and cession, concluded at Fort 
Armstrong, Rock Island. Illinois, between the United States of America, by 
their commissioners, Major General Winfield Scott, of the United States Army, 
and His Excellency John Reynolds, governor of the state of Illinois, and the 
confederated tribes of Sac and Fox Indians, represented in general council, by 
the undersigned chiefs, head men and warriors. 

"Whereas, under certain lawless and desperate leaders, a formidable band, 
constituting a large portion of the Sac and Fox nation, left their country in 
April last, and, in violation of treaties, commenced an unprovoked war upon 
unsuspecting and defenceless citizens of the United States, sparing neither age 
nor sex ; and whereas, the United States, at a great expense of treasure, have 
subdued the said hostile band, killing or capturing all its principal chiefs and 
warriors ; the said states, partly as indemnity for the expenses incurred, and 
partlv to secure the future safety and tranquillity of the invaded frontier, de- 
mand of the said tribes, to the use of the United States, a cession of a tract of 
the Sac and Fox country, bordering on said frontier, more than proportional 
to the numbers of the hostile band who have been so conquered and subdued. 

"Article 1. Accordingly, the confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes hereby 
cede to the United States forever, all the lands to which the said tribes have 
title or claim (with the exception of the reservation hereinafter made), included 
within the following bounds, to wit: 'Beginning on the Mississippi river, at 
the point where the Sac and Fox northern boundary line, as established by 
the second article of the treaty of Prairie du Chien, of the fifteenth of July, 
one thousand eight hundred and thirty, strikes said river: thence, up said 


boundary line to a point fifty miles from the Mississippi, measured on said line; 
thence, in a right line to the nearest point on the Red Cedar of the Ioway. 
forty miles from the Mississippi river ; thence, in a right line to a point in the 
northern boundary line of the State of Missouri, fifty miles, measured on said 
boundary, from the Mississippi river ; thence, by the last mentioned boundary 
to the Mississippi river, and by the western shore of said river to the place of 
beginning. And the said confederated tribes of Sacs and Foxes hereby stipu- 
late and agree to remove from the lands herein ceded to the United States, on 
or before the first day of June next; and, in order to prevent any future mis- 
understanding, it is expressly understood, that no band or party of the Sac or 
Fox tribe shall reside, plant, fish, or hunt, on any portion of the ceded country 
after the period just mentioned. 

"Article 2. Out of the cession made in the preceding article, the United 
States agree to a reservation for the use of the said confederated tribes, of a 
tract of land containing four hundred square miles, to be laid off under the 
direction of the President of the United States, from the boundarv line cross- 
ing the Ioway river in such manner that nearly an equal portion of the reserva- 
tion may be on both sides of said river, and extending downwards, so as to 
include Ke-o-kuck's principal village on its right bank, which village is about 
twelve miles from the Mississippi river. 

"Article 7. Trusting to the good faith of the neutral bands of Sacs and 
Foxes, the United States have already delivered up to those bands the great 
mass of prisoners made in the course of the war by the United States, and 
promise to use their influence to procure the delivery of other Sacs and Foxes, 
who may still be prisoners in the hands of a band of Sioux Indians, the friends 
of the United States ; but the following named prisoners of war, now in con- 
finement, who were chiefs ami head men. shall be held as hostages for the 
future good conduct of the late hostile bands, during the pleasure of the Presi- 
dent of the United States, viz : Muk-ka-ta-mish-a-ka-kaik (or Black Hawk) 
and his two sons; Wau-ba-kee-shik (the Prophet) his brother and two sons; 
Napope, We-sheet Ioway, Pamaho, and Cha-kee-pa-shi-pa-ho (the little stab- 
bing chief). 


"Article 10. The United States, besides the presents, delivered at the sign- 
ing of this treaty, wishing to give a striking evidence of their mercy and liberal- 
ity, will immediately cause to be issued to the said confederated tribes, princi- 
pally for the use of the Sac and Fox women and children, whose husbands, 
fathers and brothers, have been killed in the late war, and generally for the 
use of the whole confederated tribes, articles of subsistence, as follows: thirty- 
five beef cattle; twelve bushels of salt; thirty barrels of pork, and fifty barrels 
of flour ; and cause to be delivered for the same purposes, in the month of 
April next, at the mouth of the lower Ioway. six thousand barrels of maize or 
Indian corn. 

* * ******** 

"Article 12. This treaty shall take effect and be obligatory on the contract- 
ing parties, as soon as the same shall be ratified by the President of the United 
States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof. 


"Done at Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Illinois, this twenty-first day of 
September, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-two. 
and of the independence of the United States the fifty-seventh." 

The land acquired by this treaty was sometimes called "Scott's Purchase," 
and sometimes called "The Black Hawk Purchase," and this latter name is the 
one bv which it is best known. 

Black Hawk was present at the treaty, but being a prisoner, and held as a 
hostage, he was not permitted to have any part in it, except that he was 
humiliated by being placed in charge of Keokuk, his great rival, who was made 
chief by .Scott and Reynolds. The following letter, written by the commissioners 
on the part of the United States at the time, was resurrected in the Interior 
Department, and will be interesting in connection with this treaty. 

"Rock Island, September 22, 1832. 

"Sir: As commissioners on the part of the United States, who have nego- 
tiated treaties with the Winnebago Nation and the confederated tribes of Sacs 
and Foxes, we have promised medals to certain Indians as follows : Tohaly 
Winnebago, half Sioux, belonging to the Winnebagoes under General Street's 
Agency (the Indian who took Black Hawk, and the Prophet) a medal of the 
second size; to the Stabbing Chief, a Sac, and to Wapella, a Fox, a medal, each, 
of the first or largest size. 

"We will beg you to send the three medals promised as above, to the Agents 
of these Nations, respectively, to be presented in the name, and in behalf of 
the United States. 

"The medals left by you, with one of the commissioners, have been disposed 
of as follows : One of the largest size to the principal chief, Canomance, a 
Winnebago of General Street's Agency; one of the third size to the son of the 
Crow, or Blind, a Winnebago, of the Rock River Agency, who served gallantly 
with General Dodge, in the late campaign ; one of the largest size to Keo-kuck, 
a Sac, whom we made a Chief, in the name of the President of the United 
States, and with the approbation of the confederated tribes; one of the second 
size to Ma-ton-e-qua, a Fox chief, and one each, of the smallest size to Pe-a- 
che-noa, and Wah-ko-mu, two young Sac chiefs, and Ma-qua-pa-che-to, a young 
Fox chief. 

"The box of Indian goods, containing red and blue cloth, blankets, shirts, 
handkerchiefs, knives, and paints, and the keg of tobacco left by you with the 
same commissioner, have been distributed, with many other presents purchased 
here, among the tribes with which we have held treaties. 

"We have the honor to be, with great respect, 

"Yr mo obt, 

"(Signature) Winfield Scott. 
"John Reynolds, 

"General William Clark, Superintendent of Indian Affairs." 

We had considerable curiosity to learn the particulars as to the fulfillment, 
on the part of the government of the 10th article of the treaty, providing for 
the delivery of the six thousand bushels of corn at the mouth of the "lower 
Ioway" in April, 1833, as it would certainly be the first official transaction 


within the limits of Louisa county. The following letter is all that we have 
been able to get, but it is interesting as showing that before "we-uns" began 
to raise corn, it cost a dollar a bushel delivered here by boat. 


"St. Louis, July 30, 1833. 
"Sir: My bill of exchange of this date, favr of Henry S. Coxe, Esq., 
Cash., of the Branch Rank of the United States at this place, or order, for Six- 
Thousand Dollars, is on account of the purchase of corn for the Sacs and Foxes, 
under the tenth article of their Treaty of 21st Sept.. 1832, and under appropria- 
tion of 2nd March, 1833, — and which when paid will be chargeable to me on 
that account. 

"I have the honor to be 
"With high respect, 
"Your most ob' ser't, 

"Wm. Clark. 
"The Hon. Lewis Cass, Secretary of War." 

The reader will already have formed some idea of Black Hawk and Keokuk, 
but perhaps a few additional words in regard to them and also a brief sketch 
of Wapello would be appropriate. Black Hawk was born at the Sac village near 
Rock river, in 17(17, aml although not a chief either by heredity or election, he 
became in time the acknowledged head of his people. He was possessed of con- 
siderable ambition and seemed to be always looking for a grievance. He was 
jealous of Keokuk and Wapello and usually found an opportunity to dispute with 
them when any important question was to be decided. He may have been honest 
in many of his opinions but was easily influenced, especially in unwise direc- 
tions. He took part under Tecumseh with the British in the war of 181 2 and 
he was always a British sympathizer. With his heart broken and as the result 
of the war, and his dethronement in favor of Keokuk, Black Hawk died in Octo- 
ber. 1838, near the Des Moines river, in Davis county. Iowa. It is said that in 
the following year an Illinois physician rifled his grave and that upon complaint 
being made by Black Hawk's followers, the skeleton was delivered to Governor 
Lucas at Burlington, and was burned on the night of January 16, 1853, while 
deposited in an office in Burlington, pending its removal to Iowa City. 

Keokuk, as we have already seen, belonged to the peace party. He was a 
friend to the Americans and was opposed to the mad counsels of Black Hawk. 
He seemed to have some of the gifts of a statesman and diplomatist. He was a 
large man, of rather fine figure, with dignified and graceful manners, with a pow- 
erful voice and a rather prepossessing countenance. He was fond of a good 
horse and liked to make a great show, and it is said that he possessed the finest 
horse in the west at the time George Catlin visited his village on the Des Moines 
river and painted his portrait. He seemed to have the ability to organize and to 
discipline his men and to hold them in subjection. It is said that Keokuk was not 
a full blooded Indian, but that his mother's name was La Lott, a half breed 
Indian woman. The authority for this statement occurs in a pamphlet entitled 
"The Old Settlers." published in Keokuk, in December, 187(1. In this pamphlet 
i^ a copy of a letter to General William Clark, superintendent of Indian Affairs. 


at St. Louis, dated June 9, 1830, written by Thomas Forsythe, Indian agent, on 
behalf of six Indian chiefs, among whom were Tiamah and Keokuk. The body 
of the letter refers to the possession of the "half breed lands" under the treaty 
of August 4, 1824, and in a postscript, "La Lott, a half breed," is referred to as 
Keokuk's mother, and a request is made that she have a share in the half breed 

Keokuk lived in this county down about the site of the old village of Florence 
for a few years, immediately following the Black Hawk war, and moved from 
there to lands on the Des Moines river, probably a short time before the cession 
by the Indians of what is known as the "Keokuk reservation," to which refer- 
ence will be made hereafter. 

Wapello, or Waupella, or Wapella, as the name is variously written, was a 
prominent Fox, or Musquakie Indian. We quote an interesting account of him 
from Mr. Newhall's work : "He was among the delegation that visited Wash- 
ington in 1837 and made a very favorable impression by his dignified and correct 
deportment on that occasion. In stature, he is more heavily built than the major- 
ity of the Indians, and has the appearance of great muscular strength. His vil- 
lage has been (until the purchase of the Keokuk reserve in 1836) upon the banks 
of the Iowa, the present town of which still retains his name, being the seat of 
justice of Louisa county. Wapella has been much in war. I think he informed 
me last summer (1840), that he had been in battle thirty different times, prin- 
cipally with the Sioux. One of his greatest battles was on the head waters of the 
Des Moines, a few years ago, where he led a party, and commenced an attack 
upon three Sioux villages, took many scalps, and brought away several prisoners. 

"I met him at Washington in 1837; he instantly recognized me, and giving 
me a hearty shake of the hand, said he was very glad to meet with a che-mo-co- 
mon (white man) whom he had known beyond the 'big Sepo' (Mississippi). 
Having some curiosity to witness their diplomacy while negotiating with govern- 
ment for the sale of their land, I attended several of their councils. I noticed 
on these occasions, Wapella fully recognized the authority of Keokuck. 'My 
father.' says Wapella, addressing the secretary of war, 'you have heard what 
my chief had to say ; his tongue is ours — what he says, we all say.' 

"Perhaps I cannot better conclude this sketch of Wapella than by quoting his 
speech in reply to Governor Everett, at the Boston state house in 1837, and 
which I extract from 'Biographical Sketches of the Indians.' 

"After Keokuck had addressed the governor and members of the legislature, 
Wapella made the following speech: T am very happy to meet my friends in the 
land of my forefathers. When a boy I recollect my grandfather told me of this 
place, where the white man used to take our fathers by the hand. I am very 
happy that this land has induced so many men to come upon it. By that, I think 
thev get a good living on it and I am pleased that they content themselves to stay 
upon it. I am always glad to give the white man my hand, and call him brother. 
Perhaps you have heard that my tribe is respected by all others, and is the oldest 
among the tribes. I have shaken hands with a great many different tribes of 
people. I am very much gratified that I have lived to come and talk to the white 
men in this house, where my father talked, which I heard of so many years ago. 
I will go home and tell all I have seen and it shall never be forgotten by my 


"Wapella's deportment and bearing towards strangers is marked by much 
true dignity and politeness. Having visited his village last summer he manifested 
much satisfaction that I had called upon him. When I informed him that I had 
come to see his people and his village to write a description of it in a book, he 
seemed highly gratified and wished to know if I would send him one. It was with 
some difficulty tbat he could, at first, appreciate a visit so disinterested, that a 
motive merely to gratify curiosity could have brought me to this country. When 
fully convinced that such was the fact he appreciated it as a high honor. He 
said that white men generally came and questioned them about selling more of 
their country, which appeared to annoy him, and said his people did not wish 
to sell any more land. He was quite communicative and made many inquiries 
about Washington and Boston. He said Boston was a 'nisheshing' place, and 
then showed me his silver medal, presented by the city of Boston in 1837. He 
thought Governor Everett was a great 'brave' and a great 'medicine man' and 
that he had a big 'wickeup' on a high hill (the state house), and on the prairie 
(common) below, he had all his 'warriors' out with their big guns when he was 
there. He said he should be very glad to see the great 'brave' from Boston at his 
wickeup and he hoped the Great or Good Spirit would bless him and all his war- 
riors. He wished me to give his compliments to him (Governor Everett) if I 
should ever see him again, for, said he, 'my heart is good towards him.' " 

We find considerable interesting information about Wapella in the "Annals 
of Iowa," Vol. 2, Page, 636, and glean that in 1816 or later he ruled over one 
of the old Indian villages near the mouth of Rock river and that in 1829, when 
he moved to the west side of the Mississippi, he established himself on Muscatine 
slough. In 1836, about the time of the Keokuk reserve treaty, he moved to a 
point near Ottumwa, where he died in March, 1842. Just prior to his death 
he had started on a trip to visit the scenes and haunts of his former years, but 
was taken sick and died near the forks of the Skunk river. At his own request 
he was buried near the grave of his old friend. General Joseph M. Street, at wdiat 
is known as the old Sac and Fox Agency. 





The kaleidoscopic changes of dominion which the territory now embraced in 
this county underwent, the different jurisdictions and various forms of govern- 
mental administration to which it was subjected before the time Iowa became an 
organized territory, have been briefly set forth in chronological order in the table 
"Appendix," entitled "Charters, Grants, Treaties and Laws, affecting Louisa 
county." Spain, France and England, at various times and under various claims 
and pretexts, asserted sovereignty over this part of the world prior to 1803. 
Then Napoleon, seeking in the interest of France to build up a maritime rival to 
England, and Jefferson, though feeling that he thereby may have overstepped 
the constitution, arranged for the purchase by the United States of the territory 
then called the province of Louisiana. Congress in 1804 divided "that portion of 
the country ceded by France to the United States under the name of Louisiana," 
and provided that all of it south of Mississippi territory and south of thirty-three 
degrees of north latitude should constitute the terriory of Orleans, and that "the 
residue of the province of Louisiana should be called the district of Louisiana 
and be under the jurisdiction of the governor and judges of Indiana territory." 

By another slight change we became, on March 3, 1805, a part of the terri- 
tory of Louisiana ; and in 1812, after the admission of Louisiana as a state, we 
were turned over to the jurisdiction of Missouri territory: and as a part of the 
compromise by which that territory was admitted to the Union as a slave state, 
we came to belong to the part in which there was never to be any slavery. How- 
ever, we were left "orphans" without any local government until, in June. 1834. 
congress attached us to the territory of Michigan. In reality we had no local 
government worthy of the name until the organization of Wisconsin territory 
by the act of congress, approved June 12, 1836, which took effect on the 3d of 
July of that year. 

As pointed out by Dr. Shambaugh, in his "History of the Constitutions of 
Iowa," the changes we have just been noting were largely, if not entirely, "changes 
in subordinate jurisdiction over a geographical area, and in no sense the annals 
of a political society" since this country was practically without white inhabitants 
prior to 1830, and had but few of them up to 1833. 

Indeed, in some quarters it was supposed that we were in the land of the 
terrible Sioux. A "View of the Mississippi Valley," etc., published by H. S. 



Tanner in 1832, purporting to l>e an "emigrants and travelers' guide to the west," 
designates what is now Iowa as a part of the great Sioux district — a district 
said to contain 162,385 square miles and to have within its limits 25,000 Sioux 
Indians. No settlement or fort in Iowa is shown on Tanner's map, nor does the 
Iowa river appear on it. It may also be interesting in this connection to note 
that although the state of Illinois was admitted in 1818, it appears from Tan- 
ner's work that in 1830 there were only twenty-six inhabitants in Mercer county, 
Illinois ; forty-one in Henry county, Illinois ; three hundred and eight in Warren 
county; and two hundred and seventy- four in Knox county. 

The knowledge, or rather lack of knowledge, of the part of country west 
of the Mississippi river as portrayed in Mr. Tanner's book, was probably due 
to the fact that the country was not then open for settlement, and not expected 
to be for man} - years to come. Before Pike and his immediate predecessors, Lewis 
and Clark, had made and reported their explorations, this was considered to be 
an arid and uninhabitable country "except upon the borders of rivers and creeks." 

On August 9, 1805, a government expedition of twenty men. under command 
of the fearless and brilliant Lieutenant Zebulon M. Pike, left St. Louis for a trip 
up the Mississippi river, with a view of visiting the various Indian tribes in the 
upper Mississippi valley and gaining information about the country. August 20th 
the expedition had arrived at the foot of the Rapids des Moines, and in passing 
up these rapids they were met by William Ewing, an agent of the United States, 
accompanied by a French interpreter and fifteen Sac Indians in their canoes, 
who came to assist the expedition over the rapids. After passing Burlington and 
noting a good place for a fort, where Crapo Park now is. Lieutenant Pike, accord- 
ing to his journal, on Saturday, August 24th, "encamped on the west shore nearly 
opposite a chalk bank." This was undoubtedly in Louisa county, a little north 
of the Des Moines county line, and nearly opposite the town of Keithsburg. Just 
before this. Pike had been out hunting on the west shore and had lost his two 
favorite hunting dogs. Two of his men had volunteered to find them. These 
men wandered northward, meeting with Indians probably along the Muscatine 
slough, and with these Indians for guides they finally joined Pike at Dubuque on 
the 1st of September. These two men, whose names have not been given, are 
doubtless the first white men who traversed Louisa county from north to south. 
and the first to travel any considerable part of it since the visit of Marquette. 

On Sunday, the 25th. the expedition stopped on a "sandbank prairie" on the 
east side of the river, from which there was a beautiful view down the river, 
and the next day it is recorded that they passed the mouth of the Iowa river 
and camped at night on Grant's prairie. The explorer thus speaks of the Iowa 
river : "The Iowa river bears from the Mississippi S. W. and is one hundred 
and fifty yards wide at its mouth. In ascending the Iowa thirty-six miles, you 
come to a fork. The right branch is called the Red Cedar from the great quan- 
tity of that wood found on its banks. It is navigable for bateaux nearly three 
hundred miles. It then branches into three forks called the Turkey's Foot. Ten 
miles up the Iowa from its mouth is a village of Iowa Indians." 

The village of Iowa Indians here referred to is shown on Lieutenant Pike's 
map as being on the north side of the Iowa opposite the big bend in the river just 
about north of Elrick function. 


On the night of August 25th, Pike's men camped on the west side at what 
he calls Grant's prairie, and this is supposed to have been at about the boundary 
line between Muscatine and Louisa counties, and opposite the lower end of 
Blanchard's Island. Speaking of the Iowa Indians, Lieutenant Pike says that 
they had two villages, one on the Iowa river, and one on the river "De Moyen" 
and that their hunting ground was from the west side of the Mississippi river to 
the river De Moyen, and westward to the Missouri, and that their wars and 
alliances were the same as those of the Sacs and Foxes (called by him Sauks 
and Reynards), under whose special protection they considered themselves to 
be. He speaks of the Iowa Indians as less civilized than the Sacs and Foxes, 
though they were in the habit of cultivating corn to some extent. 

In 1808 a fort was built near Fort Madison, but this was claimed by the Indians 
to be in violation of the treaty of 1804 and caused a great deal of trouble. There 
were several Indian attacks made upon it and finally in 181 3, in the face of an 
attack from an overwhelming force of Indians, it was abandoned and destroyed 
by its small remaining garrison, the latter escaping down the river in boats. 

About the time Fort Madison was built, a trading post was established at 
Flint Hills, near the present site of Burlington, by Colonel Johnson, but this 
was burned within a few years. From this time on there were occasional new 
arrivals in the neighborhood of Keokuk, but they were few and far between. 
About 1830, as Professor Parvin has shown, there were enough families settled 
near Keokuk for Berryman Jennings to organize and teach the first school taught 
in what is now Iowa. This was, at the time, the only school north of Missouri 
between the Mississippi river and the Pacific ocean. But, to come a little nearer 
home, we find that the Stockbridge Indians from up near Green Bay sent a dele- 
gation to visit the Sacs and Foxes in 1834, to try to prevail on them to abandon 
their savage life, to have schools established among them, and to take on some 
of the ways of civilized life. Along with this delegation was the Rev. Cutting 
Marsh, a member of the American board of commissioners for foreign missions, 
and his observations made shortly after the visit and which are recorded in the 
Wisconsin Historical Collection, Vol. XV, are worthy of a place in our history, 
because they record his impressions of this county and of its savage inhabitants 
just prior to the entry of the white man : 

"Keokuk's, the principal village of the Sacs, is situated on the eastern bank 
of the Iowa river, about twelve miles from its mouth. It contains between forty 
and fifty lodges, some are forty or fifty feet in length, constructed of bark. The 
village is at the northern extremity of a delightful prairie extending south and 
west. There were probably four hundred souls in it. Upon entering the village, 
which is formed without any order, my attention was attracted by Black Hawk's 
lodge. This was enclosed by a neat fence of poles, embracing four or five rods 
in a circular form. A little gate led into it ; around the inside, melon vines had 
been planted. The lodge was constructed of peeled bark. It was perfectly tight, 
except a hole at the top for the smoke to pass out. At the sides, places were built 
all around, about three feet from the ground, and mats spread over, on which 
they sat and slept. It was furnished witn some dining chairs, which I saw at 
no other lodge in the nation. I was received politely by the children of Black- 
Hawk, himself and wife being absent. I never before witnessed such a specimen 


of neatness and good order in any Indian lodge. Although Black Hawk is not 
permitted to hold any office, it is questionable whether he is not as much respected 
as the haughty Keokuk, who now holds the reins of government. 

"Wending my way to Keokuk's lodge, which was about fifty feet long, I 
found him sitting with prince-like dignity in one corner, surrounded by his young 
men, and wives not less than five. He appeared distant and not disposed to 
converse, hut treated me with politeness anil hospitality, and ordered his young 
men to put out the horses, and supper to be prepared. I found him unwilling to 
listen to any suggestions respecting the object of my visit, as was the other chief, 
Pash-e-pa-ho, the Stabber. There was the same unwillingness to hear anything 
respecting religion, and all made light of it when mentioned in the presence of 
the latter chief. 

"Wapello's village is about ten miles above Keokuk's, is considered to contain 
thirty lodges. He is a notorious drunkard, and his band follows the example 
of their chief. At this village I learned that a man murdered his wife a few 
days before, and then cut off her nose and ears. The Indians are jealous of 
their wives, and if at such times an Indian cuts off the nose or ears of his wife, no 
notice is taken of it. 

"Poweshiek's village is upon the Red Cedar, a branch of the Iowa, about ten 
miles from its mouth. Poweshiek is second chief among the Foxes. The village 
contains about forty lodges and four hundred souls, as Poweshiek informed me. 
He sent one of his young men to inform me I could stay at his lodge, and assigned 
me a place in it. He is about forty years of age, savage in appearance, and very 
much debased, as well as all his band. Still he was more willing to converse than 
either of the chiefs before mentioned. 1 inquired about the instruction of his 
young men. He replied that he would like to have two or three educated for 
interpreters, but he did not want schools, for he wished to have his young men 
warriors. I inquired if he should not like to have his young men to make farms. 
I le answered they could work with a hoe, and did not want a plow; thev chos L - 
rather to hunt for a living than cultivate the ground. He said, 'The Great Spirit 
made us to fight and kill one another when we are a mind to.' I showed some 
young men specimens of Ojibwa writing, and asked if they would not like to have 
some one come and teach them. They answered, 'We do not want to learn : we 
want to kill Sioux." . . . Besides the villages enumerated there are a number 
of others consisting of three or four or half a dozen lodges, some of which 1 

"The Sacs and Foxes are strongly attached to their superstitions; I have seen 
no Indians so much so, and they guard with jealous care against any change. 
Their great object is war and hunting, so as to rank among the braves, wear the 
polecat's tail upon the calves of the legs, and the shau-no-e-hun (small bells ). and 
strike the post in the war dance, and tell the number they have killed in battle. 
To this there are some exceptions. One of the most striking is Appanoose. He 
is young and inspiring, and possesses more independence of mind than any of 
the rest of the chiefs. He expressed a desire to have something done for the 
improvement of his people. . . . 

"Keokuk in years past manifested a desire to have one of his sons educated, 
but his mind has been changed. He is altogether under the influence of the 
traders of the American Fur Company, who are exceedingly hostile to missionary 


operations. At a council, Colonel William Davenport, commanding officer at 
Fort Armstrong, strongly urged upon the chiefs to have missionaries. They 
replied, 'We do not want missionaries.' " 

Another and quite different estimate of the Sac and Fox Indians is found in 
Volume 28, Thwaite's Early Western Travels, in a republication of "Farnham's 
Travels." It is as follows : "For centuries the prairies of Illinois and Iowa were 
the theater of their exterminating prowess, and to them is to be attributed the 
almost entire destruction of the Missouris, the Illinois, Cahokias, Kaskaskias and 
Peorias. They were, however, steady and sincere in their friendships for the 
whites; and many is the honest old settler on the borders of their old dominion, 
who mentions with the warmest feelings, the respectful treatment he has received 
from them, while he cut the logs for his cabin, and ploughed his potato patch on 
that lonely and unprotected frontier." 

As we have already noted, the Black Hawk war brought this part of the 
country into very great and very sudden notoriety. In a few short weeks, from 
a comparatively unknown and untalked of wilderness, it became one of the fore- 
most topics on the lips of many in the south and east who were looking for 
broader acres on which to make better homes. About this time the antiquated 
methods of transportation by flatboats or bateaux was giving way to boats pro- 
pelled by steam power, and this part of the country, because of the Mississippi 
along its entire eastern border and of other great rivers which permeated it, was 
considered especially desirable; for in those days navigable streams were of 
vastly more importance than they are since the advent of the railroad. Many of 
our earliest settlers came from Virginia. Kentucky, Tennessee and states near to or 
bordering on the Ohio river ; and that river was for a while the principal road 
to Iowa. And we may be sure that when the country about the Iowa river was 
first looked upon by the white man, he longed to possess it. We shall leave its 
description to some of those who saw it before it had been disfigured by the 
civilizing hand of man, and when the river itself was unvexed by bridges or dams, 
and the forests along its banks were still strangers to the woodman's ax. One 
of the earliest and most important books which made Iowa known to the world 
is a little book of fifty-three pages, with pasteboard covers, about three by six 
inches, written by Lieutenant Albert M. Lea, of Tennessee, a member of the 
United States Dragoons, and published by Henry S. Tanner, at Philadelphia, in 
1836. This is an extremely rare book, there being probably not more than a dozen 
copies now in existence. The copy from which our extracts are made is the 
property of Mrs. J. L. Kent, of Port Louisa township, and was once owned by 
her father, William Fowler, who came to this county in 1836. and whose auto- 
graph is on the fly leaf of the book. It is in this book where the name of Iowa 
appears to have been first used in print in reference to this part of the country. 
it being called the "Iowa District." The title of the book is "Xotes on Wisconsin 
Territory, with a Map," but practically all of it is devoted to what is called the 
Iowa District. The author states that he had been employed in his professional 
duties for more than a year within the limits of the country referred to, and 
that during that time he had traveled extensively and had collected information 
from surveyors, traders, explorers and residents. 


The information contained in the book may properly be dated as of the year 
[835, and the only towns mentioned as being in this part of what is now Iowa, 
were Keokuk, Madison and Burlington. The place which is now Muscatine was 
called "Kasey's," and it is said that a gentleman of that name intended laying 
out a town there, it being at the head of the Muscatine Slue. Lieutenant Lea 
seemed to think that the proximity of the swamps of Muscatine Island and of 
Sturgeon Bay would tend to create much disease at this point, but was of the 
opinion that it must be in future a place of considerable trade, "being the first 
place above Burlington on the west bank of the river where a town could be built." 
We quote what he says of our immediate vicinity. "There are several sites for 
towns spoken of about the mouth of the Iowa; but none of these places can have 
any importance : as I deem it certain that there can be no town of magnitude 
near the Mississippi, unless it be on the Mississippi, except in very peculiar 
cases, such as that of Galena in the lead mines." 

After describing the geographical situation of the country and its climate 
and soil, the author says : "The general appearance of the country is one of great 
beauty. It may be represented as one grand rolling prairie, along one side of 
which flows the mightiest river in the world, and through which numerous navi- 
gable streams pursue their devious way toward the ocean. In every part of this 
whole district, beautiful rivers and creeks are to be found, whose transparent 
waters are perpetually renewed by the springs from which they flow. . . . 
All these rivers, creeks and lakes are skirted by woods, often several miles in 
width, affording shelter from intense cold or heat to the animals that may there 
take refuge from the contiguous prairies. These woods also afford the timber 
necessary for building houses, fences and boats. ... No part of the district 
is probably more than three miles from, good timber. . . . Taking this dis- 
trict all in all. for convenience of navigation, water, fuel and timber.; for richness 
of soil ; for beauty of appearance ; and for pleasantness of climate, it surpasses 
any portion of the United States with which I am acquainted. . . 

"Could I present to the mind of the reader that view of this country that is 
now before my eyes, he would not deem my assertion unfounded. He would 
see the broad Mississippi with its ten thousand islands, flowing gently and linger- 
ingly along one entire side of this district, as if in regret at leaving so delightful 
a region ; he would see half a dozen navigable rivers taking their sources in dis- 
tant regions, and gradually accumulating their waters as they glide steadily along 
through this favored region to pay their tribute to the great 'Father of Waters ;' 
he would see innumerable creeks and rivulets meandering through rich pasturages, 
where now the domestic ox has taken the place of the untamed bison ; he would 
see here and there neat groves of oak, and elm, and walnut, half shading, half 
concealing beautiful little lakes, that mirror back their waving branches; he 
would see neat looking prairies of two or three miles in extent, and apparently 
enclosed by woods on all sides, and along the borders of which are ranged the 
neat hewed log cabins of the emigrants with their fields stretching far into the 
prairies, where their herds are luxuriating on the native grass ; he would see vil- 
lages springing up, as by magic, along the banks of the rivers, and even far in the 
interior; and he would see the swift moving steamboats, as they ply up and down 
the Mississippi to supply the wants of the settlers, to take awav their surplus 


produce, or to bring an accession to this growing population, anxious to participate 

in the enjoyment of nature's bounties, here so liberally dispensed The 

agricultural productions consist chiefly of maize, wheat, rye, oats and potatoes. 
The large white corn of the south may be produced as far north as Rock Island, 
and yields from fifty to one hundred bushels per acre ; but the yellow flint corn 
grows well anywhere, and yields from forty to seventy-five bushels per acre ; 
the latter is the more certain crop. Wheat is produced with a facility unknown 
except in the west. I have known the sod of the prairie to be simply turned 
over, the seed harrowed in, and thirty bushels per acre to be harvested, r.ut the 
usual crop, after the first, is from twenty-five to forty bushels per acre with 
negligent farming. Oats yield usually from sixty to seventy bushels per acre, 
and seventy-five bushels have been cut at Du Baque. Potatoes grow abundantly 
and are famous throughout the west for their fine quality. . . . 

"The population of the whole district, exclusive of Indians, was about sixteen 
thousand, at the end of 1835, a time little more than two years after the first 
settlement was made. During the year 1835 the chief part of this population 
arrived; and there is every indication of a vast accession during the year 1836. 
Indeed large portions of the states of Ohio, Indiana. Illinois, Kentucky and Mis- 
souri seem to be about to emigrate to this region. There are now here emigrants 
from all these states, and every other state in the Union, as well as many foreign- 
ers. Whole neighborhoods are moving from Indiana and Illinois to this land of 
promise. During a ride of one hundred and fifty miles through the district, 
in the month of January, 1836, I was surprised at the number of improvements 
then being made, for occupation as soon as the warm season should set in. The 
character of this population is such as is rarely to be found in our newly acquired 
territories. With very few exceptions, there is not a more orderly, industrious, 
active, painstaking population west of the Alleghanies than is this of the Iowa 
District. Those who have been accustomed to associate the name of squatter 
with the idea of idleness and recklessness, would be quite surprised to see the 
systematic manner in which everything is here conducted. For intelligence, I 
boldly assert that they are not surpassed, as a body, by an equal number of citizens 
of any country in the world." 

Lieutenant Lea has this interesting statement concerning the government, or 
rather want of government, then existing. "From the 1st of June, 1833, to the 
30th of Tune, 1834, the settlers in this district were without any municipal law- 
whatever. At the latter date congress passed a law attaching it to the Territory 
of Michigan, 'for judicial purposes;' and under that law, the legislative council 
of Michigan extended her laws over the district, dividing it into two counties, and 
providing for the regular administration of justice. But when Michigan deter- 
mined to assume her place as one of the states of the Union, she could no longer 
govern any district as a territory. Accordingly, she cast off what was then called 
Wisconsin, together with this district, directing them to form a government for 
themselves, and providing that her own laws should continue in force until super- 
seded by others. Under this provision, the authorities of Iowa District have 
continued to act; and all the ordinary local business has been regularly tran- 
sacted under the laws of Michigan, though the judge of the district court of the 
United States has refused to consider any cases of appeal taken to his court from 


the west side of the Mississippi. It is a matter of some doubt, in fact, whether 
there be any. law at all among these people: but this question will soon be put at 
rest by the organization of the Territory of Wisconsin, within which the Iowa 
District is by law included." 

Lieutenant Lea seems to have been especially enamored with the Iowa river 
and the country bordering upon it. He quotes Major Gordon, an army officer, 
who passed through this part of the country in August, 1835, as saying that "In 
point of beauty and fertility it is unsurpassed by any portion of the United States," 
and he himself has this to say of the Iowa river: "Iowa river has been usually 
much less esteemed than its advantages deserve. It is the largest tributary of the 
Mississippi above the Illinois, ami probably affords more water than that river. 
It takes its rise among the innumerable lakes in the high flat country which 
divides the waters which run northwest into the Saint Peter's river, from those 
which run southeast into the Mississippi. This high country is a continuation of 
that which, being intersected by the action of the current, overhangs the Mis- 
sissippi below Lake Pepin, and is there called 'The Highlands.' Having its source 
in these lakes, the river is perennially supplied with pure and limpid water, and 
as it meanders its way for three hundred miles to the Father of Waters, receiving 
large tributary streams, as it moves along through rich meadows, deep forests, pro- 
jecting cliffs, and sloping landscapes, it presents to the imagination the finest pic- 
ture on earth of a country prepared by Providence for the habitation of man." 

But Lieutenant Lea was not the only one who was charmed with the beauties 
of the country, or whose praises were printed in advertisement of it. Many of 
the pioneers wrote back to their friends and relatives telling them what was here, 
and bidding them to come: and nearly every traveler wrote his home folks, or 
his home papers in the same vein. One of the most flowery descriptions that 
we have come across is contained in a little book written by Rev. James L. Scott, 
containing the journal of his missionary tour through Pennsylvania, Ohio. In- 
diana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin and Michigan, and which on the title page is 
said to comprise "A concise description of different sections of country: health 
and climate ; inducements for emigration with the embarrassments ; the religious 
condition of the people; meetings connected with the mission, etc." As the 
destination of Rev. Scott was Fredonia, in this county, we will have occasion 
to refer to his book later on, his visit having cccurred in 1842. We refer to the 
book now for the purpose of giving the following description of the countrv as 
he saw it. 

"Well, reader, follow a short time and we will survey the country. We walk 
through a dense forest of large trees, interspersed with the smaller productions of 
nature. The ground is covered with green grass, through which the lily, the pink, 
wild rose and almost every variety of flowers shoot and open their blossoms. 
We now and then rise a bluff, pass a ravine, cross a rippling brook, and sip from 
the cold spring the pure water to allay our thirst. 

"Charmed by the beauties of nature, and the wonders of the forest, we breathe 
the sweet air, and are greeted by the warbling notes of the songsters of the wood, 
that hop from branch to branch, and pour forth their mingled strains upon the 


listening group, until we emerge from this scene, and leaving the forest, stand 
upon an unbounded prairie. 

"The prairie is sufficiently undulating to present a lively scene, and each undu- 
lation wafts the vision on with increased velocity and enchanting power. 

"The green carpet, — never-to-be-described clusters of flowers, — the prairie 
hen, rising and falling into this and that bed, — the snipe, with his chattering bill, 
— the turkey buzzard, floating carelessly in the air, — the sand-hill crane strutting 
around. — the yelping wolf as he slips along from bank to bank, and add to this 
the enlivening notes of the feathered songsters, and who could help being 
enchanted ?" 

Another graceful tribute to this country was paid by the Rev. Asa Turner, 
a noted pioneer preacher, and an early settler of Denmark, in Des Moines county, 
who explored the Black Hawk Purchase in 1836 as far up as Crow creek, in 
Scott county. His report to the Home Missionary officials in New York city was 
that he could find but one objection to the country, viz : "It is so beautiful, there 
might be an unwillingness to exchange it for the Paradise above." Father Turner 
was pastor of the first Congregational church in Iowa, and was the first regularly 
installed pastor of any denomination in the Territory of Iowa, and he devoted 
many years to educational and Christian work, before departing for the ''Para- 
dise above." 

We find one army officer, however, Colonel George Crogan, inspector general 
of the army, who was neither in favor of an immediate settlement of the country, 
nor inclined to speak a good word for those who had already taken up claims. 
Colonel Crogan was sent out in the winter of 1835-6, and in his report, referring 
to a bill that had been introduced in congress to lay out a road between old Fort 
Des Moines and Fort Leavenworth, says : "There is now already too much 
traveling between the several forts for the quiet of the frontier ; and good roads 
would only increase the evil by opening the whole territory to the ravenous 
appetites of lawless vagabonds and more greedy land speculators. Already has 
this description of persons began to talk about the fine lands on the Ioway and 
Des Moines, and perhaps before two years are gone by they will be crying aloud 
for a new territory on that side of the Mississippi." Colonel Crogan may have 
had an erroneous opinion of the settlers as a class, but his fears as to the probable 
"crying aloud for a new territory" proved to be well founded. 

Local government was first organized here by virtue of the act of the gover- 
nor and legislative council of Michigan, of September 6. 1834, entitled An Act 
to Lay Off and Organize Counties West of the Mississippi River. It provided 
that all of that district of the country which was attached to Michigan Territory 
by the act of congress, of June 28, 1834, and to which the Indians title had been 
extinguished and which was situated north of a line drawn due west from the 
lower end of Rock Island to the Missouri river, should constitute the county of 
Dubuque, and that that county should constitute a township called Julien. Sec- 
tion 2 provided that all that part of the district aforesaid, which was attached as 
■aforesaid to the Territory of Michigan, and situated south of the line drawn west 
from the lower end of Rock Island, should constitute the county and be called 
Demoine, and that this county should constitute a township to be called Flint Hill. 


Provision was made for the establishment of a county court and court was 
to be held in Demoine county on the second Mondays in April and September. 
Permission was given to the inhabitants of said townships to hold an election for 
township officers on the first Monday in November following, the elections in 
the county of Demoine to be held at the seat of justice, the place of which was 
to be designated by the judges of the county court. The act itself was to take 
effect from and after the first day of October. 

Officers were appointed for Des Moines county by Governor Mason, and 
that county was duly organized, but we know of nothing of consequence which 
happened while "we" were under the jurisdiction of Des Moines county. 




It is always a difficult matter to determine when the first settlements in a 
country were made and by whom they were made, and Louisa county is no excep- 
tion to the rule. For instance, in the Wapello Republican of October 26, 1867, 
is the following- item- "Last Sunday we saw the oldest log cabin in Louisa county. 
It stands near the Toolesboro and Grandview road, in Port Louisa township, and 
was built some thirty-five years ago." 

By a little plain subtraction the date of the erection of this cabin is thus given 
at the year 1832. This is something like three years earlier than the date given 
by all the other authorities, as the date of the first permanent settlement here. 

Lieutenant Albert M. Lea in an article in "Iowa Historical Records, Vol. 6," 
relates that during a very cold spell in the month of February, 1836, in making a 
trip overland along the river, he stopped at the "raw village" of Burlington one 
night, and next day reached the mouth of the Iowa river at dark. He says that 
he was refused shelter in the only house there at the time, which was occupied 
by a drinking crowd of men and women and that he was obliged to go up the nar- 
row, crooked river (the Iowa) on the ice, which was but four inches thick, and 
with three inches of snow on it, four miles to a snug cabin on the north side, 
where he arrived at nine o'clock at night. This cabin was undoubtedly the 
residence of Christopher Shuck, who is now, and has for many years been 
regarded as the first permanent settler of the county. This settlement was some- 
where not far from the farm upon which T. M. Parsons, familiarly known as 
"Thomps," spent the most of his days. 

Of his reception at this cabin. Lieutenant Lea says : "They received me 
kindly, gave me supper and a sleep with the hired man, the other two beds being 
occupied by the squatter and wife and many children, grown daughters included, 
the cook stove being in the fourth comer, and yet we were all comfortable, and 
as gay at breakfast as if feasting at a wedding." 

William L. Toole, who was himself among the earliest settlers in the county, 
in an article published in the "Annals of Iowa," for January, 1868, states that 
the first occupancy of Louisa county was in the year 1835, at an d near the mouth 
of the Iowa river and near the ancient mounds and fort ; also near the Indian 
villages of Keokuk, Wapello and Black Hawk. He includes the name of Shuck 
among those of the very early settlers. He says : "Among the early settlers 
hereabouts we had the names of Harrison, Creighton. Deihl, Toole, McCleary, 



Thornton, Parsons, Benson and Shuck, and soon afterwards, Cook, Hale, Guest, 
Crow, Isett, Bell, Bird and Judge Springer." 

The same date for the first settlement of the county is given by Francis 
Springer in his "Recollections" published in the "Annals," Third series, Vol. 2; 
and a similar statement was made by Colonel John Bird, also an early settler, in 
an address delivered at the first meeting of the Old Settlers' Association, in this 
county, which was held at Wapello, February 22, i860. 

James Thornton, of Ashland, Oregon, now in his eighty-fifth year, in 1910 
wrote an article concerning early times, which was published in the Muscatine 
Tournal, and is reproduced in the history of Muscatine county, published by the 
S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, of Chicago. This James Thornton was a son 
of Levi Thornton, who was one of the first representatives from Louisa and 
the adjoining counties, having been elected in 1838. In this article James 
Thornton says that his father and his two brothers. Err Thornton and Lot Thorn- 
ton, with their mother and sister, started from Lafayette, Indiana, in the spring 
of 1835, and came to New Boston, where they resided with a cousin named 
Jesse Willetts, and there planted some thirty acres of sod corn. After this they 
decided to take up claims in the Black Hawk Purchase, and in June of 1835, the 
three brothers, with two other men, whose names are not given, crossed the 
.Mississippi at the mouth of the Iowa. He says there was then a farmer there 
by the name of Shook and this is the only settler spoken of in the article as 
being located anywhere in this county. From there the Thornton party proceeded 
up the bluff, all locating in the vicinity of Whiskey Hollow, the claim taken up 
by Levi Thornton being now a part of the Dan Westbrook farm. The party then 
went up the river to Pine creek and took the steamer back to New Boston ; Pine 
creek, or Pine river, where it empties into the Mississippi, is the place called 
Iowa in Lieutenant Lea's book, and it will be interesting in this connection to 
note something of what he says about that locality: "Iowa. This is the name 
of a town to be laid out at the mouth of Pine river about three hundred and 
thirty miles above St. Louis. From this situation at the apex of a great bend 
in the Mississippi, it is central to a large district of country, and the near 
approach of the Iowa just back of it. brings all the settlements along a great 
part of that stream within a short distance of this place." Further on in the same 
article. Lieutenant Lea indicates that he expects Iowa to be made a county seat 
and probably the location of the future capital of the state of Iowa. In a very 
interesting little book called "Scraps of Muscatine History," by J. P. Walton, 
we find that he visited Err Thornton in 1891 and that at that time Err Thornton 
said the Thorntons first came over from New Boston in the spring of 1834 or 
1835, but he was not certain which, and Mr. Walton states that he finds by history 
that it was in 1834, though he does not give his authority. We quote from an 
article prepared by Mr. Walton in July, 1891, as follows: "I have just made a 
trip across the river and called on Hon. Err Thornton, who lives some five miles 
southeast of here, in Drury township. His postoffice address is Foster. I was 
in company with John Holliday, an old acquaintance of Mr. Thornton. Both 
of them came from Tippecanoe county. Indiana, and were old acquaintances 
before coming here. Mr. Thornton was eighty-four years old yesterday, the 
22d. John Holliday is eighty-five years old. Mr. Thornton says that himself, 
his brother Lot and several others came west and stopped near New- Boston. 

< JYtx 






Illinois, in the spring of 1834 or 1835, he is not certain which (we find hy other 
history that it was in 1834), and on the fifth day of June he and his brother Lot 
and three others, five in all, crossed the Mississippi river at New Bjston to 
look for land. They crossed over to Black Hawk, now Toolesboro, and started 
north. They were joined by a man by the name of Fisher, who belonged to a 
religious sect called Seceders, and had been over in Louisa county making claims. 
Acting as their pilot, he took them up about where Grandview now stands and 
said that they were then up to the north line of their claims. ( I think such a sect 
settled west of the Iowa river near Columbus City ; possibly some may have 
located east of the river). He said they could have all the land they wanted north 
of that place. Bidding them good-by he left them. While traveling north in 
the bottom in the rear of the present Port Louisa, they found a Mr. Kennedy 
and family, a brother of the present William Kennedy of Louisa county, who 
were camped for the day, boiling coffee, and they treated our party very kindly. 
They then traveled north to where they afterwards took their claims near Whis- 
key Hollow. Here was a fine bottom, with plenty of timber — an indispensable 
article for the pioneer settler. They concluded to investigate the extent of the 
timber, so they started up Whiskey Hollow and came out to the prairie some 
where near where the railroad goes out. It was then night. They cut some 
brush to make beds of and lighted a fire on an old white oak log. In the night 
Thornton was awakened by distant thunder. He aroused the others and they had 
but time to draw on their boots and get each to his tree before the storm came. 
While hugging to the lee of their trees, their fire blew to a great distance and 
they thought they had lost it all; (a very serious loss when it had to be lighted 
with flint and steel), but by good fortune some remained in a knot hole, from 
which they rebuilt another. As soon as it was light enough (about three o'clock) 
they started on their way. They traveled along the timber until they struck an 
Indian trail that led them down the bluff some five miles west of our city. Here 
they found an Indian's wickiup. The Indian, with his squaw and two or three 
pappooses. were planting corn." 

The Indian name for corn was tomanock, and as the early settlers found a 
number of Indian cornfields when they came here, it will be well worth while 
to preserve in this connection an account of their way of planting corn as related 
by Mr. Walton in the book before referred to: "They made their hills three 
or four feet apart, without any regularity whatever, possibly using the same 
ground and the same hill that their predecessors had done for ages before. In 
the spring at planting time, they removed the weeds, usually carrying them out 
of the field, and dug up the top of the hill and planted their corn. In tilling 
thev would always scrape the earth up to the corn. This manner of tillage kept 
the hill identical for year after year. I have often thought that this system of 
growing corn, or these perpetual hills, gave rise to the term, 'hill of corn.' 1 
think that the white man borrowed the term when he borrowed the corn. The 
corn thev raised was a variety of eight-rowed corn ; we knew it by the name of 
'squaw corn' and raised it for several years for green corn. It was blue in color ; 
when ripe it was quite soft, and when crushed was white and flowery. It produced 
fairlv well : I think thirtv or forty bushels could have been gathered from an 


It may be, of course, that there were permanent settlements in this county 
in the year 1834 but this is certainly the earliest date which can be assigned for 
any permanent settlement, and there were likely not more than three or four 
such settlements within the entire limits of the county that vear. It is possible 
that the old cabin referred to by the Wapello Republican was erected bv the 
Mr. Kennedy spoken of by Err Thornton. This was John Kennedy, a brother 
of William Kennedy, the latter having been a very prominent figure in the early 
settlement of the county. He is said to have settled here in 1836. 

The first government sale of land in this county was not till November, 1838, 
and for that reason we have no public land records regarding the ownership 
and transfer of the various tracts and claims prior to the winter of 1838. The 
earliest official record of any kind which gives the names of the early settlers in 
this part of the country is that of the census which was taken in July, 1836. 
This census was taken in pursuance of the act of congress organizing Wisconsin 
Territory and was made by Solomon Perkins, who styles himself "sheriff and 
censor, D. C. W. T.," Mr. Perkins being at that time sheriff of Des Moines county, 
Wisconsin Territory, of which Louisa county was then a part. There is nothing 
in the census as recorded to show where the various persons resided, except as 
to Burlington, and perhaps as to Van Buren county, it being described as in the 
"western part" of Des Moines county. This census shows the name of the head 
of each family and opposite the name of the head of the family is given the 
number of males under twenty-one and over twenty-one, the number of females 
under twenty-one and over twenty-one ; and the total number in the family is 
also carried out. 

The following list appears by itself on page 5 of the census and was taken 
by Zadok C. Inghram, as assistant to Sheriff Perkins, and we give it with his 


Isaac Parsons 4 

John H. Benson 2 

William L. Toole 

Orien Briggs 2 

Christopher Shuck 4 

Elias Keever 

William Dunbar 

James A. Campbell 1 

James Magers 

John McClung 3 

John Ranken 1 

James Erwin 2 

John Reynolds 1 

Thomas Kellow 

Robert Childers 3 

George Umphrey 5 

Abraham McClary 

Levi Thornton 4 



2\ Over 1 

1 Undei 


Over 2 

1 Total 







































































Err Thornton 

Silas Richardson 

Nathaniel Parson 4 

Samuel Shortridge 3 

Thomas Starks 1 

William McClaren 4 

Joseph Crane 

Thomas M. Crane 

Samuel L. Crane 

William Starks 1 

Isaac Lathrop 1 

John Cobb 1 

Silas Lathrop 2 

James W. Casey 

John Yanetty 

Thomas Burdett 

Adison Reynolds 

Eli Reynolds 1 

James Davis 

John W. Furgason 2 



Over 2 

1 Under 21 Over 2 

1 Tot 




1 1 



3 1 

1 1 


1 1 



2 1 



2 1 



2 1 





1 1 



2 1 



1 1 



2 1 



3 1 





2 I 





2 I 













It appears from the census of Burlington that Zadok C. Inghram was then 
residing in Burlington. 

The most if not all of the following names appear in that part of the census 
book as having been taken by J. & J. Inghram, assistants to Sheriff Perkins: 

Males Females 

Under 21 Over 21 Under 21 Over 21 Total 

Reuben Westfall 3 

David G. Blair 

Thomas Blair 

Allen Elliot 

William Dupont 

Reuben C. Mason 3 

Phillip Mascle 

Phillip B. Harrison 

Joseph Derben 

John Spence 

Jacob Rinearson 

Isaac Rinearson 

Robert Williams 

Wright Williams 

Rolla Driskall 

James Hatcher 

Gideon B. Alexander 

Thomas Stoddard 










































21 Over 21 




Over 2 

i Total 













































Joshua Swank 4 

Westley Swank 

William Milligan 5 

David Russell 

William Creighton I 

Rufus P. Burlingame 

Hannah Smith 3 

Jeremiah Smith. Sr 7 

Samuel Smith , 1 

James C. Reed 

James Crntchfield 4 

Jackson Dolahite 1 

In the list of names as taken by Zadok C. Inghram we find a number of very 
early settlers of Muscatine county and among the names thus taken by I. & J. 
Inghram. our information is that the Westfalls and the Blairs. possibly some 
others, lived about the vicinity of Northfield, which is now in Des Moines county, 
and some of the others lived in the neighborhood of Augusta at that time. This 
we know to be true of James Crutchfield, and it is possibly true of some of the 
others whose names appear in connection with his. \\'e have endeavored to 
give in a separate chapter an account of the earliest settlements that were made 
in various parts of the county. 

Late in the year 1835 and early in 1836 there had been much agitation both 
on the east and west side of the Mississippi river for the formation of a new 
territory. The people found by the decisions of the courts that they were almost 
entirely without the pale of civilized government, the courts having decided in 
one or two early murder cases that they had no jurisdiction to try or punish 
such offenders. We find in Dr. Shambaugh's "History of the Constitutions." 
page -$, an extract from a memorial to congress adopted about this time by the 
territorial legislature of Michigan, as follows: "According to the decision of 
our federal court, the population west of the Mississippi are not within its 
jurisdiction, a decision which is presumed to be in accordance with the delegated 
power of the court and the acknowledged laws of the land; but that ten or 
twelve thousand freemen, citizens of the United States, living in its territory, 
should be unprotected in their lives and property, by its courts of civil and 
criminal jurisdiction, is an anomaly unparalled in the annals of republican legis- 
lation. The immediate attention of congress to this subject is of vital importance 
to the people west of the Mississippi." 

In presenting this memorial in the senate. Senator Clayton, of Delaware, 
referred to a recent murder in Dubuque, where the murderers had been arrested 
but bad been discharged by the court. Judge David Trvin presiding, for lack of 
jurisdiction, and Mr. Clayton contended with much force that congress ought 
not to permit this state of things to exist. As a result of this agitation the 
territorial government of Wisconsin was created by an act approved April 20, 
1836. The new territory of Wisconsin included the present state of Iowa and 
much other country not necessary to describe. It was to have a governor and a 
legislative assembly to consist of a council and house of representatives, the 


council to be composed of thirteen members and the house, twenty-six members, 
it was provided that previous to the first election the governor should cause a 
census of the inhabitants of the several counties to be taken by the sheriffs thereof 
and returns made to the governor, and that the election should be held at such 
time and place and be conducted in such manner as the governor should direct. 
It was also provided that the governor should declare the number of members 
of the council and house of representatives to which each county should be en- 
titled, and the governor was required to declare who had been duly elected to 
the two houses, and to order new elections in cases where there was a tie. It 
was also provided that after the legislative assembly should meet, these various 
matters, including the apportionment of representation in the several counties, 
should be prescribed by law. The governor was empowered to nominate, and 
with the consent of the council, to appoint all judicial officers, justices of the 
peace, sheriffs and certain militia officers and all civil officers not provided for 
in the organic act, but it was provided that township and county officers should 
be elected by the people. The judicial power was vested in a supreme court, 
district courts, probate courts and in justices of the peace, the jurisdiction of 
the latter not to extend to disputes over land titles, or where the amount claimed 
exceeded $50. 

Section 12 of this act is as follows : "And be it further enacted, That the 
inhabitants of the said territory shall be entitled to, and enjoy, all and singular 
the rights, privileges and advantages, granted and secured to the people of the 
territory of the United States northwest of the river Ohio, by the articles of the 
compact contained in the ordinance for the government of the said territory, 
passed on the thirteenth day of July, one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
seven ; and shall be subject to all the conditions and restrictions and prohibitions 
in said articles of compact imposed upon the people of the said territory. The 
said inhabitants shall also be entitled to all the rights, privileges and immunities, 
heretofore granted and secured to the territory of Michigan, and to its inhabitants, 
and the existing laws of the territory of Michigan shall be extended over said 
territory, so far as the same shall not be incompatible with the provisions of this 
act, subject, nevertheless, to be altered, modified, or repealed, by the governor 
and legislative assembly of the said territory of Wisconsin ; and further, the 
laws of the United States are hereby extended over, and shall be in force in, 
said territory, so far as the same, or any provisions thereof, may be applicable." 

The census which was taken under this act, and to which we have before 
referred, showed the population of Demoine county to be 6,257, and Dubuque 
county, 4,274, while the population of the four Wisconsin counties east of the 
Mississippi river aggregated 11,687. Demoine county, of which this county was 
then a part, was much the most populous county in the territory and in the ap- 
portionment of members of the legislative assembly it became entitled to three 
members of the council and seven members of the house, and at the election on 
the second Monday in October, 1836, Arthur B. Inghram, Joseph B. Teas and 
Jeremiah Smith were elected to the council, and David R. Chance, John Box, 
Thomas Blair, Isaac Leffler, Warren L. Jenkins, Eli Reynolds and George W. 
Teas were elected to the house of representatives. 

This immediate part of the country continued to be a part of Des Moines 
county until the establishment and organization of Louisa county. This, as we 


shall see later, was done by act of the Wisconsin legislature, approved December 
6, 1836. 

Meanwhile the fame of the I Hack I lawk Purchase had been spreading. New 
settlers were constantly invading the "Iowa District." Some came in boats, by 
the Ohio and the Mississippi. < (thers a little later, came by the Great Lakes 
and across country : but thousands came in "prairie schooners" by the overland 
route. A few were well supplied with money, and some had a goodly number' 
of horses and cattle, but in most cases the team, wagon and contents, represented 
the sum total of the family's worldly possessions. Each brought with him, as 
his chief implements of state-craft, an axe and an augur, a froe and mallet, a 
plow, a log chain, and a shovel. The covered wagon afforded shelter by clay, 
and lodging by night, and the cooking was done on the ground, and their journey 
often required two months. 

Occasionally there would be a family making their long trip with one ox, 
hitched in the thills of a two-wheeled cart, in which they carried a mat for a 
bed, and a few boxes. All were actuated by the same purpose. All were seek- 
ing new homes where the prairies promised the richest harvest, and where the 
forests furnished timber for the cabin, and fuel for the fire-place. They were 
seeking those "gardens of the wilderness, boundless and beautiful, untouched by 
the ruthless hand of man." and "smiling in all the freshness of primeval beauty." 

These families came from many states, from the south and the north, from 
Virginia and Pennsylvania, from Ohio and Kentucky, from Tennessee and 
Indiana, from Xew England and New York. They came from all walks of 
life. They represented all shades of political opinion and religious belief. They 
exemplified all phases and conditions of American citizenship — the good, bad 
and indifferent. The new settler did not come as an alien, to a new sovereignty; 
he came as a citizen of the republic, seeking a new domicil in a land of abundant 
opportunity, and ample elbow room. At the outset the important question was 
how to obtain a title. True, the Indian title had been extinguished, but the 
which had not been surveyed, on penalty of forfeiture of all rights or claims, 
lands had not been surveyed by the government, nor thrown open to settle- 
and with the liability of being forcibly removed. 

By the summer of 1838, Basil Bently had surveyed township 73 north, as 
far west as range 6, and William Lee D. Ewing had surveyed townships 74 and 
75, as far west as range 7. In 1837. while these surveys were going on. Sur- 
veyor General Lytle. in his instructions to some of the surveyors in the field, 
said : "As it is probable that congress at its next session will pass a preemption 
law, you are instructed to tiote. in your surveying, the improvements upon the 
public lands, their situation, and the names of the claimants. This information 
is important the better to enable the land office to decide who are entitled to 
preemptions." We will see later how little the land office had to do with 
"deciding" these questions. 

The first land sale at Burlington, began on November 19. 1838. and the only 
Louisa count)- lands sold at that time, were in township jt,. in range 4 and 5; at 
the next sale, October 26, 1839, township 74, range 3 was offered, and the re- 
mainder was not offered until March. 1840. But the pioneers had not waited 
for the land surveys, or the sales. The lands were there, the Indian's right to 
possession had ceased, and the settlers were ready to improve them, and did not 


purpose to await the action of congress. They decided to make a few laws of 
their own, believing that they could do so fully as well, and with much less 
parliamentary circumlocution than their servants at Washington. 


Tt was a trying situation that confronted these men. Their occupancy of the 
land was in defiance of law, and they had no section numbers by which to 
identify or describe their possessions, nor any means of knowing where the 
lines would come. It is difficult for us, with our present day ideas of law. and 
our absolute reliance on record titles, to understand the anomalous and chaotic 
situation which confronted our forefathers, or to fully appreciate the bold and 
businesslike manner in which they met it. We shall find that they established a 
"government of the people, by the people, and for the people :" that, so far as 
the settlement extended, organizations were formed, and laws and rules were 
made and enforced. These settler-made laws, founded in necessity and based 
on justice, had higher sanction, and greater excuse for their existence, than 
many judge-made laws of a much later date. It is not probable that they had 
any fear that congress would ever permit, much less compel, them to be dis- 
turbed in their possessions. They knew that congress had, in several special 
cases, granted preemption rights to actual settlers, and they believed that a 
general preemption law would soon be passed. They also could place some 
reliance upon the precedent just then established by congress, by the act of 
Tuly 2, 1836, for laying off Fort Madison, Burlington, Dubuque, etc., which gave 
the preference in the sales of lots to all persons, "who shall have, by building or 
enclosure, actually occupied or improved any lot or lots in the said towns," etc. 

Lieutenant Lea is an excellent authority on such matters, having traveled 
extensively throughout the Black Hawk Purchase during the days of its early 
settlement. He says : "In the District generally, the land titles are in an 
anomalous condition. The country was freed from its Indian occupants in 
1833; hundreds immediately flocked in. each selecting such place as suited him 
best, and each respecting the premises of those who had preceded him. It is 
now clearly understood what improvement it takes to constitute a claim to any 
portion of these lands; and a claim to a farm, regularly established, is just as 
.good, for the time being, as if the occupant had the government patent for it. 
An emigrant comes into the country ; he looks around him, and finds a situation 
that pleases him; here, he says, 'I will make an improvement;' and forthwith 
he goes to work, builds a house, fences a piece of ground, plows and plants it ; 
he stakes out his half a section of land, one quarter section probably being wood- 
land, and the other quarter being prairie ; and then his home is secure from 
trespass by any one whatever, until the government shall think proper to prefer 
its claims. If he think proper to sell his claim, he is at perfect liberty to do so; 
and the purchaser succeeds to all the rights of the first settler. It is usual in 
such sales, for the purchaser to take a bond of the previous occupant, to trans- 
fer any right that the latter may acquire, in consequence of his previous occu- 
pancy, under the operation of the laws of the United States relative to occupant 


"Where towns are laid out, as it is not expected that each holder of a lot 
would he able to obtain a separate title from the government, it is arranged that 
the proprietor shall secure the fee simple title, in his own name, for the whole 
site, by the best means in his power ; and he gives his bond to make a title to 
the purchaser, whenever he shall have secured it to himself. 

"The people of this whole District have entered into an agreement to sup- 
port each other in their claims, against any unjust action of the government, or 
against any attempt at improper speculation by capitalists at a distance. And 
those who know the potency of such leagues, will feel perfectly assured, that 
whatever is protected by this one. will be safe from molestation." 

Few of the records of these early organizations have come to light, and it 
may well be doubted if many of them had written records other than the list of 
those entitled to claims in each congressional township. The records of two 
such organization-,, however, are in existence, one of them being a Johnson 
county association, and the other, a club having its headquarters at Fort Dodge ; 
and their constitution and by-laws show a very complete and elaborate system 
of rules and regulations. It may be asked by some what evidence there is of 
the existence of any such organizations or the enforcement of any such laws in 
Louisa county. There is ample evidence to this effect. In the first place, the 
statement of Lieutenant Lea seems to apply to the Iowa district generally. Also 
Mr. Newhal] in his "Sketches of Iowa" evidently means the same thing. He 
says: "In order to prevent unpleasant litigation and to keep up a spirit of har- 
mony amongst neighbors, and the better to protect them in their equitable rights 
of claim purchase, each township has its own organization generally throughout 
the territory, etc." 

Mr. Xewhall then goes on to say that a called meeting is usually the first 
step and that at this meeting after a short preamble, resolutions are adopted 
and a register appointed, whose duty it is to record the name of each claimant, 
describing his particular claim, and that a bidder is also appointed, whose duty 
it shall be at the sale to bid off the land registered in the name of each respective 

Concerning this kind of law, Mr. Newhall has this to say : "Although claim 
law is no law derived from the LInited States, or from the statute book of the 
territory, yet it nevertheless is the law made by and derived from the sovereigns 
themselves, and its mandates are imperative." 

In his recollections, published in the "Annals" for January. 1897, Francis 
Springer, in speaking of the early courts of Louisa county refers to the claim 
courts in this way: "Referring to early courts, I may speak of a sort of pro- 
visional court organized by settlers in congressional townships of government 
lands prior to being first offered for sale — which would be at public auction, 
at a minimum price of $1.25 per acre. In order to settle claim controversies 
that might occur among the settlers, and to prevent adverse bidding at the land 
sales, a 'township claim committee' was appointed, composed of three capable 
men (of the settlers) whose duty it was to hear and decide upon all contested 
claims. The parties on due notice would appear before the committee (some- 
times with attorney) make their statements, present their proofs, when, after 
hearing the case, a decision would be made, and whichever way it went the 
losing party was bound by honor and the unwritten law of the township to 



Wk .^.//////«^ Syr 

■—- r*« 




ASTOE. 1 l 

8 L 


acquiesce in it. He knew he must do this, or expect rough handling at the land 
sales from the settlers who would be present in force, one of them acting as 
township bidder for all, as the tracts were called by the register of the land 
office, giving the name of the settler entitled. The tracts were called and struck 
off with great rapidity. It would have been dangerous for any one (settler or 
outsider) to make a bid against the township bidder. This was well understood.*' 

We may suppose that the same custom which prevailed in Des Moines county 
also prevailed in this county, and for that reason the statement of Dr. C. A. 
White, an earlv resident of Burlington, will be interesting. In an article on 
"Early Homes and Home Makers of Iowa," in the "Annals" for October, 1899, 
Dr. White, after referring to these settler organizations and their method of 
quit claiming lands before the government land sales, says: "The chief agency 
of the agreement for mutual protection and the execution of the provisional 
system of real-estate transfer was an organization called the Squatters' Club, 
which had its headquarters at Burlington. Every proved holder of a claim upon 
government land or a town lot was eligible to membership whether he was the 
original squatter upon his claim or had purchased it from one. The club made 
regulations which had all the force of laws because the members yielded willing 
obedience ; and it also acted as arbiter in such disputes as might arise between 
members concerning claims upon other than their already recorded parcels. The 
members were pledged to protect one another in the tenure of their approved 
claims, in the transfer of the same if they should desire to sell, and against 
overbidding at the approaching government sale. They also protected one an- 
other, as far as possible, in those cases of ruinously extortionate interest which 
was charged by the 'land sharks' to every poor squatter who had to borrow 
money to eke out the payment of government price for his land. But most of 
these cases could not be remedied, and the squatter lost his claim or sold it at 
a sacrifice to obtain enough money to start again as an emigrant and make a 
new claim farther west. I do not certainly know the date of organization of the 
club, but I am confident it was not later than early autumn of 1836. My father 
became a member of it in 1838, he having bought a squatter's claim to eighty 
acres of land near Burlington and a building lot in the town ; and many mem- 
bers of the club thus became personally known to me. He once admitted to me 
that the club was a secret society, and I have no doubt that their compact was con- 
firmed by solemn oath." 

But it is not probable that the making of these claim laws was done by the 
settlers at first, nor that it could have been accomplished at all until shown to be 
necessary by the continued influx of newcomers and the numerous disputes and 
quarrels that occurred over claim locations. More than one tradition has come 
down to us of cabins destroyed and lives endangered in this county by these 
land quarrels ; but the particulars cannot be obtained with any certainty. 

A noted encounter occurred just a few miles southwest of Wapello, near 
the sand mounds in Ed Jamison's field : this has sometimes been called the "Joy 
War" and was participated in by Angelo Driskall, the Joys, Gregorys, Lewins 
and some others. A few shots were fired, but no one seems to have been hurt. 
Mrs. McDill relates an interesting story of a supposed attempt at claim jump- 
ing in the early days. It seems that a Mr. Erwin took a liking to a piece of 
land in the William Kennedy neighborhood, and went over and plowed a furrow 


around the part that he wanted in order to indicate that he laid claim to it. 
The land around which the furrow was plowed was a part of William Kennedy's 
claim. That night the settlers in the neighborhood, of whom Mrs. McDill's 
father. John Ronalds, 'was one. got together and went out and turned back the 
sod in the furrow which Mr. Erwin had made. It seems that this was notice 
enough to Mr. Erwin and he made no further claim to the land. 

William L. Toole, in the "Annals" for January, 1868, in speaking of the 
country about Toolesboro and Wapello says: "In this location, as in others, 
great strife and contention was kept up here in those early days, through con- 
flicting interest in claims or the encroachments of unprincipled adventurers. 
Cabins were burned, torn down or unroofed, and the lives of persons frequently 
in jeopardy in consequence of these contentions for claims. At one time in 
1836, contending parties numbering some twenty or thirty on each side met near 
here on a disputed piece of land, armed with guns, pistols, knives, etc., intending 
to decide the right of possession by a battle, the victors to be the possessors. 
Fortunately, however, a worthy and peaceable old gentleman, E. Hook, with 
some two or three other persons, friendly with both parties, appeared on the 
battleground, and by their influence prevented a commencement of the conflict, 
otherwise blood would have been shed on this occasion, and perhaps lives lost. 
Serious difficulties like this often occurred in regard to ownership of claims, 
and sometimes occurrences or cases in regard to claims occurred which were 
more amusing than serious. One I will state wherein a defeated party, through 
our claim law or regulations refused to leave or give possession of a cabin 
thereon, and the successful party with a few friends kindly took the opposing 
individual out of the cabin and carried him from the premises, notwithstanding 
his struggling, kicking and threatening, greatly to the amusement of the 
lookers-on, but he finally made a virtue of necessity and submitted to our claim 
laws, and was protected afterward himself by these claim laws in a claim diffi- 
culty. These difficulties continued more or less until the public sale of land by 
the government. Just previous to the public sale all disputes and difficulties 
concerning claims were amicably arranged, and the settlers entered into a league 
for common protection and opposition to speculators, then secured their claims 
and went on prospering and, making comfortable homes." 

Lung before the land sales, hard times prevailed not only on the frontier but 
all over the country. This was about the time of the panic, brought on either 
by President Jackson or the banks, or both, when it was almost impossible to 
get gold or silver and when the banks were failing so fast that paper money 
was a dangerous commodity. It was even impossible for the government in 
June. 1837, to get specie with which to make the payments due the Sac and Fox 
Indians under the treaties made with them. And this fact caused great dis- 
satisfaction among the Indians and came very near leading to hostilities in the 
neighborhood of Burlington and in and about the forks of the Iowa and Cedar 
rivers. Rut among the earlv settlers times were much harder than anywhere 
else in the country, for the reason that, beginning a long time before the land 
-ales, every settler sacredly hoarded every dollar that he could get. so that he 
would be able to pay for his home when the time came to buy it. When the 
land sales came at Burlington, the settlers from all this part of the Black Hawk 
Purchase assembled there. We may suppose that nearly the entire male popu- 


lation of Louisa county took up their abode in Burlington for several days at 
that time. The hotels would not begin to hold the people. Bar rooms, dining 
rooms, kitchens, and even wagons, were converted into bedrooms to accommo- 
date the vast crowd of people gathered there to buy what they called their own 

As both Mr. Newhall anil Dr. White attended these land sales, we will let 
them describe them: Dr. White says of the land sales: "The crucial test of 
the squatters' compact was to come at the time of the government land sales, 
and it did come then. The club prepared an engrossed copy of its list of mem- 
bers with the descriptive formula of each member's claim opposite his name. 
They then appointed a public bidder who should, with this list in hand, in the 
presence of the settlers assembled at the sale, bid off each parcel or lot in the 
name of its recognized claimant the instant it was offered by the register. No 
other bids were to be allowed, and even the claimant himself, if he were present, 
was required to remain silent. I did not witness the sale which was held at 
I'.urlington in November, 1838, which was the first sale of public lands held in 
Iowa, but I was present at the second one held there a few months afterward, 
in 1839. The land office then occupied a one-story frame building, long since 
removed, which stood on the lot at the southeast corner of Third and Columbia 
streets. When the hour appointed for the sale arrived, Bernhart Henn, the 
register, took his stand at an open window facing the yard within which many 
settlers and citizens were assembled. The club's bidder had a small stand 
erected outside in full view of the assembly and close to the window where the 
register was standing, each having the list before him. Those lists tallied exactly 
with each other because they had been carefully compared before the day of 
sale arrived that there might be no confusion while the sale was in progress : a 
fact that showed the club and government officials to have been in good and 
proper accord. The sale began by the register offering a parcel of land, reciting 
its well understood descriptive formula, and the instant response of the club's 
bidder who. in a distinct voice, named the claimant and the minimum price. 
The register at once accepted the bid and the entry was checked off on both lists. 
As there was no waiting or invitation for higher bids the sales were rapidly and 
almost perfunctorily made. Still, it was possible for an outsider to get in a 
higher bid if he spoke quickly and was willing to take the risk of personal 
injury, which every one knew he would incur. I was listening to the monotonous 
progress of the sale when a violent commotion suddenly took place near me. 
Some one had dared to risk an overbid, but before it was distinctly uttered he 
was knocked down with hickory canes, which many of the settlers then carried, 
for his intention was suspected and they were ready for him. He was not 
killed, but his injuries were such that he could take no further action that day. 
and when he recovered he did not press his demand for government title to the 
land he coveted. Here was apparently a dilemma, but the case was promptly 
met by the register who ignored the outside bid and accepted that of the bidder 
appointed by the club. When his attention was afterward called to the matter 
he declared that he heard no other bid than that of the club's bidder, and his 
decision was final." 

Mr. Newhall says: "The sale being announced from the land office, the 
township bidder stands near by with the register book in hand, each settler's 


name attached to his respective quarter or half section, and thus he puts in the 
name on the whole township for each respective claimant. A thousand settlers 
are standing by, eagerly listening when their quarter shall be called off. Finally, 
when his quarter or half is reached and called off to him by the register, with 
an independent step he walks into the land office, opens the time worn saddle- 
bags and counts out the two hundred or four hundred dollars of silver or gold, 
takes a certificate from the government and goes away rejoicing." 

At the time Wisconsin territory was organized it ought to have been, and 
perhaps was, evident that it would not be long before a division would become 
necessary. It was three or four times as large as the average of the states in 
the Union and was divided by the great Mississippi river. Besides this, the popu- 
lation of the territory was diverse in character and so scattered in locations as 
to make it almost certain that the purely local laws and customs suitable to one 
community would not be suitable to the others. The people of the Iowa District 
were enthusiastic for a division of Wisconsin territory from the very start, and 
the people of Louisa county did their part to agitate and carry out the project. 

The first public meeting was held in Des Moines county in September, 1837. 
The committee on resolutions was composed of David Rorer, W. W. Chapman. 
William Morgan, Arthur 1!. Inghram and Dr. George W. Teas, and their report, 
which was adopted, urged the organization of a separate territorial government 
west of the Mississippi river as the only means of immediately and fully secur- 
ing to the citizens thereof the benefits and immunities of a government of laws. 

These resolutions also referred to the efforts of Missouri to extend her 
northern boundary line. They also declared that settlers on public lands were 
entitled to the protection of the government in their homes and to the improve- 
ments made by them, and recommended that county meetings be held in the 
counties west of the Mississippi to appoint delegates to a convention to be held 
in Burlington in November following. The next county meeting was held at 
Dubuque, October 13, 1837; and on October 21, 1837. a public meeting of the 
citizens of Louisa county was held at Wapello, the proceedings of which were 
published in the Wisconsin Territorial Gazette and Burlington Advertiser, of 
November 2. 1837. but we copy them from the "Iowa Journal of History and 
Politics" for July. 101 1: 

"At a large and respectable meeting of the people of Louisa county, held in 
the town of Wapello, on Saturday the 21st inst. in pursuance of previous notice, 
William Milligan, Esq., was called to the chair, and Z. C. Inghram appointed 
secretary. The object of the meeting was briefly and appropriately stated by 
James M. Clark, Esq. It was moved by Daniel Brewer, and seconded by 1. M. 
Clark, that a committee of five be appointed to draft resolutions expressive of 
the sense of the meeting: whereupon the chair appointed Daniel Brewer, John 
II. Benson, R. S. Searls, Isaac H. Rinearson and William H. R. Thomas said 
committee, who. after having retired for a short time, returned and presented 
the following resolutions, which, after due deliberation, w^ere unanimously 

"1. Resolved. That we highly approve of the objects and motives of the 
•Territorial Convention, to be holden in Burlington; and that so far as lies in 


our power we will heartily cooperate with our brethren in the adjoining- counties, 
in carrying these motives into effect. 

"2. Resolved, That we deem it highly essential to the interest and conven- 
ience of our Territory that a division of the same take place, and that, in our 
opinion, the Mississippi suggests a very natural and proper line of separation. 

"3. Resolved. That the deficiency of postoffices, the inequality of mails, and 
the apparent gross delinquencies of mail contractors in this western part of our 
Territory, are evils, which call loudly for redress, and that we would suggest 
to the Territorial Convention the propriety of using their influence and exer- 
tions to have these abuses ferreted out and corrected. 

"4. Resolved, That we look upon the attempts of a portion of Missouri to 
encroach upon our Territory, as highly unjust and aggressive, and that however 
much we may regret that any difficulties should arise between us, we are de- 
termined to resist her encroachments by every just and honorable means. 

"5. Resolved, That, as settlers upon these frontiers, enduring the privations 
and hardships always incident to the settling of new countries, we are justly 
entitled to be secured in the possession of our homes and improvements by the 
passage of a preemption law in our behalf. 

"6. Resolved, That we would suggest to our own delegates, and the con- 
vention at large, the propriety of calling the attention of Congress to this sub- 
ject by memorial or otherwise. 

"7. Resolved, That we deem this a fitting occasion to express our entire 
satisfaction with the present boundaries of our county, and look upon those 
who are endeavoring to effect a division of the same as acting contrary to the 
best interest of the county at large. 

"The committee reported the following list of delegates, viz: William I.. 
Toole. Tames M. Clark. Esq.. and John J. Rinearson. who were chosen by the 

"8. Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be published in the 
Burlington Gazette. 

"William Milligan, Chairman. 
"Z. C. Inghkam, Secretary." 

We mav note in passing, resolution No. 7, opposing any change in the bound- 
aries of the county as they then existed. This indicates that the movement to 
divide the county had already gained some force, and later on we will find that 
the county was despoiled of more than one-half of its territory. 

On November 6, 1837, a convention of delegates from the portion of Wiscon- 
sin Territorv west of the Mississippi river, met in Burlington and was attended 
by delegates from the counties of Dubuque, Des Moines, Van Buren, Henry. 
Musquitine. Lee and Louisa. C. S. Jacobs was made president, J. M. Clark 
and W. H. Wallace, vice presidents, and J. W. Parker and J. R. Struthers, secre- 
taries. The convention was in session for three days. On the second day, after 
inviting the governor, members of the legislative council, judges and members 
of the bar of Burlington to take seats in the convention, three committees were 
appointed as follows: (1st). A committee of seven to draft a memorial to 
congress on the subject of the attempt of Missouri to extend her northern 
boundarv line. Mr. Toole was the Louisa county member of this committee. 


(2d). A committee of six was appointed to prepare a memorial to the congress 
of the United States for the passage of a preemption act, Louisa county was 
not represented on this committee. (3d). A committee of seven was appointed 
to draft a memorial to congress in relation to the organization of a separate 
territorial government in that part of Wisconsin west of the Mississippi. 

The report of the convention states that this committee consisted of Messrs. 
Rorer, Hastings. Caldwell, Myers, Claypool, Harris and Rinearson. the latter 
being the Louisa county member. This was undoubtedly John T- Rinearson, 
though his name is given as S. J. Rinearson in one place. These committees 
prepared memorials on the subjects assigned to them, each of which were unani- 
mously approved by the convention. 

There is no better way for one to get a fair idea of the conditions then ex- 
isting west of the Mississippi river, and of the ability and character of the men 
who composed this assembly than by reading the memorials adopted. There is 
history in every line of them. The following is the memorial adopted by the 
ci invention in regard to the division of the territory: 

"To the Honorable the Senate and I louse of Representatives of the United 
States, in Congress assembled: 

"The memorial of a general Convention of Delegates, from the respective 
counties in the Territory of Wisconsin, west of the Mississippi river, convened 
at the capitol in Burlington, in said territory, November 5, 1837, 

Respectfully represents: 

"That the citizens of that part of the territory west of the Mississippi river, 
taking into consideration their remote and isolated position, and the vast extent 
of country included within the limits of the present territory, and the utter im- 
practicability of the same being governed as an entire whole, by the wisest and 
best administration of our municipal affairs, in such manner as to fully secure 
individual right and the right of property, as well as to maintain domestic tran- 
quility, and the good order of society, have by their respective representatives, 
convened in general convention as aforesaid, for the purpose of availing them- 
selves of their right of petition as free citizens, by representing their situation 
and wishes to your honorable body, and asking for the organization of a separate 
territorial government over that part of the territory west of the Mississippi 

"Without, in the least, designing to question the official conduct of those in 
whose hands the fate of our infant territory has been confided, and in whose 
patriotism and wisdom we have the utmost confidence, your memorialists cannot 
refrain from the frank expression of their belief that, taking into consideration 
the geographical extent of her country, in connection with the probable popula- 
tion of western Wisconsin, perhaps no territory of the United States has been 
so much neglected by the parent government, so illy protected in the political 
and individual rights of her citizens. 

"Western Wisconsin came into the possession of our government in June. 
1833. Settlements were made, and crops grown, during the same season: and 
even then, at that early day. was the impulse given to the mighty throng of 


emigration that has subsequently filled our lovely and desirable country with 
people, intelligence, wealth and enterprise. From that period until the present, 
being a little over four years, what has been the territory of western Wisconsin? 
Literally and practically, a large portion of the time without a government. 
With a population of thousands, she has remained ungoverned, and has been 
quietly left by the parent government to take care of herself, without the privilege 
on the one hand to provide a government of her own, and without any existing 
authority on the other to govern her. 

"From June, 1833, until June, 1834, a period of one year, there was not 
even the shadow of government or law, in all western Wisconsin. In June, 
1834, congress attached her to the then existing territory of Michigan, of which 
territory she nominally continued a part, until July, 1836, a period of little more 
than two years. During the whole of this time, the whole country west, sufficient 
of itself for a respectable state, was included in two counties, Du Buque and 
Des Moines. In each of these two counties there were holden, during the term 
of two years, two terms of a county court (a court of inferior jurisdiction), as 
the only sources of judicial relief up to the passage of the act of congress creating 
the territory of Wisconsin. That act took effect on the 3d day of July, 1836, 
and the first judicial relief afforded under that act, was at the April term fol- 
lowing, 1837, a period of nine months after its passage; subsequent to which 
time there has been a court holden in but one county in Western Wisconsin only. 
This, your memorialists are aware, has recently been owing to the unfortunate 
indisposition of the esteemed and meritorious judge of our district; but they 
are equally aware of the fact, that had western Wisconsin existed under a separate 
organization, we should have found relief in the services of other members of 
the judiciary, who are at present, in consequence of the great extent of our 
territory, and the small number of judges dispersed at too great a distance, and 
too constantly engaged in the discharge of the duties of their own districts, to 
be enabled to afford relief to other portions of the territory. Thus, with a 
population of not less than twenty-five thousand now, and of near half that 
number at the organization of the territory, it will appear that we have existed 
as a portion of an organized territory, for sixteen months, with but one term of 
court only. 

"Your memorialists look upon those evils as growing exclusively out of the 
immense extent of country included within the present boundaries of the terri- 
tory, and express their conviction and belief, that nothing would so effectually 
remedy the evil as the organization of western Wisconsin into a separate terri- 
torial government. To this your memorialists conceive themselves entitled by 
principles of moral right — by the sacred obligation that rests upon their present 
government to protect them in the free enjoyment of their rights, until such 
time as they shall be permitted to provide protection for themselves ; as well as 
from the uniform practice and policy of the government in relation to other 

"The territory of Indiana, including the present states of Indiana, Illinois 
and Michigan, and also much of the eastern portion of the present territory of 
Wisconsin, was placed under one separate territorial government, in the year 
1800, at a time when the population amounted to only five thousand, six hundred 
and forty, or thereabouts. 


"The territory of Arkansas was erected into a distinct territory, in 1820, 
with a population of about fourteen thousand. The territory of Illinois was 
established in 1809, being formed by dividing the Indiana territory. The exact 
population of Illinois territory at the time of her separation from Indiana, is 
not known to your memorialists, but the population in 1810, one year subsequent 
to that event, amounted to but eleven thousand, five hundred and one whites, 
and a few blacks — in all, to less than twelve thousand inhabitants. 

"The territory of Michigan was formed in 1805, by again dividing the 
Indiana territory, of which until then, she composed a part. The population of 
.Michigan, at the time of her separation from Indiana, your memorialists have 
been unable to ascertain, but in the year 1810, a period of five years subsequent 
to her separate organization, her population amounted to but about four thou- 
sand, seven hundred and sixty; and in the year 1820, less than nine thousand — 
so that Michigan existed some fifteen years, as a distinct territory, with a 
population of less than half of western Wisconsin at present; and each of the 
above named territories, now composing so many proud and flourishing states, 
were created into separate territorial governments, with a much less population 
than that of western Wisconsin, and that, too, at a time with a national debt of 
millions. Your memorialists therefore pray for the organization of a separate 
territorial government over that part of the territory of Wisconsin west of the 
Mississippi river.*' 

The legislative assembly of Wisconsin which was then in session in Burling- 
ton, immediately took this matter in hand, resulting in the adoption by it of a 
memorial to congress, strongly urging a division of the territory. Among other 
things this memorial states: "That owing to the great extent of country em- 
braced in the limits of Wisconsin territory, and that vast extent of territory 
being separated by a natural division (the Mississippi river), which renders the 
application of the same laws oppressive or unequal to one section or the other; 
the true policy of the two sections of the territory being as widely different as 
their locations ; and the impracticability of the officers of the general govern- 
ment to administer the laws; render it highly important in the opinion of your 
memorialists that that portion of the territory lying west of the Mississippi river 
be formed into a separate territorial government." 

The memorial further stated that the territory of Wisconsin at that time 
contained fifty thousand inhabitants, at least one-half of whom resided on the 
west side of the Mississippi, and that the population of Wisconsin was increas- 
ing with a rapidity unparalleled in the history of the country. This memorial 
further states: "Without any intention of censuring the official conduct of the 
officers in whose hands the administration of our infant territory has been en- 
trusted . . . your memorialists would respectfully represent, that the west- 
ern portion of Wisconsin, with a population of twenty-five thousand souls, reaps 
but a small portion of the benefits ami advantages of the fostering care and 
protection of the mother government." 

The memorials adopted by the territorial convention and the legislative 
assembly with petitions on the same subject, were referred to the appropriate 
committees in the house and senate. There was considerable opposition in con- 
gress to the formation of Iowa territory and it will be interesting to us to know 

' fi ; 








what some of the members of congress thought of the men who were then trying 
to build up this great commonwealth. Many questions seem to have entered into 
the matter other than those which relate to the necessities of the people who 
were asking for a new territory, such as the slavery extension, the annexation 
of Texas, and the preservation of the balance of power between the northern 
and western states on one hand and tbe southern states on the other. The most 
violent and virulent objector seems to have been Mr. Shepard of North Carolina. 
This is a fair sample of his speech : "Who are these that . . . pray for the 
establishment of a new territory? Individuals who have left their own homes 
and seized on the public land. . . . These men pounced on the choicest 
spots, cut down the timber, built houses, and cultivated the soil as if it were 
their own property. . . . Without tbe authority of law and in defiance of 
the government, they have taken possession of what belongs to the whole nation, 
and appropriated to a private use that which was intended for the public wel- 
fare. These are they who require a governor and council, judges, and marshals, 
when every act of their lives is contrary to justice, and every petition which 
they make is an evidence of their guilt and violence. We, who are insulted, 
whose authority is trampled under foot, are asked for new favors and privileges ; 
the guardians of the law are approached by its open contemners, and begged to 
erect these modest gentlemen into a dignified government. ... I cannot 
sanction their conduct: if they would not move peaceably, they should go at the 
point of the bayonet ; if they forget what is due to their country and their dis- 
tant fellow citizens, they ought to be punished The majesty of the laws should 
be vindicated." 

Dr. Shambaugh, in his "Constitutions of Iowa," from which we have taken 
the foregoing and some other quotations on this subject, speaking of the debate 
in congress, says : "The spirited debate, which took place in the house of repre- 
sentatives, on the question of the establishment of the territorial government of 
Iowa disclosed the fact that the creation of a new territory at this time west of 
the Mississippi and north of Missouri was of more than local interest ; it was, 
indeed, an event in the larger history of America. Some few men were begin- 
ning to realize that the rapid settlement of the Iowa country was not an isolated 
provincial episode but the surface manifestation of a current that was of national 
depth. Far-sighted statesmen whose eyes were neither blinded by the lights of 
the moment nor yet always riveted upon that which for the time was most 
brilliant, saw that a plain, common looking pioneer farmer from across the 
Mississippi had come upon the stage of national politics and had already begun 
to play a role in the great drama of American democracy." 

On June 12, 1838, President Martin Van Buren approved "An Act to Divide 
the Territory of Wisconsin and to Establish the Territorial Government of 
Iowa." This act, usually called The Organic Law of Iowa, was built upon the 
same general lines as the organic act of Wisconsin. Two amendments were 
made to it by congress on March 3, 1839, and these amendments, together with 
the act itself, are to be found in numerous state publications, and especially in 
the Code. 

There is more than one opinion as to the origin of the name Iowa as applied 
to this territory, but the best opinion seems to be that the author of the name as 
thus applied is Lieutenant Albert M. Lea, and that the name was given, not 


after the Wisconsin county of that name, but after our own beautiful river 
Iowa. In the first chapter of "Notes on Wisconsin," Lieutenant Lea, after 
speaking of the treaty of 1832, says: "General Scott was one of the commis- 
sioners appointed by the president to make this treaty ; hence, the district under 
review has been often called "Scott's Purchase,' and it is sometimes called the 
'Black Hawk Purchase ;' but from the extent and beauty of the Iowa river, which 
runs centrally through the district and gives character to most of it, the name 
of that stream being euphoneous and appropriate, has been given to the district 
itself." It is believed that this is the first instance of this name being applied 
to this district in any published work. 

In a brief article in the "Annals of Iowa," Third Series, Vol. 3, Page 641, 
Dr. Shambaugh states that for at least a century before Lieutenant Lea's pub- 
lication, the river that runs centrally through Iowa was generally indicated by 
the name of "Ioway." Back of this, however, are the very natural questions 
of how and whence did our beautiful river get its name? There are, of course, 
many explanations both as to the meaning of the word Iowa, and as to the 
particular place, at which and to which, it was first applied. As these explana- 
tions are all based upon tradition, we shall take it for granted that that tradition 
is best which is best located. Here is what William L. Toole says: "It is con- 
ceded that the name Iowa arose in this way: Many years ago, and before any 
Indians had fixed their homes in what is now Iowa, some Indians in search of 
a new home, encamped on the high bluff of the Iowa river near its mouth, and 
where those ancient mounds are, and being much pleased with the location and 
country around it — in their native dialect exclaimed — Iowa, Iowa, Iowa (beau- 
tiful, beautiful, beautiful), hence the name of Iowa to the river, and to those 
Indians, a remnant of which tribe are now in Kansas. Another company of 
Indians afterward, on the same errand, in search of a new home, ascending the 
Iowa river in their canoes, at some point that they were pleased with, made a 
similar exclamation, adding. 'This is the place for us!' And still another band 
or tribe, with similar exclamation, continued the name to the river, and so on 
by Black Hawk, Keokuk, Wapello and Poweshiek, each of whom had their vil- 
lages on the banks of the Iowa river, up to 1836. And the ancient mounds and 
fort on this high bluff of the Iowa near its mouth, show that this was a favorite 
location by the ancients who made these mounds." The most competent authori- 
ties say that the word "Iowa" means : "This is the place ;" some are of the opinion 
that the original word was "Kiowa," but they give it the same meaning as is 
given to the word "Iowa." 






Henry Dodge, a hero of the Black Hawk war, was made governor of Wis- 
consin, and immediately began to interest himself in procuring further cessions 
of lands from the Indians. Already the settlers in this county had been looking 
with longing eyes on the fertile lands contained within the four hundred square 
miles set apart for Keokuk by the treaty of the Black Hawk Purchase made in 
1832, and they were extremely anxious that the Indian title to that land should 
be obtained by the government, so that it could be thrown open to settlement. 
Indeed, many of the settlers had either taken up claims on the Keokuk reserve, 
regardless of the Indian title, or had bought Indian claims. This Keokuk reserve 
has been described in so many different publications, and in so many different 
ways, that there are many conflicting views extant as to its original shape ana 
its precise location. 

Dr. Pickard, in his historical lecture upon the Indians of Iowa, has a map 
which gives it in one form ; Dr. Salter gives it in a different form, and both of 
these usually excellent authorities are wrong. From the fact that this reservation 
included a considerable part of the best land in this county, including also the 
sites of several of its important towns, we deemed it best to procure an accurate 
description of it. 

It will be remembered that by the treaty of 1832, this reserve was to be 
marked off under the direction of the president of the United States. Accord- 
ingly, it was surveyed by "Charles De Ward, assistant surveyor for William 
Gordon, surveyor." The survey was commenced on April 30, 1835, and finished 
in October, 1835. Robert Neil, and Joseph Prepe were chain carriers; Etienne 
Tourville was axman, Francis Roy was flagman, and Michael Dennis, Coles 
Olivier and Narcis Blaycamp were the camp keepers and hunters. The shape 
and location of this reserve is shown on the map of Louisa county as it was first 
established, which appears elsewhere in this work. This map was prepared bv 
W. S. Kremer, county surveyor of Louisa county, and according to his judgment 
the southeast corner of the Keokuk reserve was situated about fifty-two rods 
(13 chains) south of the quarter post between sections 16 and 21, township -$ 
north, range 2 west, and extended north twenty-nine degrees west forty-two 
miles and thirty chains to the Indian boundary line. It extended thence south- 
west along the Indian boundary line nine miles and thirty-seven and seventeen 
hundredths chains, thence south 29 degrees east 42 miles and 30 chains, to a 



point a little south of latitude 41 degrees: thence north 28 degrees east to the 
place of beginning. The starting point was on the north side of the Iowa river 
and the line seems to have crossed the Iowa river almost exactly at the mouth 
of Smith creek. Keokuk's principal village is noted as being on the south or 
southwest side of the Iowa, a little north of the mouth of Smith creek and quite 
a little distance below Otter creek. Wapello's village seems to be pretty near 
where Wapello now is. These are the only two Indian villages shown in Louisa 

The information we give in regard to the Keokuk reserve is derived from 
a certified copy of the original blue print, and a portion of the field notes, and 
was furnished by the commissioner of Indian affairs. On this blue print the 
Iowa river is called "Iowa or Lecotosikay" river, the Cedar is called "Red 
Cedar, or Mesquawaquay river," while our Long creek has the name ofl'acan- 
anico river, and Goose creek is compelled to struggle along under the name of 

The Keokuk reserve was ceded to the United States by a treaty made on 
the right bank of the Mississippi river, opposite Rock Island, September 28, 
1836. Henry Dodge was the commissioner on the part of the United States. 
There was a very large representation of the Sac and Fox Indians present and 
this treaty was signed by several Indian chiefs, including "Wapella," "Powa- 
sheek," Keokuck ami Pashapahoo. This treaty refers to the fact that in the 
former treaty (1832) a reservation of four hundred sections of land was made 
to the Sac and Fox Indians to be laid off under the direction of the president 
of the United States, and states that it had been so laid off. 

Tames W r . Grimes, afterwards governor and United States senator, acted 
as Governor Dodge's secretary in negotiating this treaty, and the treaty was 
witnessed by Antoine LeClaire, the noted interpreter, P. R. Chouteau, Jr., George 
Davenport, George Catlin and L. D. Stockton, afterward one of the justices of 
the Iowa supreme court; also by Jeremiah Smith, Jr., who was one of the 
original proprietors of Lower Wapello. 

It provided for the payment, to and for the Indians, of various sums aggre- 
gating about $10,5,000. and this made the lands cost the government a little over 
seventy-five cents per acre. As this treaty has an important bearing on Louisa 
county's history, we give the account of it as found in "Iowa Historical Record." 
Vol. 8, as follows: "The two bands of Foxes (Wapello's and Poweshiek's) 
were camped on the west side of the Mississippi on the slope of the bluffs oppo- 
site Rock Island. At a distance the encampment looked picturesque, as the 
Indians arrayed in their green or red blankets flitted about the bulrush and 
bark tents, their horses browsing on the bluff tops. The scene appeared like a 
picture of an Arab encampment. A nearer view showed the dirty paraphernalia 
of skinning, jerking meat, and cooking, around the tents. 

"Half a mile above, nearer the river bank, on a kind of promontory, were the 
more neatly arranged tents of the Sacs, in the form of a crescent. Above them, 
fronting the hollow of the crescent, was the council lodge. At one end were 
Governor Dodge, Captain Boone, Lieutenant Lea, General Street and the traders: 
on the east side were the tawny warriors decked in their finery, the mass of 
them standing, the chiefs and headmen sitting in front, all listening to the 


propositions of the governor, and as each sentence was interpreted, signifying 
their approbation by the exclamation, 'Hugh !' 

"Wapello commands respect amid his apparent indifference and air of non- 
chalance. Appanoose is a young looking fellow, talented but dissipated. Pasha- 
popo, with his uncombed, unshorn hair, and his fierce countenance, is rendered 
hideous by smearing it fantastically with black. 

"Keokuk is of noble countenance, fine contour, tall and portly; his chest, 
shoulders and right arm bare, save a necklace of bears' claws, and a large snake 
skin encircling and pendant from his right arm. In the left hand he sported a 
fine Pongee silk handkerchief. The snake skin was lined with some rich ma- 
terial, and had little bells attached to it, giving a tinkling sound at every gesture 
that added grace and impressiveness to his elocution. He advanced with stately 
step ; the trappings of his white buckskin leggings set off his finely formed and 
comparatively small foot to advantage. He advanced to the governor's stand 
and shook hands with him. Then, falling back half a dozen steps, with eves 
fixed on the governor, he began his speech. His voice rang clear as a trumpet. 
Fluent in words, he was energetic and graceful in action." 

George Catlin in his account of the treaty gives an incident which shows how 
rapidly the county had been settling up and the encroachments that had already 
been made upon the Indian lands. "After the treaty was signed and witnessed, 
the governor addressed a sensible talk to the chiefs and braves and ended by 
requesting them to move their families and property from this tract within a 
month, to make room for the whites. The chiefs and braves broke into a hearty 
laugh, which one of them explained: 'My father, we have to laugh — we require 
no time to move — we have left our lands already and sold our wigwams to 
chemokemons (white men) — some for one hundred, some for two hundred dol- 
lars, before we came to this treaty. There are already four hundred chemoke- 
mons on the land and several hundred more on their way, moving in : and three 
days before we came away one chemokemon sold his wigwam to another che- 
mokemon for $2,000, to build a great town.' " 

It is evident that the "great town" here referred to was none other than 
Wapello, because that was the only prospective town on the Keokuk reserve at 
that time. In accordance with this treaty, the Indians left the country very 
soon, settling on the Des Moines river, and this removed the last obstacle to the 
organization of county government. 

On the 7th of December. 1836, Governor Henry Dodge approved an act of 
the territorial legislature of Wisconsin, entitled "An Act Dividing the Countv 
of Des Moines into Several Xew Counties." This act was passed before the 
land surveys were completed through the county and possibly before the sur- 
veyors had reached this county, as the surveys of land in Iowa began at the 
south, and hence the boundaries given for the various counties are natural 
objects instead of range and township lines. 

In order to understand the boundaries of Louisa countv as then given, it will 
be necessary to read the sections of the act preceding the one in which Louisa 
countv is named, and we therefore insert the first five sections of the act. 

"Section 1. Be it enacted by the council and house of representatives of the 
territory of Wisconsin, That the country included within the following limits, 
to wit: beginning at the most southern outlet of Skunk river, on the Mississippi; 


thence a northern direction passing through the grove on the head of the 
northern branch of Lost Creek, ana thence to a point corresponding with the 
range line dividing range seven and eight, and thence south with said line to 
the Des Moines river; thence down the middle of the same to the Mississippi, 
and thence up the Mississippi to the place of beginning, be and the same is 
hereby set off into a separate county, by the name of Lee. 

"Section 2. Be it further enacted, That the country included within the fol- 
lowing boundaries, to wit: beginning at the northwest corner of Lee; thence 
south with the west line of said county to the river Des Moines ; thence up the 
same to where the Missouri line strikes the same : thence west with the said 
Missouri line to the Indian boundary line; thence north with the said boundary 
line twenty-four miles ; thence east to the beginning ; be and the same is hereby 
set off into a separate county, by the name of Wan Buren. 

"Section 3. Be it further enacted. That the country included within the 
following limits, to wit : beginning on the Mississippi river, at the northeast 
corner of Lee; thence up said river to a point fifteen miles above the town of 
Burlington, on the bank of said river, thence on a westerly direction to a point 
on the dividing ridge between the Iowa river and Flint creek, being twenty 
miles on a due west line from the Mississippi river; thence a southerly direction, 
so as to intersect the northern boundary line of the county of Lee. at a point 
twenty miles on a straight line from the Mississippi river; thence ea^t with the 
northerly line of the said county of Lee to the beginning, be and the same is 
hereby set off into a separate county, by the name of Des Moines. 

"Section 4. Be it further enacted. That the country included within the 
following limits, to wit: beginning at the southwest corner of Des Moines; thence 
northwest with the line of said county of Van Buren to the Indian boundary 
line : thence north with the said boundary line twenty-four miles ; thence south- 
east to the northwest corner of the county of Des Moines ; thence south with 
the west line of the county of Des Moines to the beginning, be and the same is 
hereby set off into a separate county, by the name of Henry. 

"Section 5. Be it further enacted. That the country included within the 
following limits: beginning at the Mississippi river, at the northeast corner of 
Des Moines ; thence up said river twelve miles above the mouth of Iowa ; thence 
west to the Indian boundary line ; thence with said boundary line, to the north- 
west corner of Henry and with the line of the same, to the northwest corner of 
the county of Des Moines : thence east with the line of the same county of Des 
Moines to the beginning, be and the same is hereby set off into a separate county, 
by the name of Louisa." The map here given shows the original extent of 
Louisa county ; it included nearly a fourth of Des Moines county, the south- 
eastern part of Washington county, including the present site of the city of 
Washington; and also a considerable part of Henry county." 

There has been some controversy in times past and probably will be in the 
future as to the origin of the name of Louisa county. Tuttle in his "History 
of Iowa," says : that Louisa county was named for a young woman who shot a 
man. Judge Charles Negus, formerly of Fairfield, in the "Annals of Iowa," 
for April, 1869, says the county was named for Louisa Marsey. Other authori- 
ties, including Flickinger and B. F. Gue state that the county was named for 












I- <TJ 

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»— ( 














Louisa Massey, an early resident of Dubuque. This is the view taken in the 
"Iowa Historical and Comparative Census" published in 1880. 

Dr. John Bell, Jr., who was always ready, but not always prepared, to make 
a speech, delivered an address before the Louisa County Pioneer Settlers' Asso- 
ciation, February 22, 1861, in which he has this to say in regard to the origin of 
the name: "The origin of the name Louisa is quite a romance; it occurred some 
way thus: Two brothers came to this territory in an early day, and after ex- 
ploring the country for some time, finally concluded to stop and prospect for 
lead in the neighborhood of Dubuque. After working some time, one of them, 
on going into an old digging that had been abandoned, struck a fine lead. This 
excited the cupidity of a man named Brown, who immediately laid claim to the 
old diggings. High words ensued, and ended in Brown killing Marcy on the 
spot. He died, leaving two small children. Louisa Marcy, his sister, hearing 
of the death of her brother, resolved to bring his murderer to punishment. She 
came, and on being told that there was no law to punish any one for the crime 
of murder, resolved to avenge her brother's death. Arming herself and taking 
one of the children, she followed Brown, and ascertaining where he was to be 
found, met him and demanded if his name was Brown, and if he had killed 
Marcy ; on his answering in the affirmative, she immediately drew a loaded 
pistol, saying, 'Wretch ! I am my brother's avenger ; thou shalt die !' Before 
the last sentence was completed she fired, killing him almost instantly. This 
heroic deed occurred about the time the commissioners were engaged running 
the boundaries of this county ; and in admiration of the brave girl's courage, they 
called this county Louisa. Her subsequent history was as follows : A wealthy 
merchant of St. Louis, hearing of the circumstance, and in admiration of the 
girl's courage and bravery, sought her out, made her acquaintance, and married 
her, and took her to St. Louis, where the city gave her a public ovation. She 
died a few years after, loved and esteemed by all who knew her. Such is the 
circumstance that gave our county its name." 

This address was published in pamphlet form with other proceedings of the 
association and was quite widely circulated at that time, and it has long been 
the opinion of the writer that this address, notwithstanding the mistake in the 
name of Massey, and in giving Brown instead of Smith, and in having the man 
killed instantly — notwithstanding all these mistakes, that this was the main 
authority for the Louisa Massey story, which seems to have become so prevalent. 
Quite general local circulation to this story was given in a somewhat different 
form by an old settler of the county, Obadiah Garrison, frequently called "the 
Major," who gave the name of the young lady correctly as Louisa Massey, but 
who with a number of other embellishments added the statement that she was 
tried for the murder at the mouth of the Iowa river, and that he was on the jury 
which acquitted her. The nearest we have come to anything that seems like 
fair authority for the Louisa Massey story concerning the origin of the name 
of this county is found in the writings of Lucius H. Langworthy, of Dubuque, 
in the "Iowa Journal of History and Politics" for July, 1910, on Page 386, which 
is as follows : "Woodbury Massey was the eldest of several brothers, and a 
sister, all left orphans in early life. Himself and family were members and the 
chief founders of the first Methodist church erected in this city ; a man of fine 
education; polite and amiable in his disposition: one of our first merchants and 


possessing a large share of popular favor, lie was enterprising in business and 
upright in all his dealings. Had he lived, he would no doubt have proved a main 
pillar and support in our young community- But in an evil hour he became the 
purchaser of a lot and lode, called the Irish lot near where Mr. McKenzie now 

"It appears that a Mr. Smith, father and son, had some claim on this lot and 
lode. They were the exact opposite to Mr. Massey in character and disposition. 
A suit before a magistrate grew out of this claim and the jury decided the prop- 
erty to belong to -Mr. Massey. It being a case of forcible entry and detainer, the 
sheriff, as was his duty, went with the latter to put him again in possession of the 

"When they arrived upon the ground, the two Smiths, being secreted among 
the diggings, rose up suddenly, and firing their guns in quick succession, Mr. Mas- 
sev was shot through the heart. His family living near by, saw him fall, thus 
early cut down in the prime of his life and usefulness, a victim to the unsettled 
state of the times and the ungoverned passions of turbulent men. The perpetrators 
of this deed were arrested and held in confinement until the session of the cir- 
cuit court at Mineral Point. Judge Irvin presiding upon the trial. The counsel 
for the defense objected to the jurisdiction of the court, which was sustained 
by the judge and accordingly the prisoners were discharged and let loose upon 
society. They, however, left this part of the country for a time. 

"One of the younger brothers of Mr. Massey, highly exasperated by this 
transaction that no trial could be obtained for such offenders, had determined it 
seems, that should the elder Smith ever come in his way he would take the pun- 
ishment for the murder of his brother into his own hands. One day. while sit- 
ting in his shop at Galena, he chanced to see Smith walking the public streets 
of the place when instantly snatching a pistol and hastening in the direction, he 
fired upon him with fatal aim. Thus Smith paid the forfeit of his life by intrud- 
ing again among the friends of the murdered man, and in the community which 
had witnessed the scenes of his violence. 

"For this act of the younger brother there seems to have been the broadest 
charity manifested. He was never tried, or even arrestee, and still lives in the 
country, a quiet man, and greatly respected by all who knew him. 

"The death of the father of course, soon brought the younger Smith to the 
mines. It was understood privately that he determined to shoot one or the other 
of the surviving brothers at the very first opportunity. He was known to be 
an excellent shot with a pistol, of imperious disposition and rash temper. These 
rumors finally reached the ears of the fair haired, blue eyed sister, who was 
thus made to believe that he would carry his threats into execution. She was 
just verging into womanhood, with fresh susceptibilities and all of her deep 
affections awakened by the surrounding difficulties of the family. One day, 
without consulting others, she determined by a wild and daring adventure, to 
cut off all chances of danger in that direction. Disguising herself for the occa- 
sion and taking a lad along to point out the person she sought, having never seen 
him herself, she went into the street, Passing a store by the wayside, the boy 
saw Smith and designated him from the other gentlemen in the room by his 
clothing. On seeing him thus surrounded by other men, one would suppose that 
her nerves would lose their wonted firmness. He was well armed and resolute 


in character, this she knew ; yet stepping in amidst them all, in a voice tremulous 
with emotion and ominous in its tones, she exclaimed, 'If you are Smith,, defend 
yourself.' In an instant, as he arose, she pointed a pistol at his breast and fired ; 
he fell, and she retired as suddenly as she appeared. It was all done so quickly 
and seemed so awful that the spectators stood bewildered at the tragical scene 
until it was too late to prevent the disaster. 

"It so happened that Mr. Smith had at the time a large wallet filled with 
papers in his breast pocket. The ball striking about its center, did not of course 
penetrate all of the folded leaves, and thus providentially his life was spared. 

"Smith soon recovering from the stunning effects, rushed into the street to 
meet his assailant ; but she had fled and found shelter at the house of Mr. John- 
son, a substantial merchant of the town, and was subsequently sent away by her 
friends here, to some relatives in Illinois, where she was afterward married to a 
Mr. Williamson, formerly of this place. Her name, Louisa, has been given to one 
of the counties of our state. Smith lived several years, but the wounds probably 
hastened his death. She is also dead, and it is to be hoped that God's mercy has 
followed them beyond earth's rude strifes and that they dwell in peace in a purer 
and better world." 

The lecture from which the foregoing is taken, was delivered at Dubuque, 
in December, 1854, and is the first recorded claim that we have been able to find 
of this alleged origin of the name. We have also found in Vol. 15 of the "Wis- 
consin Historical Collections." in the journal of Alfred Brunson, D. D., an inter- 
esting reference to the Massey story. Mr. Branson's article is entitled "A Meth- 
odist Circuit Rider's Horseback Tour from Pennsylvania to Wisconsin, 1835." 
His "tour" seems to have begun on September 5, 1835, and we quote as follows: 

"November 12, left Galena and rode to Dubuque and held quarterly meet- 
ing for this mission on the 14th and 15. . . . The lands were not in the 
market and the only claim to it consisted of occupancy and consequently conflict- 
ing claims for valuable mineral grounds frequently occurred, which were oftener 
settled by might of the parties than the decisions of law. A few weeks before my 
arrival at this place one (of) our valuable brethren was shot dead at a mineral 
hole, while contending for his right, by two men, father and son, named Smith. 
They were committed to prison and indicted for the murder, the father as prin- 
cipal and the son as the accessory, but ... it was found the courts had no 
jurisdiction over the case and the prisoners were discharged. The people, how- 
ever, feeling indignant at the offender, called a public meeting to try Smith in 
the true democratic form, and but for his escape would have hung him, as they 
had done one of a similar character before. Smith, however, returned to the 
mines in the ensuing winter and a brother of Massey who was murdered shot 
him down in the streets in Galena in open day and then made his escape, no one 
caring to pursue him under the circumstances of the case. Not long after, the 
younger Smith appeared in Dubuque and a maiden sister of Massey shot him 
in a store and would have killed him, but for his pocketbook. against which the 
ball of her pistol struck. Shooting and dirking were so common, however, that 
little notice was taken of it, unless death ensued ; nor even then, if it was con- 
sidered justifiable homicide. Miss Massey, therefore, was not molested, but soon 
after left the country." 


Unless this incident excited more interest in Belmont in 1830, than it seems 
to have done in Dubuque at the time it occurred, it .may well be doubted that it 
hail any thing to do with the naming of the county. 

It has always been the understanding of the writer — an understanding which 
he gained from Francis Springer, John Hale and others, that the name was given 
to the county in honor of Louisa county, Virginia. One authority for this state- 
ment was William L. Toole, who said in the "Annals of Iowa," Vol. f>. No. 1. 
in referring to the act of the Wisconsin legislature, establishing Louisa county 
that, "said legislature gave the name of Louisa to our county, through the influ- 
ence of members thereof, who were formerly of Virginia, in honor of Louisa 
county. Virginia, and contrary to the wishes of or consultation with the citizens 
thereof, who would have preferred the name id' Washington, Jefferson or Mon- 
roe. Some agitated the proposition of a change of name then, and some are 
still dissatisfied with the name, and desirous of a change which may yet get 
into shape and the subject be properly brought before the legislature." It is true 
that William L. Toole was somewhat advanced in years when he wrote the article 
in the "Annals" but it is also a fact that he was one of the verv best posted 
men to be found anywhere in regard to the old settlers of Louisa county. He 
came to the county certainly as early as 1836 and was a member of the first 
board of county commissioners, and was a member of the territorial legislature 
in 1838-9. Mr. Toole was also a member of the first constitutional convention of 
Iowa Territory, held in 1844. Through the courtesy of Dr. Reuben G. Thwaites, 
we are enabled to present herewith the records of the action of the territorial 
legislature of Wisconsin, on the bill which named Louisa county, as shown by its 
journals: "October 28. 1836, Mr. Chance presented a petition from the inhabi- 
tants of Des Moines county, praying for a division of the county. Mr. Jenkins 
presented a similar petition, but both were laid upon the table. 

"November 17. 1836, Mr. Leffler reported a bill from the select committee 
chosen therefore, dividing the county of Des Moines into six new counties. The 
names of the select committee are nowhere given in the record, but by analogy 
with the other committees for similar purposes, I take it that it was composed 
of the entire delegation from Des Moines county. Mr. Teas presented a minority 
report, and Mr. Box moved the majority report be rejected. Mr. Leffler moved 
that the order to reject be laid on the table. 

"November 18. 1836, this matter was taken up and Mr. Leffler moved that 
the motion to reject the majority report be considered ; it was so done and decided 
in the negative. 

"November 30, 1836, on motion of Mr. Leffler the house went into a com- 
mittee of the whole to consider the bill, which when the committee rose, was 
reported with amendments. These were adopted. Mr. Teas moved to lav the 
bill upon the table, but his motion was lost. This bill then passed through its 
three readings, was approved (Without discussion) by the council and signed 
December 7th, by the executive." It will appear from this record that Isaac 
Leffler fathered the bill in the house, and we are informed that Arthur B. Inghram 
looked after the bill in its passage through the council. It is said that Isaac 
Leffler was born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, but that he served for a 
number of years in the Virginia legislature and was also at one time a representa- 


tive in congress from that state, and if this should be true, it would add some 
weight to the story as given by Mr. Toole. 

At all events the county was named Louisa and started to do business under 
that name. The beginning of things in an official way in Louisa county, Wiscon- 
sin Territory, seems to have been on January 17, 1837, when the first town plat 
of "Wapellow" was recorded by Zadok C. Inghram, "clerk and recorder of 
Louisa county, Wisconsin Territory." As we have already seen, Mr. Inghram 
lived in Burlington in 1836. Among his other accomplishments he was a school 
teacher, and taught the first school held in Des Moines county in a house in Bur- 
lington, belonging to W. R. Ross, who was the first postmaster in Burlington. 
The first record book is a unique affair and consists of seven double sheets of 
foolscap, sewed together in the middle, and, beginning on the side, which shows 
the plat of "Wapellow," there are a number of instruments recorded up to and 
including page 12. One is the appointment by Samuel Smith, sheriff, of Will- 
iam H. R. Thomas as under sheriff, and is dated April 10, 1837. Another is the 
appointment by Martin Harless, sheriff, of Cavil M. McDaniel. as under sheriff, 
and this is dated February 9, 1838. 

Another instrument is the official bond of Cavil M. McDaniel, as sheriff, dated 
February 21, 1839, and signed by Jeremiah Smith, J. Wilson Isett, A. J. Bevins, 
R. S. Searl and Riley Mallory, in the sum of $5,000. and recites that McDaniel 
had been appointed sheriff on January 18th last. 

The remainder of the twelve pages before referred to, is taken up with the 
record of various official oaths, principally justices of the peace, among them 
being T. Ronalds, Jacob Mintun, Hiram Smith, Christopher Shuck, William Milli- 
ean Maxamilian Eastwood, and Richard W. Gwin. 

There is one curious instrument found recorded here as follows : 

"Be it remembered that on the 15th of September, 1830, we the Elders of 
the Church of God at Union meeting house Nicolas county, Kentucky, solemnly 
set apart James R. Ross by prayer and laying on of hands, to the office of and 
Elder in the Church, we therefore recommend him to favor and respect. 
"Given under our hands &c. 

"Abraham Shrout 
"Peter Hon." 

To this is appended the certificate of Clerk Inghram, stating that the fore- 
going "certificate of ordination" was filed for record on the 1 Ith of June, 1838, and 
duly recorded. 

The next official business of which we have any record is that of the first 
term of the district court ever held in this county. This record occupies twelve 
pages of the record book to which we have just referred, and we give the record 
of that term of court just as it is found in this little book: 

At a District Court for the County of Louisa begun and held at Wapello on 
Thursday the 20th day of April A. D., 1837. 
Present : 

The. Hon/c David Irvin Associate Judge of the Supreme Court and Judge 
of the 2nd Judicial District. 

W. W. Chapman, District 
Atto. U. S. 


The Court being satisfied of the character and qualifications of Zadok C 
Inghram doth appoint him Clerk of this Court, and thereupon the said Zadok 
C Inghram with William Milligan and Isaac H Rinearson his securities came 
into Court and entered into bond in the penalty of two thousand dollars condi- 
tioned according to law — and the said Zadok C Inghram took and subscribed the 
oath of office. 

( SEAL ) 

Ordered that the seal of which the foregoing is the impression be the tem- 
porary seal of this Court 

Ordered that James W Woods be appointed District Attorney for Louisa 
County Pro Tern. 

On motion of William W Chapman District Attorney of the United States 
it is ordered by the Court that a venire facias for a grand jury on behalf of the 
United States issue returnable forthwith. 

The Marshall returned into Court the venire facias with the following persons 
summoned as grand jurors viz Phillip B Harrison Isaac H Rinearson C A Ballard 
John Millard James Gordon Thomas England Jeremiah Smith Martin Harless 
Reuben C Mason Phillip Maskel Henry Slaughter Thomas Stoddard David E 
Blair William H Creighton James Irwin Christopher Shuck Thomas Blair and 
William Guthry from whom Phillip B Harrison was selected as Foreman who 
together with his fellows aforesaid were sworn and solemnly charged by the 
Court and sent to their Chambers to consider of Presentments and Indictments. 

< Irdered that the Foreman of the Grand Jury of the United States be itn- 
powered to subpoena and swear witnesses. 

The Grand Jury of the United States returned into Court and having no 
business before them were discharged. 

On Motion of J. W. Woods, District Attorney pro Tern for this County the 
venire facias issued by the Clerk for a Territorial Grand Jury lie set aside and 
a venire facias issue returnable forthwith. 

The Sheriff returned into Court the venire facias this day issued with the 
following persons Phillip I',. Harrison Isaac II Rinearson Jeremiah Smith Reuben 
C Mason Phillip Maskel Henry Slaughter Thomas Stoddard David E Blair 
William II Creighton James Irwin Christopher Shuck Thomas Blair William 
Kennady Francis A Roe William Fleming William II Dennison and William 
Dupont summoned as Grand Jurors for the territory from whom Phillip B Har- 
rison is selected as Foreman who together with his fellows were sworn and 
solemnly charged to consider of Indictments and presentments. 

Ordered that the foreman of the grand Jury last aforesaid be impowered to 
subpoena and swear witnesses. 

()n Motion of Rufus P. Burlingame by Chapmann his Attorney a licence is 
granted him to keep a ferry across the Iowa River at the Iowa Town for one 
year whereupon the said Burlingame with William Guthrie bis security came 
into Court and entered into a Recognisance in the penalty of one hundred dol- 
lar conditioned according to law. 

( )n Motion of William Milligan by Chapman his attorney a licence is granted 
him to keep a ferry across the Iowa river at the town of Wapello for one year 


and thereupon with the said William Milligan came into Court and entered into a 
Recognisance conditioned according to law with Martin Harless his security. 

On Motion of William H. Dennison by Woods his attorney a license is 
Granted him to keep a ferry across the Iowa river at the town of Mount Sterling 
for one year and thereupon the said William II Dennison came into Court and 
entered into a Recognisance conditioned according to law with William Kennedy 
his security. 

On motion of John Ronalds Reuben S Searl and William Kennedy by Chap- 
man their attorney a licence is granted them to keep a ferry across the Iowa 
river at the town of Harrison for one year and thereupon the said John Reynolds 
Reuben S Searl and William Kennedy came into Court and entered into a Recog- 
nisance Conditioned according to Law with William Milligan their security. 

Ordered that the Court adjourn until tomorrow morning ten Oclock. 

D. Irvix, Judge. 

Friday, April 21st A. D. 1837 Court met pursuant to adjournment. Present 
The same Judge. 

On motion of Nelson Dethrick by Woods his attorney ordered that a Licence 
be Granted him to keep a ferry across the Iowa river at the Central Wapello 
town for one year whereupon the said Dethrick with William W Adams his 
security came into Court and entered into a Recognisanca in the penal sum of 
one hundred dollars conditioned according to law' 

On motion of Phillip B. Harrison by Woods his attorney ordered that a licence 
be Granted him to keep a ferry across the Iowa river at the town of Florence 
for one year whereupon the said Harrison with Jeremiah Smith his security 
came into Court and entered into a Recognisance in the penal sum of one hun- 
dred dollars conditioned according to law. 

Presley Chalfant vs. William Dupont. 

Ordered that the Defendant Plead in one month, and Plaintiff Reply by the 
first of July thereafter and further pleadings within fifteen days successfully" 
until issue. 

Ordered that a rule be taken against Francis A Roe one of the Grand jurors 
sworn and charged at the present term of the Court to appear at the next term 
of this Court to show cause why he shall not be fined for absenting himself 
without leave of the Court. 

Ordered by the Court that the rates of Ferrage at the several ferries licensed 
in the County be as follows : 

For each man on foot 12^ 

For each man and horse . 25 

For each waggon & two horses 75 

For each additional horse I2j4 

Waggon & one yoke of oxen 75 

Additional yoke of oxen 25 

Loose cattle each 10 

For sheep hogs goats & c each 6 1 / 4 

and that the said Ferries be kept in operation from sun up till sun down each day. 



Ordered that it be certified that the persons attending this Court as Grand 
Jurors on behalf of the United States be allowed for one days attendance. 

Ordered that the persons attending this Court as Grand Jurors on the part 
of the Territory be allowed for two days attendance. 

Ordered that William W Chapman District Attorney of the United States 
be allowed for two days attendance on this Court and one hundred and sixty 
miles travel. 

Ordered that the Marshall be allowed for two days attendance upon this 
Court and for thirty miles travel and for summoning a grand jury. 

Ordered that the following persons be allowed as petit jurors of this Court 
as follows (viz") 

John H Benson one day 12 miles travel 

Orien Briggs one day 12 miles travel 

William Kennedy one day 6 miles travel 

David Russell one day 20 Do 

Wesley Swank one day 24 Do 

Joseph Carter one day 22 Do 

Nathaniel Prime 20 Do 

William Dupont 24 Do 

William H Lee 12 Do 

John Kem 8 Do 

David Linn 16 Do 

Abraham Wigant 2 Do 

Peter Wigant 2 Do 

David M. Hanson 2 Do 

William H Dennison vs William Fleming — Debt on Note. 

This dav came the defendant by his attorney 
(Chapman) and moved to quash the writ upon the grounds first, that there is no 
seal 2nd there is no endorsement by attornev or other competent person which 
motion being sustained, it is adjudged and ordered that said writ be quashed. 
United States vs Thomas D Kellough — Indictment for Assault and Battery 
United States vs Isaac Parsons — Indictment for Assault and Battery 
I "nited States vs John Westfall — Indictment for Assault and Battery 
United States vs Joseph Carter — Indictment for Assault and Battery 
I nited States vs James Gordon & Joshua Smith — Indictment for Gaming. 
L "nited States vs John Kem — Indictment for Assault and Battery. 
United States vs Joshua Smith — Indictment for Gaming. 
United States vs William Kennedy — Indictment for Assault and Battery 
United State- vs James Gordon — Indictment for Gaining. 
United States vs John W Fergason — Indictment for Assault and Battery 
United States vs Samuel S. Gorly — Indictments for Assault & Battery 
United States vs ( >rien Briggs, Robert Briggs and John W Fergason — Indict- 
ment for Affray. 

Ordered that bail be taken in the sum of fifty-five dollars, process of capias 
to issued returnable to the next Court. 

Ordered that the Court be now adjourned until the next term thereof. 

D. Irvin, Judge. 




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This term of court was held in what was then called Lower Wapello, the 
legislature having located the county seat at that place. This subject will be dis- 
cussed more in detail when we come to the history of Wapello, but it may be 
well enough now to say that the court house then used was made of cottonwood 
logs or poles, and the stand from which Judge Irvin dispensed justice was an 
ordinary dry-goods box, upon which was a split bottom chair. The grand jury 
held its sessions in a sort of cave, or hollow, in the river bank, and the petit 
jury conducted their deliberations a part of the time at least in a movable calf 

As appears by the foregoing record, Zadok C. Inghram was appointed clerk 
on the first day and gave his bond, but there is no doubt of his having been 
appointed clerk some time prior to January 17, 1837, although we have not 
been able to find any record of it. This was doubtless done under an act of the 
territorial legislature of Wisconsin, approved November 17, 1836, authorizing 
the judges of the supreme court for the several counties, to appoint a clerk of 
each court of their respective districts, previous to the holding of the first term 
of court. Under the law the clerks so appointed were to hold their several 
appointments until the first term of the court for which they were appointed, 
and until their successors were appointed and qualified ; acting under this law. 
Mr. Inghram had been appointed to hold until the first term of court, and this 
necessitated his appointment again on the opening of court. Mr. Inghram held 
this office for ten years, and was indeed the pioneer laborer in the work of 
organizing the county and putting its official machinery in motion. Through the 
kindness of Thomas Newell, we are able to present herewith a picture of Mr. 
Inghram, which has been in possession of Mr. Nevvell's mother for a great many 
years. After leaving this county, Mr. Inghram went to Missouri, where it is 
understood that he died in 1883. 

The sheriff at this term of court was Samuel Smith, who was appointed to this 
office by Governor Dodge, on December 8, 1836, the next day after the law estab- 
lishing Louisa county took effect. At the same time the Governor appointed the 
following justices of the peace for this county: William Milligan, Christopher 
Shuck, Isaac Rinearson and William L. Toole. These justices and Sheriff Smith 
were confirmed by the council on the day following their appointment. There 
has been a great deal of difference of opinion expressed at different periods as to 
who was the first sheriff of the county. It has been variously contended that 
Martin Harless, C. M. McDaniel and William H. R. Thomas were each entitled 
to this distinction. Dr. John Bell in his old settlers' address, to which we have 
before referred, discussed this subject and while he was in error as to his opinion, 
we quote what he says for the purpose of rescuing from oblivion an interesting, 
and as we understand, true anecdote, concerning the appointment of Martin 
Harless, who was our second sheriff: "Old Cal, as we used to call him, was not, 
as generally supposed, the first sheriff of Louisa county. One Martin Harless had 
that honor. Being up at Wapello when the first court was organized, he had 
the good fortune to be appointed sheriff. Feeling highly elated over his good 
luck, he got fuddled, and on going home, his wife noticed that there was a great 
change in his manner ; there was something mysterious in his conduct. After 
several vain attempts she succeeded in removing his secret — he, Martin Harless, 
was high sheriff of Louisa county. One of the children, hearing of their good 


fortune, rushed forward and wanted to know if they were all sheriffs. The old 
lady took the bov a whack, exclaiming, 'No, fool! nobody is sheriff but your 
dad and L* " 

In order to convince all doubting Thomases or doubting McDaniels that we 
are correct as to Sheriff Smith, we give herewith a fac simile of the oath of office 
taken by him before Clerk Inghram, February 18, 1837. We have not learned 
much about the history of Samuel Smith. It is quite likely that Smith creek, 
down below old Florence, was named after him. as he took up a claim located on 
Smith creek and not far from the mouth of it. It was said that he was under 
sheriff of Des Moines count)- at the time Louisa county was organized and that 
his appointment as sheriff was largely due to that fact. We see in the execu- 
tive journal edited by Dr. Shambaugh, that in 1839 Governor Lucas appointed 
a Samuel Smith to be sheriff of Henry county. This may have been the same 

There has likewise been doubt and uncertainty as to the name and member- 
ship of the board which transacted the first business of the county. For the last 
forty years, at least, it has been supposed that the earliest record of the transac- 
tions of such a board was to be found in the "Commissioners' Record, Book 
A," being the record of the commissioners' court, which begins on April 2, 1838. 
In a work edited by the Acme Publishing Company, in 1889, relating to Louisa 
county, though chiefly biographical, it was said that William Milligan. Jeremiah 
Smith and John Reynolds ( Ronalds ) were the county commissioners who 
organized the county and held their first meeting. April 22, 1837. and that they 
appointed Z. C. Inghram clerk of the commissioners' court. It is also stated that 
no record could be found of a meeting of this board and that the first record 
was that beginning April 2, 1838. A few years ago O. I. Jamison, editor of 
the Columbus Junction Gazette, spent considerable time in investigating and 
writing up the early history of the county and he seems to have concluded that the 
story as to Milligan, Smith and Ronalds was without foundation, as he speaks 
of it as a tradition. Fortunately, we are able to set all doubts upon this subject 
at rest, having found in the attic to the court house woodshed, among many 
other old books and important documents relating to our early history, the record 
book of the first official board of the county. The board which made this record 
was not a board of county commissioners, nor a commissioners' court, and not so 
called. It came into existence by virtue of a number of acts which had been 
adopted in the territory of Michigan, and which were made to apply to Wiscon- 
sin. These various Michigan acts provided for the election of supervisors, we 
believe one for each township, and specified their powers and duties. In Decem- 
ber, 1836, the Wisconsin legislature passed an act to amend the several Michigan 
acts referred to and provided that each county should be declared one township 
for all purposes of carrying into effect the above acts, and that at the annual 
town meeting there should be elected in each county three supervisors who should 
perform in addition to the duties heretofore assigned them as a county board, 
the duties heretofore performed by the township board. This act also provided 
for the election of one township clerk, who should be clerk to this board of 

Inasmuch as this book throws a flood of light upon the institutional beginnings 
in this county, we give a fac simile of a few of the twenty-one pages, which 
record the doings of this pioneer "bord." 


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We have been unable to find the record of the election which was held in the 
spring of 1837, when this "bord" was elected. It appears that one of the three 
members of the board failed to qualify and that some of the other officers elected 
failed to qualify, and the first act of this board after appointing Mr. Inghram 
clerk pro tern, was to order an election to be held on the 6th of May following, 
for the purpose of electing one supervisor, constables, assessor, collector, direc- 
tor of the poor, fence viewer and all other officers required to fill vacancies caused 
by those previously elected, failing to "qualefy" in due time. This meeting of the 
board was held at the house where court was last held, as was also the next 
meeting on May 12th. The meeting on the latter date was a special meeting. 
At this meeting the first allowance made was of $10 to Z. C. Inghram, but the 
purpose for which it was allowed is not stated. Samuel Smith, sheriff, was 
also allowed $13, and William H. R. Thomas, deputy sheriff, was allowed $1.50. 
Nearly three pages of the record are taken up with allowances made to the grand 
jurors and petit jurors of the term of court that had just been held. -At this 
same meeting it was also ordered that the property of Louisa county be assessed 
on or before the first day of July. 1837. We have found no returns of the special 
election ordered by this board to be held on the 6th of May, 1837, but undoubtedly 
William Kennedy was elected township clerk, for at this meeting he was allowed 
one dollar for services as clerk of the board of supervisors. It is also certain 
that John Ronalds was elected as the other member of the board of supervisors 
at the May election, because he appears as a member of the board at the meeting 
held July 11, 1837. The record of this July meeting begins about the middle of 
page 6. and as will be seen by the fac siimle of that page, it contains the record of 
the first county road ordered in this county. There were four other roads ordered 
laid out at this same meeting. One was to commence at or near the Hatcher 
claim on the south line of the county, thence on the nearest and best route, not 
to injure improvements, to intersect a county road near Levi Thornton's on the 
north line of the county : and Joshua Swank. William Kennedy and Levi Thorn- 
ton were appointed commissioners to mark said road, and were to make their return 
at the next meeting, together with an estimate of the costs. The "county road" 
referred to in this last order was probably the territorial road established by the 
act of the Wisconsin legislature. December 7. 1836, and for the purpose of locat- 
ing and establishing a territorial road west of the Mississippi. By this act Abel 
Galland, Solomon Perkins, Benjamin Clark, Adam Sherrill, William Jones and 
Henry L. Lauder were appointed commissioners to lay out a territorial road west 
of the Mississippi, commencing at Farmington, on the Des Moines river, thence 
to Moffit's mill, thence to the nearest and best route to Burlington, thence to 
Wapello, thence In- the nearest and best route to Dubuque, and thence to the 
ferry opposite Prairie du Chien. 

Another road ordered at this meeting was to commence at the territorial road 
at Wapello, going thence to Henry county in the direction of Mount Pleasant, 
and Thomas Ingland (England). J. J. Rinearson and Joseph Higby (Higbee) 
were appointed commissioners. Another road was to commence at the ferry 
above the mouth of the "Ioway" river, thence to intersect the territorial road 
at Milligan's ferry on the "Ioway" river. William L. Toole, Henry Warnstaff and 
David M. Hanson were appointed commissioners. 


The other road ordered was to commence at the head of Main street in Har- 
rison, and thence east, following the section line and intersecting the road from 
Burlington to Bloomington. John P. < riles ( < Wilis?), R. S. Sear] and James Erwin 
were appointed commissioners. 

This brings us to page 8 of the record, and of this we also give a fac simile 
reproduction, mainly because on this page is found the record of the establish- 
ment of "the rates of tavern" for Louisa county. 

The next meeting was held on July 12th at the house of William Milligan. 
William Milligan was "permitted to keep a tavern in Wapello for one year, com- 
mencing Aprile the 1st. 1837." At this meeting an order was made for a road 
to commence at the ferry line opposite "( )quaka" on the Mississippi, and thence 
by the "neardest and best rout" to Cattees on the "loway" river. Nathaniel 
Prime. R. S. Searl and I. H. Rinearson were appointed commissioners and the 
clerk of the board was directed to send a copy of these proceedings to Steven 
S. and A. Phelps, of Oquaka, "requesting them to transmit to the board of com- 
missioners at their next meeting the amount of money or labor they and the citi- 
zens of Oquaka will be responsabel for by way of donation in opening said 

The next meeting was a special meeting held at the house of R. S. Searl in the 
town of Harrison, on the 8th of August, 1837. The first business transacted at 
this meeting was the establishment of five districts, and as this is the first effort 
to divide the county, we copy in full the proceedings in reference to these five 
districts : 

"Ordered that the Black Hawk district Xo. 1 shall be bounded as following; 
viz: Commencing at the Mississippia river, above the mouth of the loway river, 
thence up the loway river to the line dividing range two and three west, thence 
north on said line to the line dividing township 74 and 75 north, thence east on 
said line to the Mississippia river, thence down the Mississippia river to the place 
of beginning, and that William Fleming be appointed pathmaster to oversee the 
working of roads in said destrict. 

"Ordered that the Harrison destrict No. 2 be bounded as follows: On the 
east by destrict No. 1, on the south by the loway river W. on a line running north 
and south throng the center of range three west, and on the north by the line 
dividing the township 74 & 75 north, and that Henry Warrenstaff be appointed 
pathmaster to oversee the working of roads therein. 

"Ordered that the Fredonia district No. 3 shall be bounded as follows: On 
the north by the county line, on the west and southwest by the loway R., and 
on the east by a line running through the center of range 3 west, riming north 
and south and that William Fowler be appointed pathmaster to oversee the work- 
ing of roads therein. 

"Ordered that the Grandview destrict No. 4 shall be bounded as follows: 
South by the line dividing township line, dividing 74 & 75 north, west by destrict 
No. 3, on the east by the Mississippia river, on the north bv the county line, and 
that Levi Thornton be appointed pathmaster to oversee the working of the roads 

"Ordered that the Wapello destrict No. 5 be bounded as follows : On the 


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Slaughter and Louisa counties would run so as to leave Columbus City in 
Slaughter county and Columbus Junction in Louisa. The final change was made 
by the Iowa Territorial Legislature on January 12th, 1839. by which we got back 
government townships 74 and ~~,, range 5, and also received, as additional terri- 
tory, all of the present townships of Oakland and Union. The lines have never 
been changed since. 




The first establishment of townships as such was on January 7, 1841, but the 
county had been divided a few times before that. The first division was made 
by the board of supervisors in August, 1837, into five districts, presumably road 
districts, but not called by that name. These districts are set out in full in chap- 
ter VII in our account of the proceedings of this first board. Again, the county 
seems to have been divided into election precincts by the board of county com- 
missioners at its first meeting on April 2, 1838. Five election precincts were 
established at this time: ( 1st) Upper Wapello; (2d) Florence; (3d) Grand- 
view; (4th) Black Hawk; (5th) Fredonia. but the boundaries are not given. 
At this time the greater part of Columbus City township, and all of Union, 
Oakland and Elm Grove belonged to Slaughter county. 

Judges were appointed for these various precincts as follows : Upper Wapello, 
Hiram Smith, Thomas England and Abram Wigant ; Florence precinct. Samuel 
Smith, John Deighl (Deihl) and R. P. Burlingame ; Fredonia, James Bedwell, 
T. G. Clark, Craig Black; Grandview. R. Childers, William Fowler. George 
Humphrey ; Black Hawk, Israel Trask, Jonathan Parsons and James Guest. 

On April 2, 1839, the county was again divided by the county commissioners 
and we set out the order in full : 

"Ordered that the county of Louisa be laid out in the following districts, to 
wit : No. 1 shall be of the following boundaries to wit : Commencing at the 
Mississippi river, above the mouth of Iowa river; thence up the Iowa to the line 
dividing ranges 2 and 3 west ; thence north on said line to the line dividing town- 
ship 74 and 75 north : thence east on said line to the Mississippi river : thence 
down the same to the place of beginning; and that William Fleming be appointed 
supervisor of the same. 

"Ordered that the Harrison District No. 2 be bounded as follows, to wit : On 
the east by District No. 1 ; on the south by the Iowa river ; west on a line run- 
ning north and south through the center of range 3 west : and on the north by 
a line dividing the townships 74 and 75 north ; and that William Hinkson be and is 
hereby appointed supervisor of the said district. 

"Ordered that the Fredonia District No. 3 shall be bounded as follows, to 
wit : On the north by the county line ; on the west and southwest by Cedar and 



Iowa rivers; and on the east by a line dividing ranges 3 and 4; and that John 
B. Criswell be supervisor of the said district. 

"Ordered that Grandview District No. 4 shall be bounded as follows, to wit: 
South by a line dividing township line dividing 74 and 75 north ; west by Dis- 
trict No.. 3; on the east by the Mississippi river; on the north by the county line: 
and that Gabriel Wallen be supervisor of said district. 

"Ordered that Wapello District Xo. 5 shall be of the following boundary, to 
wit : On the east by the range line dividing ranges 2 and 3 west ; on the north 
by the Iowa river ; on the west by range line dividing ranges 3 and 4 west : on 
the south by the county line; and that John Drake be supervisor to see to the 
working of roads in said district. 

"Ordered that the Florence Road district No. 6 be bounded as follows, to 
wit : On the west on the line dividing ranges 2 and 3 west ; on the east by the 
Mississippi river ; on the south by the county line ; on the north by the Iowa river ; 
and that Loring Howes be supervisor to oversee the working of the same. 

"Ordered that Long Creek District No. 7 be bounded as follows, to wit : 
Embracing all that part of the township in range 4, township 74 north, laying 
south of the Iowa river ; and township 74 north of range 5 west ; and that Thomas 
Neel be supervisor to oversee the working of the roads therein. 

"Ordered that the Virginia Grove Road District No. 8 be bounded as fol- 
lows, to wit : Embracing township 73 in range 4 west, and that William Guinn 
be and he is hereby appointed supervisor to oversee the working of the roads in 
said district. 

"Ordered that Iowa Road District No. 9 be bounded as follows, to wit : All 
that part of township 75 north of range 4 west; also all that part of township 
75 in range 5 west ; and all that part of township 76 north of range 5 west ; all 
lying south of the Iowa river; and that David Dicks be and he is hereby appointed 
supervisor to oversee the working of the roads in said district. 

"Ordered that Iowa and Ceder River Road District No. 10 be bounded as 
follows, to wit : All that part of township 76 north in range 5 west ; also all 
that part of township 75 in range 4 west, laying between the Iowa and Cedar 
rivers; 1 and that Hugh Calin be supervisor to oversee the working of roads in 
said district." 

It will be noticed that the order merely says that the county shall be laid 
out into the following districts and that the word road district is not used until 
No. 6 is reached, but it is to be presumed that all of these districts were road 

On April 8, 1840, the board of commissioners reorganized the districts of 
the county and changed the names of some of them. It is evident that they were 
intended for voting precincts for some purposes at least, because the place of 
holding the election in nearly all of them is given. 

On the record the word township seems to have been used in nearly every 
case instead of the word district and then the word township was erased and 
the word district is used in the place of it all the way through. 

"Ordered that Jefferson District be bounded as follows : Commencing at the 
Mississippi river at the line dividing section 27 and 22 in fraction township 74, 
range 2 running west to the range line dividing 2 and 3 ; thence south with said 


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range line to the township line dividing 73 and 74 ; thence west on said line to Iowa 
river ; thence down said river to the Mississippi ; thence up the Mississippi to the 
place of beginning: and that Jonas Ruffner be appointed supervisor to work roads 
therein, and Black Hawk be the place of holding elections for said district. 

"Ordered that Harrison District be bounded as follows: Commencing at the 
Mississippi river on the township line dividing 74 and 75 ; thence west on said 
line to the section line dividing 2 and 3, in town 74, in range 3 ; then south to the 
Iowa river ; then down said river to the township line dividing Jt, and 74 : then 
east to the range line dividing 2 and 3 ; then north with said line : then to the 
corner of sections 24 and 19; then east to the Mississippi: then up said river to 
the place of beginning and John Ronalds be appointed supervisor to work the 
roads therein and Harrison be the place of holding elections for said district. 

"Ordered that Warren District be bounded as follows: Commencing at the 
Mississippi river at the county line dividing Louisa and Muscatine counties ; thence 
following said line to the range line dividing 3 and 4 ; then south to the Iowa river ; 
then down said river to the section line dividing 22 and 23 in township 74 of 
range 3 ; then north to the township line dividing 74 and 75 ; then east to the 
Mississippi river; then up said river to the place of beginning and that Grand- 
view be the place of holding elections for said township ; and William Thomp- 
son be appointed supervisor to work the roads therein. 

"Ordered that Fredonia District be of the following boundaries to wit : Be- 
ginning at the northeast corner of township 75. range 4 west, and running thence 
west with the county line to Cedar river ; thence down said river to the range 
line dividing 3 and 4; thence north to the place of beginning; the place of hold- 
ing the election be at Fredonia, and James Bedwell be supervisor of said district. 

"Ordered that Catteese District be of the following boundaries, to wit : Be- 
ginning at the mouth of Cedar river; thence up said river to the county line; 
thence west to the range line dividing 4 and 5 ; thence north to the township 
line dividing townships 76 and jj ; thence west to the range line dividing 5 and 
6 ; thence south with said line to the township line dividing 75 and 76, and con- 
tinuing the same course to the center of township 75 ; thence east to the Iowa 
river ; thence down said river to the place of beginning. The place for holding 
elections shall be at Hugh Caland's ; and that John Blake be supervisor to over- 
see the working of roads in the same. 

"Ordered that Union township be composed of the south half of township 75 
and township 74 of range 5. The place for holding elections therein shall be 
at the house of Edward Halls, and that Elias Buel be supervisor to oversee the 
working of roads in the same. 

"Ordered that Fayette District be of the following boundaries, to wit : Begin- 
ning on the Iowa river on the line dividing sections 18 and 19 of township 75 
of range 4 west ; and running west to the range line betwixt 4 and 5 ; thence south 
with said line to the township line dividing /T, and 74 ; thence east with said town- 
ship line to the range line dividing 3 and 4 ; thence north to the Iowa river ; 
thence up said river to the place of beginning. The place for holding elections 
therein shall be at the house of Jacob Triggs. And that Leonard Robinson be 
supervisor to oversee the working of roads in said district. 

"Ordered that Virginia Grove District be of the following boundaries, to 
wit : To include the congressional township y^ north of range 4 west ; And that 


the place for holding elections shall be at the house of Richard W. Gwinn. And 
that Richard W. Gwinn be supervisor to oversee the working of roads therein. 

"Ordered that Wapello District be of the following boundaries, to wit : He- 
ginning on the Iowa river on the range line dividing ranges 3 and 4 ; thence 
south to the county line ; thence east to the range line dividing ranges 2 and 3 ; 
thence north to the Iowa river ; thence up said river to the place of beginning. 
Wapello to be the place for holding elections. And that for all that part of town- 
ship 73, range 3 west. Garrett Garrison be supervisor to oversee the working 
of roads in that division: and that Nathaniel J. Ives be supervisor to oversee 
the working of roads in the balance of said district. 

"Ordered that Florence District be of the following boundaries, to wit : 
Beginning on the Iowa river on the range line dividing ranges 2 and 3 ; thence 
south to the county line ; thence east with the county line to the Mississippi 
river : thence up the Mississippi river to the mouth of the Iowa river ; thence 
up said river to the place of beginning. Florence to lie the place for holding 
elections in said district. And that P. B. Harrison be supervisor to oversee the 
working of roads therein. 

"Ordered that part of Warren District which is embraced in the east half 
of congressional township 75, range 3 west, be assigned to Spencer Wilson as 
supervisor of the same."' 

At the election on October 5. 1840, the question of township organization was 
submitted to the people and returns were made on this question from Fredonia. 
Virginia Grove, Columbus City, Grandview, Wapello. Jefferson and Florence 
precincts, the result being 178 for township organization and 79 against, all the 
precincts except Columbus City casting majorities for the proposition. In pur- 
suance of this vote the county was divided into townships on January 7, 1841, 
by the following order : 

"Ordered that the county of Louisa be laid oft into townships in the follow- 
ing order, to wit : 

"Wapello township shall be of the following boundary, to wit : Beginning at 
a point on the Iowa river on the section line dividing sections 12 and 13, township 
73 north, range 3 west ; thence west with the section line to the west boundary 
of the county ; thence north to the township line dividing towns 73 and 74 north ; 
thence east with said township line to the section line dividing sections t,^ and 
34, in township 74 north of range 4 west: thence north with said section line 
to the Iowa river ; thence down said river to the place of beginning. And the 
place of holding elections for the time being shall be at Wapello. 

"Florence township shall be of the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning 
at the southeast corner of the county ; thence west to the range line dividing 
ranges 4 and 5 ; thence north to the section line dividing sections 7 and 18; thence 
east to the Iowa river ; thence down said river to the Mississippi river ; thence down 
said river to the place of beginning. The place for holding elections for the first 
election shall be at the house Samuel Jamison. 

"Columbus City township shall be of the following boundaries, to wit: Be- 
ginning at the Iowa river in township 75 north, range 4 on the section line divid- 
ing sections 33 and 34 : thence south to the township line dividing townships ~^ 





and 74; thence west to the range line dividing ranges 5 and 6; thence north to the 
Iowa river ; thence down said river to the place of beginning. The place for hold- 
ing elections for the time being shall be at Columbus City. 

"Jefferson township shall be of the following boundaries, to wit: Beginning 
at a point on the Iowa river, in township 74 north, range 3 west, on the section 
line dividing sections 14 and 15 ; thence north to the section line dividing sections 
14 and 11 ; thence east to the Mississippi river; thence down said Mississippi river 
to the mouth of the Iowa river ; thence up said river to the place of beginning. 
And the place for holding elections for the time being shall be at Toolesboro. 

"Grandview township shall be of the following boundaries, to wit : Begin- 
ning at the northeast corner of said county ; thence west to the range line dividing 
ranges 3 and 4 west ; thence south to the Iowa river ; thence down said river to the 
section line dividing sections 14 and 15 in township 74 north of range 3 west; 
thence north to the line dividing sections 10 and 15 ; thence east to the Mississippi 
river ; thence up said river to the place of beginning. And the place for holding 
elections for the time being shall be at Grandview. 

"Fredonia township shall be of the following boundaries, to wit : Beginning 
at a point on the Iowa river on the line dividing ranges 3 and 4; thence north 
to the county line ; thence west to the line dividing ranges 4 and 5 ; thence north 
to the line dividing townships 76 and yy north ; thence west to the Iowa river ; 
thence down said river to the place of beginning. The place of elections for the 
time being shall be at Fredonia." 

On January 4, 1842, the commissioners ordered that the fractional section No. 
23, township 74 north, range 3 west, be attached to Wapello township, and on 
April 4, 1842, the following sections and fractional sections were added to Wapello 
township namely: Sections 13. 14. 23. 24. 25, 26, 35 and 36, all in township 74 
north, range 3 west, and the following were added to Jefferson township: Sec- 
tions 1, 2, 11, 12, 13 and 14 in township jt, north, range 2 west; and sections 5, 6, 
7, 8, 16, 17 and 18 in township 73 north, range 1 west. 

The next change seems to have been on April 2 1844, when it was ordered that 
all that part of Louisa county situated between the Mississippi and Iowa rivers 
and lying north of the Iowa slough be attached to Jefferson township. 

On April 13, 1847, the subject of dividing the county into commissioners dis- 
tricts was taken under consideration and the county was divided into three com- 
missioners' districts as 1 follows : Wapello and Florence townships were made the 
first district, Grandview and Jefferson township the second district, and Columbus 
City and Fredonia townships the third district. 

The first effort to establish what afterwards became Eliot township was on 
April 14, 1847, when John Hector and F. S. Burt and a number of others peti- 
tioned the county commissioners to organize a new township to be called Pleasant 
township, and to be composed of all that part of Jefferson on the south side of 
the Iowa river, and as much of Florence township as the board might think neces- 
sary. The board decided that it was inexpedient to grant the petition at that time. 

On July 6, 1847. the line between Wapello and Columbus City townships was 
changed as follows: The south half of section ^3^ township j^ north, range 4 
west, was taken from Columbus City and attached to Wapello township. 

On October 6, 1847, Isaac Parsons and a number of others laid before the 


board a petition for the enlargement of Jefferson township by attaching to it all 
the territory lying south of Iowa slough and between that slough and the south 
line of the count)-, and west to the line dividing sections 33 and 34 in township 
J3 north, range 2 west, and the board ordered the alteration to be made upon the 
condition that the signatures of the persons then residing in Florence township in 
the territory sought to be attached should first be obtained to a petition asking 
the change to be made. This petition was to be returned to the commissioners' 
clerk within thirty days. A memorandum following this entry, signed by S. M. 
Kirkpatrick, states that the above condition was not complied with but at the ses- 
sion of the commissioners in April, 1848. an order was made, attaching to Jeffer- 
son township the territory heretofore belonging to Florence township lying be- 
tween the Iowa slough and the section line, dividing sections 33 and 34 in town- 
ship 73 north, range 2 west, and providing that the above described section line 
and a continuation of the same extending from the south line of this county to 
the Iowa river be made the boundary line between Jefferson and Florence town- 


On March 4, 1853, there was presented to the county court a petition of the citi- 
zens of Fredonia township asking that it be divided and a division was ordered 
as follows : A hew township was established by the name of Concord, commenc- 
ing at a point on the Iowa river where the township range line divides ranges 3 
and 4; thence north to the line dividing the counties of Louisa and Muscatine; 
thence west to the Cedar river; thence down said river to its junction with the 
Iowa river ; thence down said Iowa river to the place of beginning. 


It was ordered that a township be established by the name of Oakland to include 
the following territory: All of township 76, range 5, and all territory in Louisa 
county lying in the forks of the Iowa and Cedar rivers ; and it was further pro- 
vided that the north boundary of Columbus City township should thereafter be a 
line dividing townships 75 and 76 to the point wdiere said line intersects the Iowa 
river. The people of Oakland township had wanted this change made for a long 
time and the story is that it was brought about by the election of all the township 
officers of Fredonia township from the west side of the Cedar river. The plan 
was managed by Charles H. Abbott. He made a thorough canvass of wdrat is 
now Oakland township, had the voters assemble down at Old Port Allen rather 
late on the day of election and then cross over the Cedar in skiffs or boats, two or 
three at a time, to do their voting. Of course they had their ticket for township 
officers all agreed upon. The folks over at Fredonia did not suspect anything until 
late in the evening and they began to martial their voters but it was no use, the 
plan had succeeded and all the township officers of what was then Frendonia 
township were elected from the west side of the Cedar river — what is now Oak- 
land township. 

This brought about a change of heart on the part of the people east of the 
Cedar river and they were willing to have two townships made out of Fredonia 


township. We give this story for what it is worth. We have not looked up the 
records as to the election of township officers for the purpose of verifying it, as 
the story is good enough without this. 

February 6, 1854, A. D. Hurley presented a petition to the county court signed 
by the citizens of Florence township asking that that portion of the township east 
of a line commencing at the quarter section corner of the south boundary of sec- 
tion 34, running due north to intersect the quarter section corner of the north 
boundary of section 22; thence north to the corner of sections 15 and 16 and 21 
and 22 ; thence north to the corner of sections 9 and 10 and 15 and 16, all in town- 
ship 72, north, range 3 west, be attached to Wapello township, and it was so 


On February 6, 1854, Andrew Gamble presented a petition of the citizens of 
Oakland and Columbus City townships asking for the formation of a new town- 
ship of the territory of Columbus City and Oakland, to be bounded as follows : 
Commencing at the southwest corner of section 7, township 75 north, range 5 
west ; thence east to the Iowa river ; thence up the Iowa river to the county line : 
thence west to the northwest corner of township 76 north, range 5 west ; thence 
south on the county line to the place of beginning ; the new township to be called 
Union. Among the signers to this petition were John Albaugh, Robert Todd, 
Peter Rineley, W. W. Orr, Patrick Colton, Nelson Alloway, Michael McGuire, 
G. W. Duncan and S. S. Wilcox. There was some opposition to this petition 
from the east side of the Iowa river but it was granted, and Union township 


On May 1, 1854, a petition was presented to the county court, signed by about 
fifty citizens of Florence township asking that the name be changed to Morning 
Sun township, and it was so ordered. Among the signers to the petition we note 
the names of Jesse Hamilton, Arch Johnson, Forgay Owens, William P. Brown, 
Robert Hewitt, Josiah Vertrees, James C. Brown, O. A. Taylor, B. F. Lee, J. R. 
Wilson, Hamilton Brown and Thomas McClurkin. 


On July 5, 1854, John Corson and others petitioned for the formation of a new 
township to be called Otter Creek and the court established said township with 
the following boundaries : Beginning at the northwest corner of section 19, town- 
ship 74 north, range 4 west ; thence south on the range line five miles to the 
southwest corner of section 7, township 73 north, range 4 west ; thence east six 
miles to the southeast corner of section 12, township jt, north, range 4 west: 
thence north five miles to the northeast corner of section 24, township 74 north, 
range 4 west ; thence west six miles to the place of beginning. And the first elec- 
tion was ordered to be held the first Monday in April, 1855, at Hope Farm. The 
petition in this case does not seem to be among the files. 

On March 17, 1855, Otter Creek township was changed at the request of E. 
W. Siverly and others by taking from it the following territory and attaching the 


same to Wapello township, namely: Sections I and 12 in township 73 north. 
range 4 west : and sections 24, 25 and 37 in township 74 north, range 4 west. ( >n 
August 7, 1855, an order was made by which the following territory was taken 
from Wapello town-hip and added to Otter Creek township, namely: the west 
half of sections 24. 25 and 36 of township 74 north, range 4 west: and the same 
of sections r and 12 in township 73 mirth, range 4 west. The petition for this 
change was signed by N. M. Cowles, John N. Baldrige, R. E. Benton, Olivet 
I'.enton, James Coulter, Jesse Vanhorn, Abraham Hill and a few others. 


( )n February 4. 185(1. the county court established Port Louisa township with 
boundaries as follows: Commencing on the east bank of the Iowa river on the 
township line between townships 73 and 74: thence east to the southeast corner 
of section $$. township 74 north, range 2 west: thence north on the section line 
to Muscatine slough; thence down said slough to the Mississippi river; thence 
up said river to the county line ; thence west on the county line to the northwest 
corner of township 75 north, range 2 west; thence south on the township line to 
the line between townships 74 and 75 ; thence west on said line to the northwest 
corner of section 3; thence south to the Iowa river; thence down the east bank 
of said river to the place of beginning. This petition was numerously signed 
by people within the newly proposed township but some of the names are not 
decipherable now. The petition is in the handwriting of J. C. Lock-wood and 
signed by him. Among the other names we note the following; Joseph I!. 
McDill. G. H. Crow, lames S. Williamson, J. H. Williamson, David 1'. Herron, 
lames Erwin, William Kennedy, Michael Lieberknecht and John Ronalds. 


I >n February 4, 1856, Elliott township was established with the following 
boundaries : Commencing at the mouth of the Iowa river on the south side ; 
thence south down the Mississippi river to the Des Moines county line ; thence 
west along said county line to the southwest corner of township j^ north, range 
2 west; thence north to the Iowa river: thence down said Iowa river to the place 
of beginning. The first election was ordered to be held at Russell's schoolhouse. 
The spelling of Elliott township as given in the original order is as we have it 
here, although in later years it has been customary to spell it Eliot, this latter 
spelling being the most appropriate, since the township was named in honor of 
Allan Eliot. 


On February 4, 1850, there is also an entry showing that Noah Cowles had 
previously presented a petition of citizens of Otter Creek township, praying that 
the name be changed to Marshall township and that order was made. 


( >n March 16, 1857, on the petition of H. S. Dodd and others that part of 
township 74 north, range 5 west, which is south of Long Creek, was organized into 


a new township under the name of Elm Grove. There was considerable opposi- 
tion to this on the part of S. K. Helmick and most of those living in that district 
and they fded remonstrance, and a little later, namely, on March 23, 1857, it 
was ordered that so much of Elm Grove township as lies north of the line 
dividing sections 7 and 18, 8 and 17, 9 and 16, 10 and 15, 11 and 14, and [ _> and 
13, be attached to Columbus City township. 

On June 21st, 1858, on account of the uncertainty in regard to the township 
lines, County Judge Derbin made an order establishing the townships and fixing 
their boundaries as follows : 

The township of Elliot is bounded by a lino commencing at the West of the 
Iowa river on the section line dividing section 20 and 21, township yT,, range 2 
west ; thence west to the northwest corner of section 29, township jt„ range 2 
west; thence south to the county line; thence east to the Mississippi river; thence 
up said Mississippi river to the line dividing sections 16 and 21, township •/},, 
range 1 west ; thence west to the Iowa river ; thence on southern bank of said 
[owa river to the place of beginning. 

The township of Jefferson is bounded by a line commencing on the east side 
of the Iowa river at the section line dividing sections 23 and 26, township 74, 
range 3 west ; thence following the east bank of said Iowa river to the section 
line dividing sections 20 and 21, township jt,, range 2 west; thence on southern 
bank of said river to the section line dividing sections 14 and 23, township y^, 
range 2 west ; thence east to the Mississippi river ; thence following said Missis- 
sippi river to the Muscatine Slough ; thence up the west bank of said Muscatine 
Slough to the section line dividing sections 20 and 29, township 74, range 2 west ; 
thence west to place of beginning. 

Port Louisa township is bounded by a line commencing at the north county 
line on the east side of the Muscatine Slough ; thence south on the bank of said 
Muscatine Slough to the range line dividing township /$, range 3 and township 
75, range 2, at section 30; thence south to southwest corner of section 31, town- 
ship 75, range 2; thence west to southwest corner of section 34, township 75, 
range 3 ; thence south to the Iowa river ; thence on east bank of said Iowa river 
to section line dividing sections 23 and 26, township 74, range 3 west ; thence 
east to Muscatine Slough ; thence on the west bank of said Muscatine Slough 
till it intersects the Mississippi river; thence up said Mississippi river to the 
northeast corner of the county ; thence west to the place of beginning. 

Grandview township is bounded by a line commencing at the northwest cor- 
ner of section 6, township 75, range 3 west ; thence south to the Iowa river on 
range line dividing township 74, range 3, township 74, range 4 : thence on east 
bank of Iowa river to section line dividing sections 15 and 16, township 74, 
range 3 west : thence north to northeast corner of section 4, township 74, range 
3 west ; thence east to southeast corner of section 36, township j$, range 3 west : 
thence north to the Muscatine Slough ; thence on east bank of said slough to 
county line ; thence west to the place of beginning. 

Concord township is bounded by a line commencing on the west side of 
Cedar river at the county line ; thence following said bank to section line dividing 
sections 19 and 20, township 75, range 4, on the west side of the Iowa river; 
thence on west bank of said Iowa river to section line dividing sections 33 and 


34, township /$, range 4 west ; thence north to east side of the Iowa river; thence 
on east bank of said river to range line dividing section 1, township 74, range 4, 
and section 6, township 74. range 3 ; thence north to northeast corner of section 
1, township 75, range 4 west; thence west to place of beginning. 

Oakland township is bounded by a line commencing at the northeast corner 
of section 1, township 76, range 5; thence south to the southeast corner of sec- 
tion 36, township 76, range 5 west ; thence east to Cedar river ; thence south to 
the intersection of the Iowa river; thence north on east bank of the Iowa river 
to county line ; thence east to place of beginning. 

Union township is bounded by a line commencing at the northwest corner 
of section 6, township 76, range 5 west : thence south to the southwest corner of 
section 7, township 75, range 5 west ; thence east to the southeast corner of sec- 
tion 12, township 75, range 5, on east bank of the Iowa river; thence northwest 
to county line : thence west to place of beginning. 

Columbus City township is bounded by a line commencing at the northwest 
corner of section 18. township J-,, range 5 west; thence south to southwest cor- 
ner of section 7. township 74, range 5 west ; thence east to range line between 
township 74, range 5, and township 74. range 4 west ; thence south to southwest 
corner of section 18, township 74, range 4 west ; thence east to southeast corner 
of section 16, township 74, range 4 west; thence north to Iowa river: thence 
on south bank of said river to the section line dividing sections 19 and 20, town- 
ship y$, range 4 ; thence north to north bank of Iowa river ; thence following said 
river bank to the southwest corner of said section 7, township 75, range 4; 
thence west to place of beginning. 

Wapello township is bounded by a line commencing at the north side of 
the Iowa river on section line dividing sections 33 and 34, township 75. range 4 
and running south to the southwest corner of section 15, township 74, range 4 
west : thence east to the southeast corner of section 14. township 74. range 4 
west ; thence south to the southwest corner of section 12. township jt„ range 4; 
thence east to southeast corner of section 9, township jt,, range 3 west : thence 
south to l / 2 section line of section 22, township jt,, range 3 west : thence east 
to center of said section; thence south to county line: thence east to southeast 
corner of section 31, township -t,, range 2 west; thence north to the northeast 
corner of section 30, township y^, range 2 west ; thence east to the Iowa river ; 
thence north to the north bank of said river ; thence northwest on bank of said 
river to the place of beginning. 

Elm Grove township is bounded by a line commencing at the northwest 
corner of section 18, township 74, range 5 west, and running south to the south- 
west corner of section 36, township 74, range 5 west ; thence north to section 
line dividing sections 12 and 13, township 74. range 5 west; thence west to 
place of beginning. 

Marshall township is bounded by a line commencing at the northwest corner 
of section 19, township 74, range 4 west, and running south to southwest corner 
of section 7, township y^, range 4 west ; thence east to the southeast corner of 
section 11. township y^, range 4 west; thence north to the northeast corner of 
section 23, township 74, range 4 west ; thence west to place of beginning. 

Morning Sun township is bounded by a line commencing at the northwest 
corner of section 18, township y^, range 4 west, and running south to the south- 


west corner of section 31, township jt,, range 4 west; thence east to the half 
section line of section 22, township 73, range 3 west; thence north to the half 
section line of section 22, township 73, range 3 west ; thence west to section line 
dividing sections 21 and 22, township -$. range 3 west ; thence north to the 
northeast corner of section 16, township 73, range 3 west; thence west to place 
of beginning, and the same is ordered to be recorded in the book of township 
boundaries of said county. 

On September 5, 1859, the boundaries of Wapello and Marshall townships 
were changed by attaching section 36, township 74, range 4. and the north half, 
and the southwest quarter of section 1, township -j^, range 4, to Marshall township. 

The next change we note in the matter of township boundaries was made on 
March 9, i860, on petition of William Harrison and others asking that the 
western boundary line of Eliot township be extended due north from the north- 
west corner of section 29, township 7^ north, range 2 west, to the Iowa river, 
which was done. 

The next change was on July 3, i860, and affected three townships. It took 
all that part of section 19, township 74 mirth, range 4 west, which was then in 
Marshall township, and the south half of section 18 of the same township and 
range 1, which was then in Columbus City township, and added them to Elm 
Grove township. 

The next change was on December 29, i860, and was made on the petition 
of A. D. Hurley and others, and affected Jefferson and Wapello townships by 
attaching the following to Wapello township, namely : Commencing at the 
quarter section corner of the north boundary of section 26, township 74 north, 
range 3 west : thence east to the northeast quarter of said section ; thence down 
to the meander corner on the Iowa river and running between sections 25 and 
26 and 35 and 36 in the same township and range, and attaching all of the land 
lying between such line and the Iowa river to Wapello township. 

On January 6, 1863, on petition of Joseph Nichols and others, the Board 
changed the boundary between Marshall and Columbus City townships by add- 
ing to Marshall the north half of section 22, and the northwest quarter of sec- 
tion 2^, in township 74, range 4. June 6, 1865, on petition of Joseph Mickey, 
the east half of section 19, township 74, range 4, was attached to Marshall 
township. On November 16, 1876, the boundaries of Elm Grove township were 
fixed as follows: Commencing at the northwest corner of section 18, township 
74, range 5 ; thence south to the southwest corner of section 31 ; thence east to 
the southeast corner of section 36; thence north to the northeast corner of sec- 
tion 25, all in township 74, range 5 ; thence east to the quarter section corner on 
the south side of section 19; thence north to the south line of section 18; thence 
east to the southeast corner of section 18; thence north to the quarter post on 
the east side of said section 18; thence west to the west line of said section 18; 
all in township 74, range 4 ; thence north on the range line dividing ranges 4 
and 5 to the northeast corner of section 13, township 74, range 5 ; thence west 
to the northwest corner of section 18, township 74, range 5, the place of beginning. 

On January 5, 1892. all the territory lying east of the Iowa river, then in 
Jefferson township, was transferred to Eliot township, being fractional section 
31, township 74, range 1 and fractional sections 5, 6, 8, 9 and 16, and sections 7, 
17 and 18 all in township j^, range 1, and sections 12 and 13, and that part of 


sections n and 14 (including Cedar [sland) lying east of the Iowa river in 
township 73, range 2. 

It will readily be seen that it would be quite difficult to give the names of 
the early settlers of the county by townships, for the reason that at first there 
were no townships, and there have been so many changes since they were formed. 
A great many of the real early settlers of the county will be found among the 
names taken from the Wisconsin census of 1836 as given in Chapter six. The 
names of numerous others who came in the early days are found in the records 
of the earlv courts and in the list of county officials. 

Among the earliest settlers in Wapello township, were : William Milligan, 
Wright Williams. Jacob Rinearson, Rolla (Riley) Driscol, Jeremiah Smith. Sr., 
Tames McDaniei. C. M. McDaniel, Thomas England, James M. Clark, Francis 
Springer, Thomas Harrison, Samuel Jamison, George Jamison, John Allison, 
John Drake. William Clark. Robert Williams, Silas Chrisman, Isaac Rinearson. 
G. B. Alexander. John Deihl, James Wilson, Phillip B. Harrison, S. S. Gourley, 
Thomas L. Rose, Edward H. Thomas, .Mark Davison, Merrit Jamison. S. M. 
Kirkpatrick, T. N. Ives, X. J. [ves, James Brogan, John Brogan. 

Among the earliest settlers in Eliot township were : Allan Eliot, William 
II. Creighton, Samuel Smith. Phillip Maskell, James Gordon, James Hatcher, 
Rufus P. Burlingame, William Dupont, Richard Staige. Samuel Pitt. 

Among the earliest settlers in Morning Sun township were: Peter Curran, 
Josiah Yertrees, Levi Gregory, Thomas Bell, Aaron Chamberlin, John Y. 
Lewin, Henrv Hobbs, Samuel Dunham, William Bell, John Willson, Zadok 
Jarvis, Thomas Gregory, Garrett 1!. Garrison, john Bell, John Driscol, W. P. 
Brown, J. C. Brown. Samuel Bell, H. C. Blake. 

Among the earliest settlers of Marshall township were: Joseph Higbee, 
Jacob Mintun, James W. Lett, R. W. < Iwinn. John Marshall. Nixon Scott. Dr. 
Samuel R. Isett. John Sellers. Joshua Marshall, 11. M. Ochiltree, George Key. 
William Isett. Franklin Griswold, Ira Griswold. Richard Restine. Richard 
Slaughter, Ananias Simpkins, John Marshall, Elijah Lathrop. 

Among the earliest settlers in Columbus City township were: S. K. Hel- 
mick, Henrv Marsden. Joseph L. Derbin, G. Barstow Williams, Benjamin Stod- 
dard. Isaac Hall, Joel Bronson, Oliver Sweet. James M. Robertson, Thomas 
Xeal. Thomas Stoddard, Zebina Williams, James G. Hall, Joseph Hall. Amos 
Hammond, W. W. Garner, Orleans Spafford, David Dix. 

Among the earliest settlers in Grandview township were: James Latta, 
Samuel Latta. Levi Thornton, Abram McCleary, Clark Alexander, George 
Humphreys, Martin Gray, Spencer Wilson. William Thompson, John Thompson, 
Lot Thornton, John Taylor, Robert Childers, Ylvin Clark, John 11. Williamson, 
Alex. Ross, Thomas B. Shellabarger, Robert Gray, John Cresswell, Andrew 
Kendall. William Fowler, Sylvanus Carey, J. P. Walker. 

Among the earliest settlers in Port Louisa township were: John Ronalds, 
Thomas D. Killough, Levi Stephen, Joseph Crow, Henry Rockafellar, William 
Harden, William F. Dickerson, Albert O. Stickney, William Kennedy, James 
Erwin. Samuel G. Chambers. G. H. Crow, D. P. Herron. Albert McClung. James 
M. Cresswell, Elisha Searl, John F. Adams, John Holmes. 

Among the earliest settlers of Jefferson township were: Christopher Shuck, 
\ alentine Faulkner, Isaac Parsons, fohn W. Ferguson. James Majors. Riley 




Mallory, Elisha Hook, Peter DeMott, Peter Keever and his sons, David Morgan, 
William L. Toole, T. M. Parsons, Orrin or Orien Briggs, Asa Mallory, Harmon 
Mallory, Thomas Bras. 

Among the earliest settlers in Concord township were : James C. Sterlin, 
Dr. Enoch K. Maxson, Joseph Clark, Robert F. Newell, James Waterbury, Mar- 
vel Wheelock, George Stone, James Bedwell, Micajah Reeder, John Knott, Tacob 
Shellabarger, Alexander Finley. 

Among the earliest settlers in Union township were: John Clark, Patrick 
Colton, Elisha Shephard, Steven B. Thompson, Quince Thompson, David Flack, 
John Flack and Wm. J. R. Flack. 

Among the earliest settlers in Oakland township were: Hugh Callan, or 
Calin, Joseph Blake, Curtis Knight, fohn Brown, Ward Blake, Cyril Carpenter, 
G. W. Allen. 

Among the earliest settlers in Elm Grove township were : Joseph Buffington, 
James O. Buffington, Sylvester Stackhouse, Samuel Pierce, Philip J. Buffington, 
James Riley, Elijah Jennings, H. J. McCormick, Silas Lunbeck, Barton Jones. 

For the reasons already stated some of the foregoing names may be assigned 
by us to the wrong township. It is true that some of the early settlers began 
their pioneer career in one township, but lived the greater part of their lives in 
another and became identified with the latter. For instance, John H. Benson is 
usually credited to Grandview township, although he was one of the pioneer 
settlers of Jefferson ; and there are many other similar cases. 

As noted elsewhere in this work, the earliest settlement of the county was 
made in the southern part of it, first probably about Toolesboro, which was not 
within the Keokuk Reserve, and about the same time, or a little later at Virginia 
Grove, which was also out of the Reserve, but neither of these were much before 
the first settlements in Eliot, Grandview and Port Louisa townships. 

A great majority of the early settlers settled either in township 73 or in 
township 74. By the early settlers we mean those who came here as early as 

1840, or ;hortly thereafter. 

We have prepared a list of the land entries made by our early settlers. It 
must not be understood either, that the lands entered as shown in this list were 
in every case the places of first settlement of the men named, nor that the dates 
of the entries were the dates of their coming to this county. There were no 
government sales of land in this county until November, 1838, and at that time 
only a part of the lands in township 73 were sold, and the rest of the lands in 
the county were not offered for sale by the government until 1839, 1840, and 

1 841. It must also be borne in mind, that many of the settlers who came here 
in 1836 and 1837, moved from one place to another, and sold or traded their 
claims, and that there is no record to be found of these transactions. But it is 
still probable that a majority of the land entries as shown in the following list 
were made by the original settlers themselves. By taking a map of the county, 
the reader can easily see who were the pioneers in the different localities. 

Much of the land in township 73, and some in 74, was swamp land, and not 
entered until a later date. It is proper to say also, that the lands entered by 
Lyne Starling are not noted, for the reason that he was not an actual settler. 
His land entries comprise a great many acres. It is possible that some of the 
names included in the list were not actual settlers. 

Vol. 1—7 


In most instances, we have given the names with the spelling which appears 
on the records. 


Section 3 Section 18 

George W. Fleming 1839 James Wilson 1840 

James Guest 1840 Grey Wells 1840 

William Fleming '840 Section 19 

Section 4 Moses W. Robinson 1840 

Tames Guest 1840 Orson V. Craig ^40 

William Cromley 1840 Thomas Harrison ^40 

' |bhn Deihl t 8_, 

Section 5 4U 

Harmon Mallory 1840 Section 21 

Peter Keever 1840 Thomas Harrison 1840 

Thomas Murray 1840 John Deihl I 8 4 o 

Section 6 Section 22 

George Long 1840 J on as Ruffner ^40 

Section 7 Section 25 

Tames Keever 1840 Richard Staige 1840 

Section 8 Section 26 

Israel Trask 1839 David McCoy 1840 

James Keever 1840 Samuel Pitt 1840 

John Deihl 1840 Section 27 

Section 9 - Iohn Pitt ' - Ir l8 4° 

Elias Keever 1840 Rlchard Staige 1840 

James A. Tool 1840 Section 28 

Israel Trask 1839 Samuel Smith 1839 

Freeman Shaw 1840 Th< imas Harrison 1840 

Philip Baker 1840 c 

r Section 29 

Section 10 Thomas Harrison 1840 

James A. Tool 1840 Jeremiah Smith, Sr 1839 

Thomas Bras 1840 Samuel Smith 1839 

Joshua Hedges 1840 Section 30 

Elias Keever 1839 Davjd McCoy _ l84Q 

Orrin Briggs 1839 

Section 31 

Section 1 1 Reuben Nichols 1840 

James A. Tool 1840 Henry Creighton 1839 

Isaac Z. Shuck 1840 William Cromley 1840 

Joshua Hedges 1840 Thomas Harrison 1840 

Section 14 Section 32 

Albert Coonrod 1840 Samuel Smith 1840 

John H. Benson 1840 Thomas J. Taylor 1840 

Jonathan Parsons 1839 Isabell C. Anderson 1841 



Section 33 

Lewis Benedict 1840 

Thomas Harrison 1840 

Samuel Smith 1840 

David McCoy 1840 

Section 34 

Samuel Pitt 1840 

Richard Staige 1840 

William Cromley 1840 

Section 35 

William H. Creighton 1839 

James Gordon 1839 

Section 36 

Richard Staige 1840 

William H. Creighton 1840 

William Cromley 1840 


Section i 
Henry Warnstaff 1840 

Section 2 

James Warnstaff 1840 

Sterling Seeley 1840 

Section 3 
John H. T. Gaff 1840 

Sections 4, 5 and 6 were not entered 
until later, mostly in 1851 to 1853. 

Section 7 
John S. David 1840 

Section 8 

John S. David 1840 

William Gregory 1844 

Section 9 
Nathan Gregory 1840 

Section 10 
Nathan Gregory 1840 

Section 11 

James W. Isett 1840 

Daniel Biggs 1841 

Sterling Seeley 1840 

Section 12 
James W. Isett 1840 

Section 13 

Reuben Wanzer 1840 

James W. Isett 1840 

Thadius Stoddard 1840 

Section 14 

James W. Isett 1840 

Thomas L. Rose 1840 

James Wilson 1840 

John Atchison, Jr 1840 

Section 15 

Samuel Jamison 1840 

Thomas Gregory 1840 

Merit Jamison 1840 

George Jamison 1840 

John Davenport 1841 

Section 17 

Reuben P. Bolles 1840 

John Smith 1840 

Erastus Cowles 1840 

Benjamin Cutburth 1840 

Abraham Hill 1841 

Section 18 

John Dreskill 1839 

Riley Dreskill 1839 

John A. Lewin 1840 

Jesse B. Webber 1840 

Jesse and Silas Hamilton 1843 

Section 19 

John Smith 1840 

Josiah Vertrees 1841 

Thompson Brown 1842 

James McClurkin 1844 

James C. Brown 1845 

H. C. Blake 1845 

Section 20 

Henry Hobbs 1840 

Erastus Cowles 1840 

Mathew McClurkin (Recorded as 
McLurkin) 1840 




William Wooley 1840 

Thomas D. Evans 1844 

Section 21 

Thomas Gregory 1840 

Levi Gregory 1 840 

Henry Hobbs 1839 

John Davenport 1840 

Garrett B. Garrison 1839 

Tobias Brogan 1840 

James Marshall 1840 

Mathew McClurkin 1S40 

lames Wooley 1840 

William Wooley . 1840 

Section 22 

Samuel Jamison 1840 

1 r« irge Jamison 1840 

Albert Jamison 1840 

Garret B. Garrison 1840 

John Flack 1840 

Section 23 

John Millard 1839 

David Hurley 1840 

Benjamin Ogle 1847 

Section 24 

Samuel Smith 1840 

George Newell 1842 

Robert Newell 1843 

Stephen Newell 1843 

Section 25 
John Deihl 1840 

Section 26 

John Deihl 1840 

David Hurley 1840 

James K. Williams 1840 

David D. Webster 1842 

Section 27 

J. Nelson 1841 

D. H. Fisher 1841 

James K. Williams 1840 

Section 28 

Mathew McClurkin 1839 

Thomas McClurkin 1842 

James McClurkin 1844 

Section 30 

David A. Lough 1841 

Josiah Vertrees 1840 

David McClurkin 1845 

Cicen > Hamilton 1845 - 

James McClure 1 843 

Section 3r 

James Hamilton 1844 

James M. Swan 1846 

Henry M. Ochiltree 1848 

Section 32 

Samuel Barr 1840 

James Popenoe •. . . . 1840 

John O'Laughlin 1840 

Decey O'Laughlin 1840 

James Marshall 1840 

Hamilton Brown 1846 

John D. Welch 1845 

Section 33 

John O'Laughlin 1839 

Samuel Barr 1840 

John Wilson 1840 

George W. C. Miller 1842 

Section 34 

John Flack 1840 

Mark Davison 1840 

John Wilson 1840 

James Wilson 1840 

John Brogan 1841 

Section 35 

John Flack 1840 

Mark Davison 1840 

Section 36 

Reuben C. Mason 1840 

James W. Isett 1840 

Robert Newell 1842 


Section i 

1 .ewis Benedict 1838 

Samuel Dunham 1838 

John Brent 1839 

Thos. Swan 1839 

Alex. Hunter . . . 1839 




Section 2 
George Key 

Section 3 

Joshua Marshall id 

George Key 1839 

Lewis Benedict 1839 

John Brent 1839 

Thomas Swan 1839 

Alex. Hunter ^39 

Section 4 

Joseph Higbee 1839 

Peter Curran 1839 

Joshua Marshall 1838 

John Bell 1838 

Christian Clymer 1838 

James W. Isett 1838 

Section 5 

Stephen S. Phelps 1838 

Christian Clymer 1838 

Section 6 
Stephen S. Phelps 1838 

Section 8 

John Bell 1838 

Thomas Bell 1838 

George Hastie 1838 

Section 9 

George Key 1 838 

Joshua Marshall 1838 

Henry M. Ochiltree 1838 

Thos. Bell 1838 

John M. Isett 1839 

Section 10 

Philip B. Harrison 1838 

George Key 1838 

Samuel H. Berry 1838 

Section 1 1 

George Key 1838 

Lewis Benedict 1838 

James Isett 1838 

Joseph Newhall 1839 

Section 12 

Samuel Dunham 1838 

Alexander Marshall J 839 

Seth S. Ransom 1839 

Section 14 

Richard W. Gwinn 1838 

Peter Curran 1838 

Joshua Marshall 1838 

James A. Carnahan 1838 

Section 15 
Peter Curran entered the whole sec- 
tion in 1838. 

Section 21 

James A. Carnahan 1838 

Joseph Newhall 1839 

Lincoln Goodall 1838 

Section 22 

Zadok Jarvis 1838 

Richard W. Gwinn 1838 

James A. Carnahan 1838 

Thomas Bell 1838 

Section 23 

James D. Spearman 1838 

John Bell 1838 

Z. Jarvis 1838 

Josiah Vertrees 1838 

William Pearcy 1838 

Section 24 

William P. Brown 1838 

George Hastie 1838 

Christian Clymer 1838 

Section 25 

William P. Brown 1838 

Robert Russell 1838 

Peter Curran 1838 

Section 26 

Aaron Chamberlin 1838 

Peter Curran 1838 

Section 2j 

John Bell 1838 

William Pearcy 1838 

Alexander Marshall 1839 

Joseph Newhall 1839 

Section ^ 

Joshua Marshall 1839 

Peter Curran 1838 


Section 36 John Yv . Smith 1839 

Robert Russell 1838 William Miller 1839 


Section 18 Elisha Searl 1840 

David P. Herron 1840 Henry Doling 1840 

William Harden 1S40 

Section iq Section 31 

Ephriam Morrison 1840 Geor ^ e L ° n & l8 *° 

n,.< c , ,o.„ Tonathan E. Fletcher 1840 

Elisha Searl 1840 -' ^ 

Section 20 Section 32 

Elisha Searl 1840 William Harden 1840 

Section 29 
Elisha Searl 1840 Section 33 

Section 30 William Harden 1840 

Seth Richards 1840 James Guest 1839 


Section i Section 7 

Henry Rockafellar 1840 Joel Bronson 1840 

James Erwin, Jr 1840 Jas. F.lanchard 1840 

James M. Cresswell 1840 Secf'on 8 

Section 2 James Latta 1 840 

John Cresswell 1839 William Kurts 1840 

John Ronald 1840 Section 9 

Alexander Williamson 1840 William Thompson 1840 

Tohn Erwin 1840 ~ . 

Section 10 

Section 3 John F. Adams 1840 

Caleb J. Vredenburg 1840 Thos. D. Killough 1840 

Zachariah Salmon 1840 John Holmes 1840' 

Section 4 Section 11 

William Thompson 1840 Alexander Williamson 1840 

William Shoemaker 1840 John Ronalds 1840 

Charles W. Mullen 1 840 Joel C. Parsons 1844 

c ,. Tohn Holmes 1840 

Section 5 

William Shoemaker 1840 Section 12 

William Kurts 1840 James Guest 1840 

James Latta 1840 John Ronalds 1840 

Benjamin Phillips 1839 Richard Stevens 1840 

Section 6 Section 13 

James Reeder !83<) Levi Stevens 1840 

James Latta 1S40 William F. Dickerson 1840 

Zachariah Kurts 1S40 Samuel G. Chambers 1840 



Joseph Mullen 1840 

Section 14 

Levi Stevens 1840 

William F. Dickerson 1840 

Section 15 

Alexander Williamson 1840 

Jonathan E. Fletcher 1840 

Section 17 

James Latta 1840 

John Bayne 1840 

Section 18 
Joseph Story 1847 

Section 19 
Orren Stoddard 1840 

Section 20 
Jesse Evans 1840 

Section 21 

Thomas England 1840 

Susanna Bevins 1840 

Section 23 

William Kennedy 1840 

Isaac Smith 1840 

Section 25 
Joseph Stoner 1840 

John H. Williamson 1840 

Isaac Smith 1840 

Section 26 

William M. Clark 1840 

James W. Isett 1840 

David M. Harrison 1840 

Jonathan E. Fletcher 1839 

Section 27 
(Wapello) William Milligan and 
Thomas England 1840 

Section 28 

James W. Isett 1840 

William Milligan 1840 

Jonathan C. Drake 1845 

James Drake ^46 

Section 34 

William H. R. Thomas 1840 

William M. Clark 1840 

David M. Kilbourne 1840 

Joseph Stoner 1840 

"Jonathan E. Fletcher 1840 

Section 36 
Henry Warnstaft" 



Section i 

James Reeder 1 840 

William Day 1840 

Section 2 

W. H. R. Thomas 1840 

Jonathan E. Fletcher 1840 

Darius Bouton 1853 

Section 3 

Jacob Triggs 1840 

William Murdock 1840 

Thos. Stoddard 1840 

Samuel Morrison 1840 

Samuel Woodside 1840 

John McCoy 1840 

Oliver P. Fulton 1840 

Wm. Bowman 1843 

Section 4 

Henry Thompson 1840 

William Latta 1839 

Benjamin Stoddard 1840 

Wesley W. Garner 1840 

Section 5 

Henry Thompson 1840 

Bruce Johnson 1840 

Jacob Triggs 1840 

David Mortimer 1840 

Samuel Morrison 1840 

Section 6 

Zebina Williams 1840 

David Mortimer 1840 

Jas. G. Hall 1840 

Morris Hughes 1840 



Arthur Miller 1847 

Francis Miller 1840 

Joseph T. Hall 1840 

Section 7 

David Mortimer 1840 

Daniel R. Paschal 1852 

James G. Hall 1845 

Section 8 

John McCoy 1840 

Michael McCoy 1840 

David Glenn 1840 

George Shaw 1842 

Section 9 

Thomas Stoddard 1840 

Oliver P. Fulton 1840 

John McCoy 1840 

Evan H. Skillman T844 

James H. Spafford 1849 

Section 10 

Joseph Gable 1842 

Wm. Bowman 1843 

Amos Hammond 184^ 

Samuel Woodside 1842 

Section 1 1 

James Manly 1844 

Thomas Stoddard 1840 

Robert Williams 1840 

Kennedy Storey 1844 

Joshua Rouse 184 ^ 

Section 12 

Abraham Yan Gilder 1840 

Dennis Williams 1840 

Alfred Koons 1840 

Thomas Bayne 1849 

Section 13 

Robert Williams 1840 

Wm. Story ^44 

Kennedy Story 1844 

Joseph S. Burnam 1840 

Section 14 

Robert Williams 1840 

Jonathan S. Rook 1840 

Francis Ludlow 1845 

Section 15 

Lydia Jones 1841 

Albert Jones 1842 

Parkus Woodruff 1851 

Pelech C. Brown 1849 

Jacob Getts i8=;i 

Section 17 
William Rogers 1840 

Section 18 

David Glenn 1840 

Solomon W. Ingham 1840 

Section 19 

Richard Slaughter 1840 

Joseph Buffington 1849 

H. B. Kirkpatrick 1852 

Section 20 

John Sellers 1840 

John Marshall 1840 

Section 21 

Henry Griswold 1840 

Samuel R. Isett 1840 

William C. Rankin 1840 

Section 22 

Ananias Simpkins 1841 

John Drake 1840 

Eliza Ann Bunnell 1840 

Oliver Ball ^50 

Parkus Woodruff 18S2 

Robert Gregory 1844 

Section 2^ 

Edward Mincher 1840 

Thomas Stoddard 1839 

Oliver Ball 1850 

Abraham Hill ^51 

Section 24 

Thomas Stoddard 1839 

Abraham Hill 18^1 

George Rouse 1843 

Section 25 

Sylvanus Dunham 1854 

John H. Bragg ^46 

Nehemiah Blake 1852 

Ambrose W. Key 18^4 



Section 26 

Joseph B. Nichols 1851 

Xehemiah Blake 1851 

Section 27 

John Drake 1840 

Richard Restine 1840 

Jesse Van Horn 1848 

Barrett Restine 1845 

Alexander S. Buck 1846 

Section 28 

Henry Griswold 1840 

James R. Isett 1839 

James W. Isett 1840 

Samuel R. Isett 1839 

Section 29 

John Marshall 1840 

William Rogers 1840 

Section 30 

John Sellers 1840 

William Rogers 1840 

Section 31 

Xelson R. Steele 1848 

Miles White 1849 

Section 33 

Joseph Higbee 1840 

Richard D. Harrison 1S40 

Section 34 

George Key 1840 

Anannias Simpkins 1842 

John Baldrige, Sr . l $47 

Section 35 

Eliza Bunnell 1840 

George Key 1840 

A. J. Campbell 1840 

Oliver Benton 1848 

Section 36 

Solomon Avery 1840 

George Key 1840 


Section i 

James G. and Isaac G. Hall 1840 

Thomas Neal 1840 

Augustus Welch 1841 

Section 2 

Adam Reister 1840 

Wm. and Ebenezer Stronach 1840 

Wm. and Henry Marsden 1840 

Jarrett Garner 1842 

Henry A. Cleaver 1846 

Henry R. Moore 185 1 

Section 3 

James Gray 1840 

Wm. and Henry Marsden 1840 

David Mortimore 1840 

Hezekiah S. Denham 1848 

Section 4 

John Rees 1853 

Jonathan A. Yenglin 1851 

Section 5 

John Morgan 1850 

Adam Hood 1845 

Reuben McGannon 1845 

David Knowles 1851 

Section 6 

Samuel Buell 1840 

Obadiah Walker 1852 

Section 7 

Zebina Williams 1853 

Sam'l A. Frederick 185 1 

Section 8 

William W. White 1851 

Benjamin Furlong 1851 

Edwin Dorsey 1851 

Section 9 

Henry Hawkins 185 1 

Samuel K. Helmick 1851 

Section 10 
Wm. and Henry Marsden 1840 

Section 11 

Zebina Williams 1840 

Wm. and Ebenezer Stronach 1840 


Section [3 Section 23 

Joseph L. Derbin 1840 Joseph Buffington 1840 

James O. Buffington 1840 Orren Stoddard 1840 

Isabel] McCrabb 1839 A. J. Kirkpatrick 1847 

Isaac G. 1 fall 1 83" 1 Section 24 

Joseph I tuffington 1840 j oseph L Derbin 1840 

Section 14 Isabell McCrabb 1839 

Stephen May 1 845 Joseph Buffington 1840 

Wm. and Ebenezer Stronach. . . . 1840 James McKay 1844 

Orren Stoddard 1840 Sylvester Stackhouse 1845 

Philip J. Buffington 1840 Section 31 

Section -15 Neal Parrish 1840 

Wm. and Henry Marsden 1840 Samuel Pierce 1840 


Sec. 1. Levi Thornton. 1839. 

Sec. 2. Lot Thornton, 1839. Marcus Stamp, 1839. Levi Thornton, 1839. 
William J. Wilson, 1840. 

Sec. 3. Jonathan E. Fletcher, 1839. Philip Wagner, 1843. Marcus W. 
Stamp. 1839. 

Sec. 4. John McGrew, 1839. Alexis Phelps, 1839. Jesse B. Lutz, 1839. 
Marcus Stamp, 1839. 

Sec. 8. Joel Hiatt, 1840. James C. Scott, 1839. 

Sec. 9. Amos Willets, 1839. Jesse B. Lutz, 1839. Luther McVay, 1845. 
Alvin Barnett, 1839. James M. Yandevort, 1847. 

Sec. 10. Landcn Taylor, 1845. Alvin Barnett. 1839. Amos Willets, 1839. 
Nicholas Lieberknecht, 1853. 

Sec. 11. Levi Thornton. 1839. Jesse B. Lutz, 1831J. A. R. Alexander, 1843. 
Geo. Anderson. 1842. 

Sec. 14. Spencer Wilson, 1839. 

Sec. 15. John Taylor, 1839. John S. Biggs, 1839. 

Sec. 17. Sylvanus Carey, 1839. Clark Alexander, 1839. 

Sec. t8. Margaret Anthony. 1839. Thomas B. Shellabarger, 1839. Sam 
(Sem) Newell. 1839. Erastus Clark, 1839. 

Sec. 19. Jacob Shellabarger, 1839. John P. Morris, 1839. 

Sec. 20. Tohn Kendall, 1839. Andrew Kendall, 1839. John P. Morris, 


Sec. 21. George Humphrey, 1839. Sylvanus Carey, 1839. Alexander Ross, 
1830. Robert Humphrey, 1839. Joseph W. Dodder, 1842. John Kritzer, 1842. 

Sec. 22. Martin Gray, 1839. Spencer Wilson, 1839. John Jewett, 1839. 

Sec. 23. Martin Gray, 1839. John Jewett, 1839. Marcus W. Stamp. 1839. 
Joseph W. Dodder, 1842. 

Sec. 24. Abram McCleary, 1839. Stephen Bell, 1831;. Andrew Kendall. 
1841. (Wm. Beard. 1843 ). 

Sec. 25. John C. McCleary, 1839. Joel Hiatt, 1839. 

Sec. 26. George C. Stetts, 1830. William Fowler, 1839. John Kreuter, 
1 841. 


Sec. 27. Joel Iliatt, 1839. Frederick F. Mark and Jas. Satcliill, 1839. 

Sec. 28. Spencer Wilson. 1839. David P. Wilcox, 1839. Nathaniel F. 
Cisco, 1839. John C. McCleary, 1839. 

Sec. 29. James Latta, 1839. Samuel Latta, 1839. William Thompson, 1839. 
John Thompson, 1839. 

Sec. 30. Martin Gray, 1839. Robert Gray, 1839. William Thompson, 1839. 

Sec. 31. Thomas Wainright, 1839. William Reeder, 1839. Micajah Reeder, 

1839. William Thompson, 1839. 

Sec. 32. John Thompson, 1839. William Thompson, 1839. 

Sec. 33. Abram McCleary, 1839. Andrew J. Stark, 1839. William Thomp- 
son, Jr., 1839. John C. McCleary, 1839. 

Sec. 34. John C. McCleary, 1839. Nathaniel F. Cisco, 1839. Andrew Ken- 
dall, 1841. 

Sec. 35. John Creswell, 1839. Frederick F. Mark and Jas. Satchell, 1839. 

Sec. 36. George Hunt, 1839. John Creswell, 1839. George and Robert 
Humphrey, 1839. 


Sec. i. John Storm, 1853. Harrison Foster, 1851. Charles R. Hadley, 


Sec. 2. Adam Litrel, 185 1. Alexander Collins, 1853. 

Sec. 3. David Riggs, 1853. John Idle, 1854. 

Sec. 4. Geo. W. Gipple, 1854. Reeve Edgington, 1842. James Bedwell, 

1840. Samuel Bedwell, 1846. 
Sec. 5. James Bedwell, 1840. 

Sec. 8. James Bedwell, 1840. John Knott, 1840. 

Sec. 10. Thomas Dowson, 1853. Peter D. Frazier, 1853. Elizabeth Newell, 
1853. Stephen Eldredge, 1853. Geo. Townsley, 1852. 

Sec. 11. Harrison Foster, 185 1. John Knott, 1840. Elizabeth Townsley. 

Sec. 12. William Beard, 1840. Adrana Beard, 1840. Thompson Tilford, 

Sec. 13. James Newell, 1839. Jacob Shellabarger, 1840. Margaret Wil- 
liamson, 1842. 

Sec. 14. Alexander Finley, 1840. Napoleon B.'and Alfred Lenox, 1840. 

Sec. 15. N. M. Letts, 1854. John Idle, 1854. 

Sec. 17. Joseph and Peter Blake, 1840. Truman G. Clark, 1840. Samuel 
Lucky, 1844. 

Sec. 18. William Blake, 1840. Joseph and Peter Blake, 1840. 

Sec. 19. Levi Rice, 1840. 

Sec. 20. Alvin Clark, 1840. Edmund C. Whipple, 1844. Daniel Winchell, 

Sec. 21. Daniel Winchell, 1840. George Shaw, 1851. Chandler W. Ells- 
worth, 1853. Elias Marshall, 1854. 

Sec. 22. Thomas Newell, 1841. William Todd, 1840, John Roddan, 1840. 

Sec. 23. Thomas Newell, 1841. William Paullins, 1841. Christopher 
Spurgeon, 1846. 

Sec. 24. Jacob Shellabarger, 1840. Thomas B. Shellabarger, 1840. Asa 
Worthan, 1839. 


Sec. 25. James Latta, 1840. John Roddan, 1840. 

Sec. 26. John Creswell, 1840. John B. Creswell, 1839. John F. Adams, 

Sec. 2j. John Rodan, 1840. 

Sec. 28. Horace Pease, 1851. Samuel E. Whipple. 1850. 

Sec. 29. Barstow Williams, 1840. Robert Williams, 1840. 

Sec. 30. Levi Rice, 1840. David Mortimer, 1840. Isaac Knox, 1840. 

Sec. 31. Robert Wilson, 1840. Jacob Martin, 1839. Levi Rice, 1840. 

Sec. 32. Lathrop Francis, 1840. Samuel Morrison, 1840. Barstow Wil- 
liams, 1840. Robert Wilson, 1840. 

Sec. 33. Jacob Triggs, 1840. Benjamin Stoddard, 1840. Zebinah Williams, 
1840. James Vanorsdol, 1840. 

Sec. 35. Jeremiah Browning, 1848. 

Sec. 36. William Reeder, 1839. Thomas Wainright, 1841. James H. 
Tucker, 1840. Micajah Reeder. 1840. James Reeder, 1840. 


Sec. 1. John Brown, 1843. 

Sec. 2. William McGrew, 1840. John Flack, 1841. Wilson Giffm, 1852. 

Sec. 3. Josah J. Orr. 1851. James A. Duncan, 1851. M. W. Edmondson, 

Sec. 4. James McAllister, 1840. 

Sec. 5. John Hetfield, 1854. Hamilton Johnston, 1852. 

Sec. 8. Edwin Woodring, 1853. 

Sec. 9. Alexander Story, 1854. 

Sec. 11. John Q. and Stephen B. Thompson. 1842. Elisha Shepherd, 1840 
John Flack, 1840. 

Sec. 13. David Flack, 1840. Benjamin Tripp, 1840. Wm. J. R. Flack, 1840. 
Alexander Story. 1853. 

Sec. 14. Augustus Welch, 1841. Michael Ayres, 1842. James K. Duncan, 
1846. William T. Blair, 1852. James Tedford, 1853. 

Sec. 15. George B. Duncan, 1846. Dehart Reed. 1846. William Lewis, 1843. 

Sec. 18. James P. Bailey, 1852. 

Sec. 21. George Darrow, 1853. 

Sec. 22. Abraham Marion, 1854. John Orr, 1854. W. G. Allen, 1854. 

Sec. 23. George Snook, 1840. Josiah Lucky, 1841. 

Sec. 24. Samuel Knauss, 1840. John Read, 1840. Jacob Wren, 1840. Wil- 
liam Winters, 1840. Henry Snook, 1840. 

Sec. 25. Zadok Calhoun, 1840. Isaac Dewein, 1840. 

Sec. 26. Jacob Wren, 1840. Zadok Calhoun, 1840. James Knauss, 1840. 

Sec. 27. George Snook, 1840. Francis A. Duncan, 1852. Isaac Knox, 1841. 
John Marion, 1846. 

Sec. 30. Nathaniel Prime, 1840. John Hendel, 1840. 

Sec. 31. Samuel Buell, 1840. Jerusha Buell, 1840. David Patterson, 1840. 

Sec. 32. Elias Buell, 1840. David Tudor, 1842. Thomas Rees, 1842. 

Sec. 33. Evan Thomas, 1842. William Lewis 1842. William Jones, 1851. 
F. A. Duncan, 1853. 

Sec. 34. Francis A. Duncan, 1847. Andrew Duncan, 1847. John Wilson, 
1842. Joseph Gable, 1842. 



Sec. 35. Silas Henkle, 1840. James Caret, 1841. James M. Quimby, 1X45. 
John Cleaves, 1845. Adam Reister, 1840. 

Sec. 36. David Dix. 1839. Zadok Calhoun, 1840. James M. Robertson, 
1841. Edward F. Wilson, 1841. James G. Hall, 1840. 


John Clark, 1841. Josiah B. Hollingsworth, 1841. ■ 

John Clark, 1841. 

Adam Crim, 1851. Samuel Knauss, 1846. 

Ward Blake, 1841. Garret Allumbaugh, 1851. Shakespeare Mc- 

William Nelson. 1848. Joseph Blake. 1840. 

John Dyer, 1840. 

Patrick Colton, 1842. 

Andrew Gamble, 1844. 

William Colton, 1844. 

John Hanna Armstrong, 1840. James B. McAllister, 1840. 

John Brown, 1846. Wm. Ireland, 1841. Ward Blake, 1841. 









Cee, 1849. 



















We know that there were elections held in the county in March or April, 
1837, and also on the 6th of May, 1837. At this latter election Isaac Parsons 
was elected coroner. This fact is recited in his official bond ; but we have been 
unable to find any returns of elections held in the county prior to the one held 
on March 5, 1838, and all we have found relating to that election consists of 
(1) election returns from Wapello, (2) election returns from Iowatown, and 
(3) canvass of election. The return from Wapello is as follows: "Poal book 
of an election held at Wapello, W. T., on the first Monday in March, Eighteen 
Hundred and Thirty-eight, for the perpose of the election of county and town 
officers." Then follow the names of electors, numbering 74, then the tally 
list showing the various candidates voted for and the number of votes 
for each one. This tally list shows that the vote for county commissioners was 
as follows: William Milligan, 40; John Ronalds, 18; William L. Toole, 55; 
George Humphrey, 8 ; Philip B. Harrison, 35 ; Charles D. Gillem, 35 ; Alvin 
Clark, 5. For assessor the vote was: William H. R. Thomas, 34; John Bevins, 
35. There were a number of candidates voted for for constable. Those re- 
ceiving the highest votes were: C. M. McDaniel, 34; A. J. Bevins, 46; William 
W. Adams, 53: David Herron, 24; and Samuel Scott, 20. 

The judges of this election were S. S. Gourley, Josiah Lewis and V. P. 
Bunnell. The clerks were J. S. Rinearson and W. H. Sheldon. Among the 
list of names as voting in Wapello were the following: William H. R. Thomas, 
James M. Clark, Daniel Brewer, Tacob Martin, Jeremiah Smith, Aaron Springer, 
Peter Wigant, Silas Crisman, C. A. Ballard, Mahlon Wright, John O'Laughlin, 
William Fleming, James Ervvin, Peter Blake, Robert Lee, Henry Thompson. 

The returns from Iowatown are all on one sheet of paper. The names 
of the voters are given first, then the tally list and then the certificate, which 
is as follows : "At an election at the house of William Dupont, of Iowatown, 
Louisa county, and Territory of Wisconsin, on the 5th day of March, 1838, 
the above named persons Rec'd. the number of votes annext to their respective 
names for the above named offices. Certified by us, John Deihl, Christopher 
Shuck, William Dupont, judges of election ; Samuel Smith and William Guthrie, 
clerks of election." 

The vote on commissioners at Iowatown was : P. B. Harrison, 28 ; W. L. 
Tool, 20; W T . Milligan, 11 ; C. D. Gillem, 7; George Umphrey. 7; J. Reynolds, 1. 



There were nine persons voted for for constable, the four highest being: 
W. Shuek. 19; C. M. McDaniel, 21 ; Samuel Scott, 17; M. P. Mitchell, 10. 

The vote on assessor was: J. Bevins. 13 ; Thomas, 16. 

For treasurer: Christopher Shuck, 17; Z. Inghram, 1. 

For coroner: I. Parsons had 1. 

The names of thirty voters are given. Among them are the following: James 
Gordon, Samuel Pitt, James Larew, Jonathan Welch, John J. Kern, John Pitt, 
Sr., David Russell, Jefferson Frizel. James Wilson, David Linn, R. P. Burlin- 

The canvass of the election was made by William Miliigan and Isaac H. 
Rinearson, justices of the peace, on March 10, 1838, and it is apparent from 
the number of votes which they found cast for the different candidates that vot- 
ing was done at one or two more places beside Wapello and Iowatown. Black 
Hawk was probably one of these voting places. The canvass shows as follows : 

For county commissioners: William Miliigan, 89; John Ronalds, 48; Wil- 
liam L. Toole. 112: George Humphrey, 41; Philip B. Harrison, 80: Charles D. 
Gillem, 43; Alvin Clark, 63; William Fowler, 1. 

For assessor: William H. R. Thomas, 96; John Bevins, 70. 

The list of persons voted for for constables contains 13 names. We give 
a few of the highest : C. M. McDaniel, 71 ; Samuel Scott, 63 ; W. W. Adams, 
68; David P. Herron, 14; William L. Warren, 56; M. P. Mitchell, 50: A. I. 
Bevins, 47. 

There was also an election held on September 10, 1838. The only papers 
we find relating to it among the county archives are the returns from Black 
Hawk. Fredonia and Wapello. The election at Wapello was held at the house 
of S. S. Gourley in the town of Upper Wapello. 

W. W. Chapman had 48 votes for delegate to congress; David Rorer had 31 ; 
B. F. Wallace had 19; and Peter Hill Engle had 2. 

For the Council, James M. Clark had 91 votes, and Eli Reynolds, 7. 

For representative William L. Toole had 68; John Ronalds had 61; Levi 
Thornton, 39; Hiram Smith, 66; S. C. Hastings, 16; Samuel Woodsides, 28. 

There were 101 votes polled at this election in Wapello. Among them we 
note John Drake, the two Gregorys, Nathan and Levi, Zebina Williams, Samuel 
Chany, Thomas Bane. T. L. Rose, William M. Clark, Richard W. Gwinn, Philip 
J. Buffington. 

We also find on this list the names of Ely Ronalds and John Friason, in- 
tended for two Muscatine county citizens, Eli Reynolds and John Frierson. 
They were down here, no doubt, electioneering for John Frierson for representa- 
tive, and under the law as it existed at that time, they had a right to vote for 
members of the council and house of representatives anywhere in the district. 
At that time Louisa, Muscatine and Slaughter (Washington) counties were in the 
same district. 

The return from Black Hawk shows that the election was held at the house 
of E. Hook in the town of Black Hawk. Chapman had 25 votes; Rorer, 18; 
Wallace, 1. 

For member of the council, James M. Clark had 44 votes, being the whole 
number of votes cast. 



For representative, William L. Toole had 41 votes and the other leading 
candidates at this precinct were Levi Thornton, Silas S. Lathrop, Samuel Wood- 
side and John Ronalds. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the sheriff at that time was to be appointed 
by the governor, the people of Black Hawk expressed their preference by 31 for- 
McDaniel to 8 for Thomas. 

Among those voting at Black Hawk that day were the following: Valentine 
Faulkner. John H. Benson, the two Mallorys, Riley and Harmon, Albert Cadwell, 
Isaac D. Nevill, James Guest, Ward Noyes, William Fleming, Orrin Briggs, 
Elias Keever, Israel Trask and Maxamilian Eastwood. 

The election at Fredonia at this time was held at the house of Truman G. 
Clark and there were 26 votes cast. Among the names of the voters we find 
Robert W. Gray. James Bedwell, Francis W. Newel, William Todd, Marvel 
Wheelock and Alexander E. Black. Chapman got all but one of the votes for 
delegate to congress. 

The first election held in 1839 was on the 4th of March, and we have the 
canvass made of the returns for that election and copy it entire : 

"A canvass of the returns of an election held on the 4th of March, 1839, for 
electing a seat of justice and three county commissioners for Louisa county, Iowa 
Territory, done before William Milligan and Hiram Smith, two acting justices 
of the peace for said county and in pursuance of the laws of the territory, in such 
case made and provided. 

























3 c 


1— < 
1 — I 
















Wapello . . . 






5 9 




Harrison . . . 

. 11 



. 6 




Blackhawk . 

. 12 




• 32 




Florence . . . 

• 2 5 



■ 24 


Fredonia . . . 





Grandview . 









Guinns .... 






• i" 







187 83 256 89 23 72 22 34 2 32 12 57 35 6 17 

Iowa Territory, Louisa County. 

I hereby certify that on this 14th day of March, 1839, I having received the 
election returns from all the election precincts, where elections were held at the 
above election precincts did open canvass and examine the same in the presence 
of the above named justices at the office of Thomas & Springer, Esqs. and find 
that William Milligan, Wright Williams and Israel Clark have received the 

Vol. 1—8 


highest number of votes. They are therefore hereby declared duly elected com- 
missioners for said county. 

"John Gilliland, 
"Clk. to Board of Comrs." 

"Guinns" was at Virginia Grove; "Hall's" was probably James G. Halls, then 
on Long Creek; and Calins was Hugh Calins, or Callans, which was on the east 
side of the Iowa river in the north part of section i, township 75 north, range 5. 

It will be noted that this canvass states that it is of the returns of the elec- 
tion for locating a seat of justice and also county commissioners but as ex- 
plained in a previous chapter the law authorizing an election for a seat of 
justice provided that the sheriff should canvass that vote, and this is doubtless 
why the canvass of the vote on that question was not set out with the other. 

There was also an election held on the 5th of August, 1839. The canvass 
of the returns for this election only shows votes cast in six precincts, viz: 
Wapello, Florence, Black Hawk, Harrison, Grandview and Fredonia, and it 
also shows the vote cast in Washington county for representative, there being 
two to elect. Louisa county gave Jacob Mintun 123 votes, and Daniel Brewer 
1 1 2 votes, and these were the successful candidates. 

The other leading candidates in this county were Levi Thornton, 98 votes ; 
William L. Toole, 92 votes ; John Ronalds, 80 votes ; William H. R. Thomas, 
69 votes. 

None of the Louisa county candidates received very many votes in Wash- 
ington county, the bulk of that vote being cast for Thomas Baker, who had 72, 
and Horace Carley, who had 58. 

The following items of interest we take from an examination of the elec- 
tion returns for 1840. In Wapello precinct there were 114 votes polled. 

For delegate to congress, A. C. Dodge had 68 votes ; and Alfred Rich, 46. 

For member of the council, Daniel Brewer had 59 votes; and Francis 
Springer, 54. 

For representative, John Ronalds had 59 votes, and William L. Toole, 52. 

For sheriff, C. M. McDaniel had 62 votes, and William H. R. Thomas, 49. 

For treasurer, George F. Thomas had 74; Asa Mallory, 15; and Cicero M. 
Ives. 10. 

At this election two questions were submitted. One was for holding a con- 
stitutional convention and the other was on the question of township organ- 
ization. Wapello cast 33 votes for a convention, and 40 against ; and 52 votes 
for township organization, and 9 against. 

An election was held in Virginia Grove that year according to the returns, 
at the house of R. W. Gwinn. This is the election of October 5th and there 
were 27 votes cast. 

Among the voters names we find those of Thomas and Samuel Bell, Bayard 
Grubb, Samuel Dunham, James Higbee, Robert R. Mickey, John R. Mickey, 
Zadok Jarvis, George Key, William P, Brown. Henry M. Ocheltree. 

Dodge carried this precinct by 1 majority; Brewer carried it by 12 majority; 
and Ronalds for representative, by ti majority. The vote for a constitutional 
convention was 2 ; and against, 24. 


The election at Florence this year was held at the house of P. B. Harrison 
and there were 31 votes cast. 

Dodge and Rich for congress each had 15 votes; for council Springer had 
18; Brewer 9; for representative, Toole had 17, and Ronalds 12. 

For a convention the vote was 4, and against, 11, and the majority in favor 
of township organization was 4. 

We learn from the election returns for Black Hawk that they had already 
erected a schoolhouse there, as the election was held in it. Black Hawk seems 
to have gone overwhelmingly for the whig candidates. 

For congress Rich had 46, Dodge 7; for the council, Springer 50, and 
Brewer 2; for representative, Toole 49, and Ronalds 4. 

On the question of township organization the vote was 46 for to 2 against, 
but we find no return in regard to the convention. 

The return of the election held in the "town of Grandview and precinct 
of Warren" shows that there were 31 votes cast, the whig candidates receiv- 
ing about 20 majority. 

The election of October 5, 1840, is the first one of which we find any re- 
turn from Columbus City precinct. The return states that the election for that 
precinct was held at the house of Adam Reister in Columbus City. The whig 
candidates had from 10 to 20 majority in the precinct. The judges of this 
election were John Reed, Wright Williams and Samuel Woodside ; and the 
clerks were Bruce Johnson and Joshua Gore. 

We find no returns from Fredonia for this election, nor does the canvass 
of this vote seem to have been preserved. These returns show that Rich, the 
whig candidate, carried the county over Dodge by a vote of 163 to 153; that 
Springer carried it over Brewer by a vote of 207 to 118; and Toole carried 
it over Ronalds by 198 to 128. 

Following is the vote by precincts on the two questions submitted in 1840 
so far as returns are to be found : 

For Against For Against 

Convention Convention Organization Organization 

Fredonia 20 19 11 6 

Virginia Grove 2 24 18 5 

Columbus City . . 10 46 

Grandview 21 1 26 o 

Wapello 33 45 52 9 

Jefferson . . 46 2 

Florence 4 11 15 11 

Harrison o 13 

80 113 178 79 

In 1 84 1 at the election held August 2d, Rich and Dodge ran again for con- 
gress, Rich receiving 233 votes and Dodge, 190. 

William L. Toole was elected representative over Jacob Mintun by 220 to 192. 
For probate judge George L. Coe had 205 votes and John J. Rinearson 143. 


For county commissioner Wright Williams had 307, Henry Warnstaft" 89. 

George F. Thomas for treasurer, and John Gilliland for surveyor were 
elected by large majorities. 

There were several candidates for assessor, resulting in the election of 
William H. R. Thomas. 

The April elections of this year in Columbus City and in Grandview were 
held in schoolhouses at those places. 

The returns for the elections held in 1N42 are not all to be found. In the 
\ugust election this year the question of "convention or no convention" was 
again submitted to the people. The vote on that question was given by word 
of mouth, and in most of the returns that are yet to be found it was stated after 
each voter's name how he voted on this question. Generally speaking, although 
there were many exceptions to the rule, the whigs voted against a convention 
and the democrats for a convention. 

At this election the whigs again carried the county, Francis Springer being 
elected to the council over Samuel Woodside, and Joseph Newell elected repre- 
sentative over Daniel Brewer. George Gillaspy was a candidate for county 
assessor but was defeated by David Hurley. 

In 1843 at the October election, the democrats were successful, carrying 
the county by a small majority for Dodge for delegate to congress, and electing 
George W. McCleary to the territorial house of representatives. In 1844 tne 
question of calling a constitutional convention looking to the organization of 
the territory into a state was again submitted to the people and was carried in 
the territory by the vote of 6,719 for, to 3,974 against, and in Louisa county 
by a vote of 256 for a convention to 249 against ft. There were a great many 
candidates for delegates to the constitutional convention, this county being 
entitled to 3. Those elected were Dr. John W. Brookbank, William L. Toole 
and Wright Williams. These men were all whigs. 

Among the democrats voted on as candidates for delegates to this conven- 
tion were Jacob Mintun, Isaac Parsons. John Bell and several others. 

ft will be remembered that the constitution adopted by this convention was 
not ratified by the people on account of the boundaries proposed for the new 
state by the act of congress, and the constitution which had been once rejected 
by the people was again submitted to them in 1845, and again rejected, this 
county casting 165 votes for it and 415 against it. George W. McCleary was 
reelected representative by a vote of 312 to 287 for Dr. James M. Robertson, 
who lived at Columbus City. We can see cropping out at this election the 
rivalry between the north end and the south end of the county, which in after 
years brought on so many bitter conflicts. Dr. Robertson got all but one of 
the votes in Fredonia township and all hut two votes in Columbus City and 
had 161 majority in the three townships of Grandview. Fredonia and Columbus 
City, while Mr. McCleary had 186 majority in the townships of Wapello, 
Florence and Jefferson. 

At this same election Enoch Ross, of Washington county, was elected a 
member of the council for the counties of Louisa, Washington, Keokuk and 
Mahaska, receiving 919 votes in the four counties as against 906 votes cast for 
William R. Harrison. 


In 1846 a new constitutional convention was ordered and John Ronalds was 
elected the delegate from Louisa county, Ronalds receiving 186 and Alexander 
McCall 184. The results of the work of this convention were satisfactory to 
the people in regard to the boundary and the constitution framed by it was 
ratified, though it had a number of objectionable features. The first election 
in Iowa after it became a state, was held on October 26, 1846, for the election 
of two members of congress. At that time the state had not been divided into 
congressional districts and both members were voted for all over the state. 

In Louisa county G. C. R. Mitchell received 351 votes; Joseph H. Hedrick, 
339 votes ; S. C. Hastings, 307 ; and Shepherd Leffler, 297. At the same time 
state and county officers were elected for the new state. Ansel Briggs, demo- 
crat, was elected governor but the whig candidate, Thomas McKnight, carried 
Louisa county by 65 majority. The candidates for state senator from Louisa 
and Washington counties were Francis Springer, whig, John Bell, Jr., democrat, 
the former receiving in the two counties 656 votes to 480 for John Bell. 

The candidates for representative in Louisa were Wright Williams and 
Joseph L. Derbin, Mr. Williams having 78 majority. 

The candidates for county prosecutor at this time were Edward H. Thomas 
and John Bird, and if their contest was as warm as it was close, they must 
have had a lively time, for Mr. Thomas had 313 and Mr. Bird had 312; James 
McKay was elected clerk of the district court on October 26, 1846, but began 
his term February 2, 1847. On April 5, 1847 tne question of licensing the 
liquor traffic was submitted to the people of the state, the vote in this county 
being 198 for license, and 271 against. 

By the time the election of 1847 came around the state had been divided 
into two congressional districts, Louisa county being in the second. Thomas 
McKnight carried Louisa county by 103 majority over Shepherd Leffler. At 
this election James Harlan and Charles Mason were opposing candidates for the 
office of state superintendent of public instruction. Mr. Harlan carried Louisa 
county by 128 majority and surprised the state by being elected. 

At the election held in August, 1848, the candidates for clerk were James 
McKay and George W. McCleary. Mr. McKay received 326 votes and Mc- 
Cleary 286. Mr. McKay resigned before the close of his term and started for 
California in search of gold, but died of cholera on the way there. 

The candidates for county prosecutor at this election were Robert C. Bur- 
chell, whig, and Hugh D. Reed, democrat. Both lived in Columbus City, Mr. 
Burchell's principal occupation being that of a tailor, while Mr. Reed was a 
blacksmith. Mr. Burchell was elected by a little over 100 majority. 

Oliver Benton and Wesley W. Garner were whig and democratic candidates 
for school fund commissioner, Mr. Benton being elected by 35 majority, while 
Wright Williams was elected representative over Colonel John Bird, with a 
majority of 60. 

The candidates for congress were Timothy Davis and Shepherd Leffler. 
The latter was elected but Davis carried the county. 

In 1849 Samuel Smith and Samuel Rocka feller were the leading candidates 
for sheriff, Mr. Smith being successful. 

In April, 1850, John Bird was elected county prosecutor to fill a vacancy 
caused by the resignation of R. C. Burchell, and at the August election there 


was a spirited contest between Mr. Bird and Francis Springer for this same 
office, Mr. Bird being defeated by a small majority. 

At the same election Robert F. Newell was elected clerk to the board of 
county commissioners over E. H. Thomas. 

Jacob Mintun was elected clerk, receiving 387 votes as against 300 for Ben 
R. Thomas. 

In 1 85 1 occurred the first election for county judge. There were four can- 
didates, Wright Williams receiving 367 votes, Merit Jamison 316, William L. 
Toole 75, and John Ronalds 48. 

Francis Springer resigned as county prosecutor and at this election Colonel 
Bird again ran for prosecuting attorney against Edward H. Thomas, and de- 
feated Mr. Thomas by a few votes. 

Also at this election Samuel McCullough was elected supervisor, his office 
being that of road supervisor for the county. So far as we have been able to 
find, he is the only man ever elected to that office in this county. 

At the election in August, 1852. James Noffsinger, who though a lawyer, 
was also editor of the Louisa County Times, was nominated by the whig con- 
vention for prosecuting attorney, but at first declined for the reason, as he 
stated, that he did not believe the county desired him for that office. Later 
he reconsidered his declination, believing that he had been mistaken the first 
time, and those who were opposed to him put up Charles H. Abbott of Oak- 
land township, who was an extensive dealer in land but not a practicing lawyer. 
The contest resulted in Mr. Abbott being elected by a vote of 432 to 377. 

At this election Louisa county was entitled to and voted for two repre- 
sentatives, the whigs nominating Dr. John Cleaves and J. B. Latta, the demo- 
crats nominating Micajah Reeder and John Bird. The result, politically speak- 
ing, was a drawn battle. Cleaves and Reeder being elected. 

In November occurred the presidential election, the democrats carrying the 
county by a vote of 468 to 368, Fredonia township being the only one carried 
by the whigs. 

At the April election of 1855. two important questions were submitted to 
the people. One was the question of the adoption of a prohibitory liquor law, 
and this time the proposition carried in the county by a vote of 619 to 389. 
Concord and LJnion townships voted against it by small majorities. In Grand- 
view township the vote was 103 for and 100 against. The largest majority 
was in Columbus City township, where the proposition was carried by 122. 
The other townships gave fair majorities for it. 

The other question was submitted by the county judge, Francis Springer, 
upon the proposition of buying a farm upon which to erect a poor house ; it 
carried by 690 to 309, although Grandview township gave 100 majority against it. 

1856 may well be called the year of elections in Louisa county, there having 
been elections held in January, April, June, July, August and November. Sev- 
eral of these were on questions connected with railroad subscriptions. One 
of these elections was a special election held on July 1st, because Representa- 
tive J. C. Lockwood had resigned and moved out of the state. The candidates 
were Dr. John Bell, Jr. and Lewis Kinsey, the latter being elected. 

The democratic convention, held at Wapello on July 19, was presided over 
by Samuel Hamilton, and Dr. B. G. Neal was secretary. The principal busi- 


ness of this convention seems to have been to nominate a candidate for repre- 
sentative and prosecuting attorney, and to select delegates to the convention 
of Washington and Louisa counties, at Crawfordsville, to nominate a repre- 
sentative for the floating district. On motion of D. N. Sprague, Dr. B. G. Neal 
was nominated for representative and Joseph Paschal for prosecuting attorney. 
The delegates elected to the Crawfordsville convention were D. N. Sprague, 
W. S. Allen, William Keach, Isaac Paschal and William Stewart. 
A set of resolutions were adopted, one of which was as follows : 

"Resolved, That this convention do not sympathize, but on the other hand, 
repudiate all interference in the political organizations in other states and terri- 
tories, whether such interference comes from the north or from the south ; 
also that while we recognize the principle of self defense and preservation, 
that this convention repudiate all sympathy with ruffianism, murder or treason, 
let it come in any form, or shape, person or quarter." 

At the August election N. W. Burris was elected representative over Dr. 
B. G. Neal. 

It was at this election that John Hale was first elected county clerk, his 
opponent being C. P. Woodard. 

At this same election the people voted on a proposition to revise or amend 
the constitution, which proposition carried in Louisa county by a vote of 1,057 
to 36. 

At the November election following, the candidates from this county for 
delegate to the constitutional convention were Francis Springer and Levi Chase, 
Springer receiving 1,011 votes and Chase 707. 

At the April election of 1857, Alexander Ross and Robert F. Newell were 
candidates for drainage commissioner, Mr. Ross being elected. 

At the same time William J. R. Flack was elected county assessor over 
Joseph Blake, and Whitney S. Kremer was elected county surveyor over George 
P. Sherwood. 

In August, 1857, there was an exciting county election, the republican can- 
didates being Samuel Townsend for county judge, John L. Grubb for recorder 
and treasurer, A. M. Taylor for sheriff, J. C. Sterlin for coroner and W. S. 
Kremer for surveyor. The democratic candidates were Joseph L. Derbin for 
county judge, William A. Colton for recorder and treasurer, William Stewart 
for sheriff, John Studdard for coroner and Robert F. Newell for surveyor. 
On county judge the vote was 725 for Derbin to 711 for Townsend. Dr. 
Colton had 85 majority over Grubb, Sheriff Taylor had 214 majority over 
Stewart, and Mr. Kremer had 113 majority over Newell. Studdard, the demo- 
cratic candidate for coroner, had 29 majority. 

One of the live issues in this county that year was on the question of adopt- 
ing or repudiating the new constitution which was to be voted on on the 3d of 

The republican county convention was held at Wapello, July 18th, and 
adopted the following resolution : 

"Resolved that in the constitution presented to the people for their suffrages 
at the August election, we see embraced those modifications of the old which 
the growing wants of the state demand. 


"Resolved. That Louisa county will give 600 majority for the new constitu- 

At the democratic convention held on July 20th. the following resolutions 
were adopted : 

"Resolved that the new constitution that is to be submitted at the ensuing 
election to the voters of this state for their approval, is a burlesque, in that it 
attempts to make the negro a privileged character, the equal, and in some re- 
spects, the superior — in the point of political privilege — to the freeborn Ameri- 
can citizen. 

"Resolved, That the creation of an unnecessary legislative body, the expense 
thereof, and the unlimited power conferred thereon to legislate upon all local 
questions pertaining to our district or common schools, compelling us to educate 
the negro in the same school and upon equality with our children, would be 
productive only of evil to the common schools of our state. 

"Resolved, That the democratic party will use all honorable means in this 
county to defeat the constitution as now submitted." 

The new constitution was approved in the county by a vote of 698 to 473. The 
vote by townships was as follows : 

Townships [-', >r Against 

Columbus City 220 76 

Eliot 19 27 

Elm Grove 38 10 

Grand view ". 102 96 

Marshall 62 26 

Port Lousia y^ 21 

Union 29 8 

Wapello 155 209 

Total 698 473 

Following were rejected for informalities : 

Oakland 20 43 

Jefferson ■ 83 79 

Morning Sun 68 63 

Concord 2<) 63 

The proposition to strike the word "white" out of the constitution was voted on 
at the same time, but many failed to vote on it. It was defeated — the vote being 
120 for, to 234 against. 

Beginning with the year 1858, a record has been kept in the auditor's office, 
in which most of the elections have been recorded and within a few years after 
(his the election returns were published first in the census reports, and later in 
the official register published by the state, and we deem it unnecessary to take 
up more space in regard to the elections. 








In 1858 was the first county seat contest between Wapello and Columbus City, 
and the vote upon this question will be found in the chapter on Columbus City. 

In 1865 political affairs in this county took on a rather strange phase and 
there was considerable apparent changing of party lines. The republican con- 
vention met August 5, 1865, and nominated Dr. J. M. Robertson for state senator, 
and N. T. Drown for representative; S. E. Jones for county judge; W. S. Kremer 
for treasurer; E. B. Lacey for sheriff; A. Millmine for school superintendent; 
and W. C. Blackstone for surveyor and James Semple, for coroner. 

The opposition convention was held September 2, 1865, under the name of 
the soldiers' convention. This convention was called by numerous bills posted 
over the county for sometime before, inviting the soldiers and those opposed to 
negro equality to meet in mass convention at the court house to nominate a county 
ticket. The account in the newspapers of that date says that at the opening pro- 
ceedings the court room was crowded, partly by those who were opposed to any- 
thing that "smelt of nigger" and partly by soldiers who had recently returned 
home, but before proceedings were commenced it became known that the soldiers 
were not in sympathy with the opposition to negro equality and it is said that 
when Lieutenant B. F. Wright called the meeting to order he explained that the 
call did not mean exactly what it said in regard to soldiers being invited, but only 
meant that soldiers who were opposed to negro equality were invited. Trie fol- 
lowing candidates were nominated by the convention : For senator, James S. 
Hurley; for representative, O. H. P. Linn; for county judge, B. F. Wright; for 
treasurer, Captain W. G. Allen ; for sheriff, J. Price McDaniel ; for school super- 
intendent, D. H. Cushman; for surveyor. Major Thomas W. Bailey; for coroner, 
A. C. Scull. 

Neither Mr. Hurley nor Captain Allen were present at the convention and 
both immediately announced their refusal to run on the so-called soldiers' ticket. 
Subsequently, N. M. Letts was placed on the ticket as a candidate for senator 
and Abram Fulton as a candidate for treasurer. The soldiers' convention 
adopted a set of resolutions, among which was one sustaining the administration 
and reconstruction policy of President Johnson, and another in opposition to 
negro suffrage, or to striking the word "white" out of the constitution. 

There was a lively campaign as a result of this so-called soldiers' movement 
and the soldiers' ticket was supported largely, though not entirely, by the demo- 
cratic voters, although nearly all the candidatei were republicans. The republi- 
can ticket, or, as it was called during this campaign, the union ticket, was suc- 
cessful. The republican, or union candidate, for governor was Wm. M. Stone, 
and he received 1,114 votes to 832 for Benton; for senator, Dr. J. M. Robertson 
received 1,092 votes, and N. M. Letts 860; for representative N. T. Brown re- 
ceived 1,142 votes and O. H. P. Linn 810; the other candidates on the two tickets 
fared about the same. 

The republican party of this county adopted the primary system of nominat- 
ing candidates' on September 7, 1867. Dr. G. K. Hickok of Columbus City, was 
chairman of the convention ; L. W. Myers, secretary. The plan of a primary 
election was presented and explained by Mr. Myers and resolutions on the sub- 
ject were offered by James S. Hurley. They provided in substance that there- 
after the republicans of the county would nominate candidates for county of- 
fices by a primary election to be held in each township upon ten days' notice, 


that persons should be entitled to vote only in townships wherein they lived and 
that the votes should be canvassed by the chairman of the county committee and 
any two other members. 

The first primary election in the county was held on Saturday, August 28, 
1869. James S. Hurley was nominated for senator over Rev. F. F. Kiner, by 
702 to 357. 

The most interesting- contest was a three-cornered fight for representative, 
between G. D. Harrison, L. W. Myers and S. C. Curtis. Mr. Harrison was nom- 
inated, the vote being, Harrison, 424, Myers, 340, and Curtis, 261. 

Another close contest was for sheriff. J. L. Grubb had 386 votes, E. B. Lacey 
had 357, J. H. Coulter had 218, and A. H. Havenhill had 90. 

L. A. Riley was nominated for superintendent of schools, receiving 501 votes, 
to 353 f° r J- B. Porter, and 139 for L. W. Weller. 

Although Mr. Myers introduced the primary election into the county, and 
was defeated at the very first election, he was always a consistent supporter of 
the primary. 


It is not generally known that the whig party in Iowa had its beginning in 
Louisa county, but such is the fact. At an old settlers' meeting held in Wapello, 
February 22, 1859, C. M. McDaniel was one of the speakers. We take the fol- 
lowing from the account of his speech published at that time: 

"In political matters in those days it was not of much importance what party 
a man belonged to, the question was not 'to what party do you belong?' but 'for 
what man do you vote?' Parties were known in the east, but here nothing was 
known of whig, democrat, republican, know-nothing, or any other party name. 
At the first election there were ten candidates for members of the legislature, but 
not very heavy electioneering, for there were very few votes to electioneer. In 
a short time the words whig and democrat began to be heard — the speaker stated 
that he himself was a democrat, and of course when the party question was 
raised, was warmly interested for the success of his party and being elected 
sheriff, which of course made him begin to feel his importance, began to think 
it would improve the look of things to have some resident lawyers. Being in 
Burlington about this time, he met with two attorneys, just arrived from the east, 
and seeking a location ; both since well known to the people of this county — Judge 
Springer and E. H. Thomas. Judge Rorer told the speaker that he ought to try 
to induce them to come to Wapello, as the effect of getting two lawyers located 
here would be to increase the law business and so make the sheriff's office more 
profitable. They were both induced to come, but being both whigs he soon found 
what he might have expected as a natural consequence, that as soon as they were 
firmly located, the county began to show strong signs of whiggery. At first he 
could not imagine the reason, but it was so and continually getting worse. In 
1847 politics were high here as in other places, and Judge Rorer being in this 
place asked him (the speaker) what he thought was the prospect of the election 
in this county. The reply was that it was rather mixed, that the Yankee lawyers 
were about to prove entirely too much for the democratic opponent. 'Oh,' said 
the Judge, 'didn't we play the d 1' — and added, nearly with tears in his eyes, 


'I'd not the least idea they were whigs, can't you get ahead of them some way?' 
— he thought not, and so it has been ; he has been to California since, and on his 
return found that though the whigs were dead, the republicans were opposing 
democracy and it was worse than ever." 

History says that Mr. McDaniel was right in reference to the work of the 
two whig lawyers and their friends. The first distinctly whig meeting was held 
in Wapello on June ioth, 1840. It was called a Harrison meeting. At this meet- 
ing Francis Springer submitted resolutions expressing regret and disappointment 
that elections could no longer be conducted without regard to partisan activity 
and stating that the democrats had "raised the standard of the party, lit its smould- 
ering fires, and have thrown the gauntlet of defiance at our feet by calling con- 
ventions to nominate candidates to be supported on partisan grounds." The 
resolution stated that under these circumstances it was the duty of the whigs to 
establish a whig party in the territory and to meet and organize at Bloomington 
and to agree upon a candidate for delegate to congress. This meeting appointed 
a committee of five to act as a committee of correspondence with their political 
friends in the territory. This committee consisted of Edward H. Thomas, Jacob 
S. Rinearson, Joseph Newell, William H. R. Thomas and William L. Toole. A 
little later whig meetings were held in Muscatine county and Des Moines county. 
Of the first territorial convention held by the whigs, the "Iowa Journal of His- 
tory and Politics" for January, 1907, says : 

"Pursuant to the recommendation of the Louisa county convention a 'Con- 
gress of the People' assembled at Bloomington on July 29. The whigs marched 
in a long procession to a grove where the ladies of Bloomington presented a 
handsome standard to the Tippecanoe Club of Muscatine county. Mr. Ralph 
P. Lowe, the president of the club, in a brief speech accepted the present which 
was then dedicated to the Harrison citizens of the territory as expressive of the 
devotion of the club to republican principles and to the cause of general reform 
in the national administration. At the conclusion of these ceremonies the meet- 
ing organized by electing Colonel Isaac Leffler, of Des Moines county, as presi- 
dent, and Joseph Webster, of Lee county, Francis Ford, of Cedar county, and 
Levi Thornton, of Linn (should be Louisa) county, as vice presidents. W. G. 
Woodward, of Bloomington, and E. Thomas (Edward H. Thomas), of Wapello, 
were chosen as secretaries. It was then resolved to give the support of the con- 
vention to the candidate for delegate to congress who should be nominated at 
this meeting. On proceeding to a vote Alfred Rich received 120 votes; Philip 
Viele, 61 votes and S. Whicher, 1 1 votes. Mr. Rich was then declared the nominee 
of the convention and recommended to the people of the territory for their next 
delegate to congress. A committee of five was appointed to prepare and to have 
published an 'address to the people of the territory.' A central whig committee 
of five was also appointed and the meeting adjourned by recommending that all 
the counties appoint committees of vigilance and correspondence." 

Augustus C. Dodge, of Burlington, was nominated in opposition to Mr. Rich 
by the democrats at a convention held in Bloomington on August 19th. A lively 
political campaign ensued and at the election of October 5, 1840, Mr. Dodge 


had a majority of 615. It was said that many hundreds of whigs voted for Mr. 
Dodge out of personal and local considerations. The whigs of the territory made 
considerable gain in the legislature, the house standing 11 whigs to 15 democrats, 
and the council standing 7 whigs and 6 democrats. This council is the only one 
in the history of the territory in which the whigs had a majority. Louisa county 
sent one of these whigs in the person of Francis Springer, who was elected from 
the Louisa-Washington district. From this time on, Louisa county was unsafe 
territory for the democrats, though the candidates of that party were occasionally 
elected after that. There was considerable whig activity throughout the territory 
m the year 1841 and Louisa county bore a prominent part in it. The first meet- 
ing was held in the Methodist church at Burlington, January 6, 1841, and Ralph 
P. Lowe, of Burlington, was elected president, and Francis Springer of Wapello, 
was elected secretary. It was decided to hold a territorial convention at Daven- 
port to nominate a candidate for delegate to congress. The first county meet- 
ing, or county convention to select delegates to the Davenport convention was 
held at Wapello in Louisa county on Saturday, February 6, 1841. Joseph Newell 
was chairman and William H. R. Thomas was secretary. A committee consist- 
ing of the following named gentlemen: E. II. Thomas, William L. Toole, Wil- 
liam Kennedy, Henry Rockafeller, E. K. Maxson and G. L. Coe was appointed, 
for the purpose of reporting to the meeting a list of delegates to the democrat- 
whig territorial convention to be held at Davenport in May next, and also a list 
of persons to constitute a democratic-whig county committee. George F. Thomas 
moved the appointment of a committee of six on resolutions and the following 
were appointed : George F. Thomas, Francis Springer, Alexander Ross, Israel 
Trask, Dr. J. W. Brookbank and Joel Bronson. The convention appointed as 
delegates to Davenport, Henry Rockafeller, E. K. Maxson and Joseph Newell, 
and as a democratic-whig county committee, the following: George L. Coe, of 
Jefferson township ; Alexander Ross, Grandview township : Wright Williams, 
Columbus City township: Edward H. Thomas, Wapello township, and John 
Deihl, Florence township. Spirited resolutions were adopted favoring a perfect 
organization in every township, approving the plan of holding a whig conven- 
tion at Davenport, and calling upon all whigs to lay aside prejudices of locality 
and to unite their energies for a victory at once signal and glorious. The pro- 
ceedings of this meeting were published in the whig papers at Bloomington and 
Iowa City under the heading "A Voice from Louisa County" and the other 
counties of the territory were called upon to do likewise. The whigs of Louisa 
county entered the political fight in earnest that year and on July 3, 1841, held a 
county convention at Wapello, of which Nathaniel Prime was chairman and 
' William H. R. Thomas, secretary. At this convention William L. Toole was 
nominated for representative and Wright Williams for county commissioner 
and both were successful at the ensuing election. The delegates from the vari- 
ous townships to this convention were as follows: Wapello township, George 
F. Thomas, Dr. J. W. Brookbank, Jacob S. Rinearson, George Rouse, Leonard 
Robinson, William II. R. Thomas, Dennis Williams, Joel Bronson and Isaac 
Hall; Columbus City township, S. Hutchison, B. Johnson, James G. Hall, R. 
W. Dollbee, R. C. Burchell, George Reister, Nathaniel Prime, William J. R. 
Flack, John McCoy, Dr. H. M. Downer, Nelson Alloway and Wright Williams : 
Grandview township, William Klum, Alexander Ross. William Fowler, Robert 


Benefiel, William Hamilton, S. H. Rockafeller and Jesse Walling; Jefferson 
township, Perry Morrison, William F. Dickison, George L. Coe, Thomas Bras, 
E. F. Dennison, G. II. Austin, William Fleming, James Guest, J. R. Rockafeller, 
Elisha Hook and William Searl : Florence township, Orrison Craig, Reuben P. 
Bolles. John Deihl, John A. Lewin, George Newell, Jefferson Frizzle, Aaron 
D. Hurley, Daniel Briggs, George Presbury, Joseph Ogle and Thomas Gregory. 

From this time on until the whig party ceased to exist, Louisa county was a 
whig stronghold and the whig candidates generally carried the county, although 
there were numerous exceptions to this rule. The territory, and afterward, the 
state, was democratic, however, until, in 1854 the whigs elected James W. 
Grimes, governor, and carried the state legislature by a small majority. The 
election of Governor Grimes was due to the strong anti-slavery sentiment in 
Iowa and to the fact that he took a firm stand against the extension of slavery. 
It was about this time that the republican party was being organized in a few 
states, and Iowa was not far behind. For some years the know-nothing party 
had kept up an organization in Louisa county, though it is said its principal meet- 
ings were held in secret. This party had an especially strong following over in 
Jefferson and Port Louisa townships and considerable strength in most parts 
of the county. During the administration of Governor Grimes, under his leader- 
ship, most of the old wdiigs, many of the know-nothings, free-soilers and other 
opponents of slavery extension, were drawn together in the new republican organi- 
zation. At this time republicanism was defined to be simply and wholly opposi- 
tion to the extension of slavery. It was declared by its -leading newspapers that 
the party did not propose to interfere with slavery where it then existed but to 
keep slavery where it was. The chief slogans of the party at that time were 
"no more slave territory" and "no more slave states." This doctrine found much 
favor in Louisa county and was supported by nearly all the old whigs and by 
some who had theretofore been democrats. One of the strong men among the 
latter was Andrew Gamble. 

The republicans had their first convention at Iowa City on the 22d of Feb- 
ruary, 1856, at which most of the counties of the state were represented. One 
of the early counties to hold a convention to send delegates to this convention 
was Louisa county and its delegation consisted of Francis Springer, James G. Hall 
and Joel Bronson. Francis Springer seems to have been recognized as one of 
the leaders of this movement from the very beginning. He was made a member 
of the committee on platform and was placed at the head of the delegates to 
the national republican convention to be held at Philadelphia. From that day 
to this Louisa county has been steadfast in its republicanism. 






1837 — William Kennedy. 


1838— William H. R. Thomas. 

1839 — John Gilliland, to fill vacancy. 

1840 — J. S. Rinearson. 

1842 — Daniel Brewer, pro tern. 

1845 — John Gilliland. 

1846 — Francis Springer, for April session. 

1846 — Samuel M. Kirkpatrick, pro tern. 

1846 — Samuel M. Kirkpatrick, elected. 

1847 — S. M. Kirkpatrick. 

1849 — Lewis Kinsey. 

1850— Robert F. Newell. 


August 17, 1851 — Wright Williams, died 1854. 
November 23, 1854 — Francis Springer, to fill vacancy. 
1855 — Francis Springer, elected. 
1857 — Joseph L. Derbin. 
1859 — Joseph L. Derbin. 
1862-65 — Lewis W. Vale. 
January, 1866 — S. E. Jones. 

June, 1866 — William G. Allen, until January, 1869, when he was county 


1869-1874— William G. Allen. 
1874-1883 — James B. Gibboney, died 1883. 



1883-89— R. E. Archibald, to fill vacancy ; R. E. Archibald, elected. 
1890-98 — James S. Kelly. 
1899-1904 — C. J. Ives. 
1905 to date — H. W. Baker. 


April 20, 1837 — James W. Woods, pro tern. 

1830. — Isaac Van Allen. 

1839 — E. H. Thomas. 

1840— R. P. Lowe. 

1842 — R. P. Lowe. 

[844 — Edward H. Thomas. 

1845 — Edward H. Thomas. 

1846— John Bird. 

1847 — Edward H. Thomas. 

1848— R. C. Burchell. 

1850— John Bird. 

1850 — Francis Springer, resigned, August 19, 1851. 

1851 — John Bird. 

1852 — John Bird. 

1852 — C. H. Abbott, elected August, 1852. 

1854 — Francis Springer, resigned, February 28, 1855. 

1855 — James S. Hurley. 

1855 — Jacob Butler. 

1856 — James S. Hurley 


1887-8— E. B. Tucker, County Attorney. 

1889-94 — A. W. Jarvis, County Attorney. 

1895-1900 — F. M. Molsberry, County Attorney. 

1901-04 — H. E. Curran. 

1905-08 — Oscar Hale. 

1909 to date — W. H. Hurley. 


Feby. 18, 1837, to Feby. 2, 1847 — Zadok C. Inghram. 

Feby. 2, 1847 to Aug. 1850 — James McKay (died out west before his term 

August 1850 to Aug. 1832 — Jacob Mintun. 
August 1852 to Aug. 1856 — Lewis Kinsey. 
August 1856 to Jan. 1871 — John Hale. 
Jan. 1871 to Jan. 1883 — John Huff. 
Jan. 1883 to Jan. 1889— G. W. Thomas. 
Jan. 1889 to Jan. 1895— H. M. Holler. 
Jan. 1895 to Jan. 1903 — Ed. Hicklin. 

XAIMIK C. tNGHRAM, First Cleric 

fkaxcis si'itix<;i-:u 




Jan. 1903 to May 29, 1907 — B. F. Ogden. 
May 29, 1907, to date — F. T. Ives. 


1837 — Zadok C. Inghram, acting. 

1837 — P. B. Harrison, elected member county commissioners' court and 
probably resigned. 

1838 — Zadok C. Inghram, gave bond as appointee, April 16, 1838. 

1838 — Hiram Smith, gave bond October 13, 1838. 

1839 — John Bevins, gave bond April 6, 1839. 

1840 — Cicero M. Ives, gave bond October 8, 1839. 

1840 — George F. Thomas, gave bond October 5, 1840. 

1841 — George F. Thomas, gave bond August 14, 1841. 

1842 — George F. Thomas, gave bond August 8, 1842. 

1844 — George F. Thomas, gave bond October 12, 1844. 

1846 — George F. Thomas, gave bond August 10. 1846. 

1847 — Samuel Townsend (and recorder), gave bond August 9, 1849, re- 
signed March 27, 1849. 

1849 — Dennis Williams (and recorder), gave bond March 28, 1849. 

1851 — Samuel Townsend (and recorder), gave bond August n, 1851. 

1853 — John C. Tucker (and recorder), gave bond August 10, 1853. 

1855 — Samuel Townsend (and recorder), gave bond August 9, 1855. 

1857 — William A. Colton (and recorder), gave bond August 17, 1857. 

1859 — Benjamin F. Coe. 

1864-5 — Benjamin F. Coe. 

1866-73 — W. S. Kremer. 

1874-5 — John L. Merrill. 

1876-7 — W. S. Kremer. 

1878-81— Edson F. Smith. 

1882-87— Milo J. Smith. 

1888-95— N. W. McKay. 

1 896- 1903 — R. F. McConnell. 

1904 to date — J. F. Chandler. 


Samuel Smith, appointed December 8, 1836, oath of office, February 18, 1837. 

1837 — Martin Harless. 

February 21, 1839, to November 2, 1840 — C. M. McDaniel. 

August 11, 1842 — William H. R. Thomas. 

1845— C. M. McDaniel. 

1847— William H. R. Thomas. 

September 4, 1849 — Samuel Smith. 

August, 185 1 — Samuel K. Helmick. 

August 10, 1853 — A.. M. Taylor. 

August 10, 1855— A. M. Taylor. 

August 17. 1857 — A. M. Taylor. 

i860— A. M. Taylor. 


1862-3 — Henry McClurkin. 
1864-5 — Henry McClurkin. 
1866-7 — E. B. Lacey. 
1870- 1 — John L. Grubb. 
1872-3 — John L. Grubb. 
1874-5 — John L. Grubb. 
1876-81— Albert Ellis. 
1882-87— John C. Smith. 
1888-93— Isaac Black. 
1894-99 — William Deford. 
1900-06 — W. C. Saunders. 
1907 to date — Jacob C. Smith. 


1858— J. B. Brigham. 

June 28, 1858— W. R. Woodruff. 

1859 — R. N. Fee — O. H. Miller, sworn in May 24, i860. 

1861 — S. E. Jones. 

1862-3 — J. K. Sweeny. 

1863-4— A. S. Prather. 

1865— William J. Ronalds. 

1866-7— A. Millmine. 

1868-9— J. B - Porter. 

1870- 1— L. A. Riley. 

1872-3 — W. C. Sigafoos. 

1874 — C. H. G. Frye, to fill vacancy. 

1874-5 — D. T. Campbell. 

1876-7 — J. A. Kennedy. 

October 16, 1877 — Daniel Helmick, to fill vacancy. 

1878-9 — Daniel Helmick, elected. 

1880-3— Milton D. Nicol. 

1884-7— Mrs. L. G. Murdock. 

1888-91— W. A. Lester. 

1892- 1897 — Lizzie Hughes. 

1898-1901 — C. M. Donaldson. 

1902-7 — C. R. Wallace. 

1907 to date — R. R. Hunt. 


1839 — J olln Gilliland, bond October 8, 1839. 

1840 — John Gilliland. 

1841 — John Gilliland, bond August 28, 1841. 

1842 — John Gilliland, bond August 8. 1842. 

1843 — John Gilliland. 

1844 — Aaron D. Hurley, bond August 15, 1844. 

1845 — Aaron D. Hurley, bond August 18, 1845. 

1847 — Aaron D. Hurley, bond August 16, 1847. 

1849 — Aaron D. Hurley, bond August 23, 1849. 


1850 — John R. Sisson, bond August 5, 1850. 

1851 — John R. Sisson, bond August 14, 1851. 

1853 — J onn R- Sisson, bond August 12, 1853. 

1855 — John R. Sisson, bond August 10, 1855, resigned December 8, 1856. 

1857 — A. B. Miller, bond January 15, 1857. 

1857 — W. S. Kremer, bond April 10, 1857. 

1857 — W. S. Kremer, bond August 11, 1857. 

1859-65 — W. S. Kremer. 

1866-7— W. C. Blackstone. 

1868-9— W. C. Blackstone. a 

1870-1— T. W. Bailey. 

1872-5 — Peter Houtz. 

1876-9 — John M. Huston. 

1880-3— Peter Houtz. 

1884-9— J. lM - Huston. j 

1890 to date — W. S. Kremer. 


1837 — Zadok C. Inghram. 

1839 — Jacob S. Rinearson, bond August 8, 1839. 

1842 — Jacob S. Rinearson, bond August 1, 1842. 

1845- — John Gilliland. 

1846— George W. McCleary, bond April 6, 1846. 

1847 — Samuel Townsend, bond August 9, 1847. 

1849 — Dennis Williams, bond August 23, 1849. 

1851 — Samuel Townsend, bond August 11, 1851. 

1853 — John C. Tucker, bond August 10, 1853. 

1855 — Samuel Townsend, bond August 9, 1855. 

1857 — William A. Colton, bond August 17, 1857. 

1859-65 — Benjamin F. Coe. 

1867-8 — John A. Brown. 

1869-76— N. W. McKay. 

1877-80 — Manasseh Edwards. 

1881-84— N. W. McKay. 

1885-90— V. B. Beane. 

1891-94 — Nora Cornelius. 

1895-1908 — Milo A. Kelly. 

1909 to date — Jennie Robertson. 


'837-39 — Isaac Parsons. 

1840 — P. B. Harrison, gave bond October 12, 1840. 

1841-2 — Isaac Parsons, gave bond October 6. 1841. 

l8 43 — William Milligan, gave bond October 13, 1843. 

1845-6— James B. Milligan, gave bond March 25, 1845. 

1847 — Benjamin Robinson. 

1848 — Benjamin Robinson, gave bond August 21, 1848. 

1849-50 — Benjamin Robinson, gave bond April 12, 1849. 

185 1-2 — Charles F. Morris, gave bond August 9, 1851. 


1853-5 — T. M. Parsons, gave bond August, 1853. 

1856-7— T. M. Parsons. 

1858-9 — John M. Studdanl. gave bond August 18. 1857. 

1 860-1— T. R. J. Ellis. 

1862-3 — William Butler. 

1863-4 — James C. Sterlin. 

1864-5 — Joseph Martin. 

1866-7 — James Semple. 

1868-73 — George Presbury. 

1874-5 — John C. Duncan. 

1876-83 — Frank Tustison. 

1884-91— M. W. Lilly. 

1894-7 — John F. Saunders. 

1898-1901 — G. W. Younkin. 

1902 to date — C. P. Wagner. 


October 24. 1838— R. S. Searle. 

1840 — Henry Rockafeller, bond October 21, 1840, resigned July 14. 1841. 
1841 — G. L. Coe, bond August 11, 1841. 
1847 — George L. Coe, to August 8, 1849. 
[849 — G. W. McCleary, August 13, 1849 to October 11, 1850. 
1850 — Merit Jamison, October 16, 1850 to August, 1851. 
1 ( V>unty court organized with Wright Williams as county judge.) 


1837 — I. H. Rinearson. 

1838 — S. S. Gourley, died. 

1839 — Daniel Brewer, bond January 11, 1839. 

1839 — Andrew J. Bevins, failed to qualify. 

[840 — Reuben S. Searle, bond January 4, 1840, died in office. 

1840 — J. W. Isett, bond June 29, 1840. 

[840 — Levi Thornton, bond October 12, 1840. 

•1841 — J. S. Rinearson, bond January 8, 1841. 

1841-43 — W. H. R. Thomas, bond August 11, 1842. 


1845 — James Helverson, bond September 8, 1845. 

1846 — Nathaniel Prime, bond August 10, 1846. 

1847 — W. H. R. Thomas, bond January 4, 1847. 

1848— W. H. R. Thomas. 

1850 — Samuel Smith, bond March 2. 1850. 

1851-53 — Samuel K. Helmick, bond March 2, 1851. 



1837— W. H. Creighton. 
1839— Cavil M. McDaniel. 
1841— C. M. McDaniel. 
1842 — C. M. McDaniel. 
1842— W. H. R. Thomas. 
1843— William .'• R - Flack - 
1844— William J. R. Flack. 
1845— William j. R. Flack. 


1847-52 — Oliver Benton. 
1852 — Philip Gore. 
1854 — Elias Keach. 
1856-7 — O. A. Taylor. 


Jeremiah Smith, William Milligan, John Ronalds. 


William I.. Toole, William Milligan, P. B. Harrison. 

William Milligan. Wright Williams. Israel L. Clark, Robert Childers (extra 
session December 28, 1839). 

John Deihl, William Milligan (retired October 29, 1840), Wright Williams, 
Robert Childers. 

Wright Williams, Robert Childers, John Deihl. 

Wright Williams, John Deihl, Robert Childers (retired August 11, 1842), 
Spencer Wilson (August 11, 1842). 


Wright Williams, Spencer Wilson, John Deihl. 

Wright Williams (retired September 30, 1844), Spencer Wilson, Merit Jami- 
son, John McGannon (September 30, 1844). 

Merit Jamison, John McGannon, Henry Rockafeller (September 29, 1845). 


Merit Jamison, John McGannon. Henry Rockafeller. 

Merit Jamison, John McGannon ( retired August 16, 1847 ), Henry Rockafeller, 
James G. Hall (August 16, 1847). 

James G. Hall, Henry Rockafeller (retired August 21, 1N48). Merit Jamison, 
Jared H. Trask (August 21, 1848). 

James G. Hall, Merit Jamison (retired), Jared H. Trask (retired), Morton 
Brown (August 20. 1849), Leonard Robinson (August 20. 1849). 

James G. Hall (retired), Morton Brown, Leonard Robinson (retired), 
Thomas Stoddard (August 19, 1850). John \ T . McConnell (August 19, 1850). 

Morton Brown, Thomas Stoddard. John N. McConnell. 

August 11, 185 1, county court organized with Wright Williams as county 


Samuel Townsend, Wapello; Samuel Reiner, Columbus City; T. M. Parsons, 
Jefferson ; S . C. Curtis. Grandview : Robert A. White, Union ; Shakespeare 
McKee, Oakland ; C. F. Stauber, Elm Grove ; G. W. Maxwell, Eliot ; Albert Ellis, 
Marshall: G. H. Crow. Port Louisa; Henry McClurkin, Morning Sun; David 
Edmondson, Concord. 


Samuel Townsend, John Drake. Wapello; Thompson Parsons. Jefferson; 
Shakespeare McKee. Oakland : Henry Beane, Eliot : Samuel Reiner, Joseph L. 
Paschal, Columbus City ; George H. Crow, Port Louisa ; T. R. J. Ellis, Marshall : 
Henry J. McCormick, Elm Grove: J. Livermore, Concord; Robert A. White, 
Union; S. C. Curtis, Grandview; John A. Brown, Morning Sun. 


Robert A. White, Union ; G. H. Crow, Port Louisa ; T. R. J. Ellis, Marshall : IT. 
J. McCormick, Elm Grove: D. P. Curran, Morning Sun; Cyril Carpenter, Oak- 
land : John Drake, Wapello ; F. A. Duncan, Columbus City ; Enoch Potter, Jeffer- 
son ; Jacob Kremer, Eliot; S. C. Curtis, Grandview; J. Livermore, Peter Knott, 


F. A. Duncan. Columbus City; John Drake, Wapello; G. H. Crow, Port 
Louisa; Benjamin Jennings, Elm Grove; John Hunter, Concord; James Harman, 
Union; Meredith Hardesty, George S. Nichols, Marshall; S. C. Curtis, Grand- 
view; C. Carpenter, Oakland: D. P. Curran, Morning Sun: Enoch Potter, Jeffer- 
son; Jacob Kremer, Eliot. 


C. S. Curtis. Grandview; G. H. Crow, Port Louisa; Benjamin Jennings, Elm 
Grove: Tames Harman, Union: John Hunter, Concord; C. W. Bras. Jefferson; 


D. P. Curran, Morning Sun ; Thomas Duryea, W. C. Harrison, Eliot; H. B. Kirk- 
patrick, Marshall ; J. M. Robertson, Columbus City ; J. H. Rollins, Wapello; C. M. 
McDaniel, H. A. Keyes, Oakland. 

J. M. Robertson, F. A. Duncan, Columbus City; C. W. Bras, Jefferson; D. P. 
Curran, Morning Sun ; H. A. Keyes, Oakland ; J. H. Rollins, Wapello ; Robert 
Carson, Union ; G. H. Crow, Port Louisa ; Benjamin Jennings, Elm Grove ; R. F. 
Newell, Concord ; George S. Nichols, Marshall ; Philip Wagner, Grandview ; 
Eliot. (No one from Eliot township served this year.) 


G. H. Crow, Port Louisa ; Robert Carson, Union ; Benjamin Jennings, Elm 
Grove ; George S. Nichols, Marshall ; Robert F. Newell, Concord ; Philip Wagner, 
Grandview; P. D. Bailey, Eliot: H. C. Blake, Morning Sun; J. Q. Buffington, 
Columbus City ; John Deihl. Wapello ; R. S. Strong, Jefferson ; H. A. Keyes, 


Benjamin Jennings, Elm Grove ; H. C. Blake, Morning Sun ; J. Q. Buffington. 
Columbus City ; John Deihl, Wapello ; H. A. Keyes, Oakland ; R. S. Strong, Jef- 
ferson ; Robert Carson, Union; S. C. Curtis, Jas. R. Letts, Grandview. (Re- 
moved from township, J. R . Letts appointed to fill vacancy) ; F. F. Kiner, 
Marshall : S. A. McDaniel, Concord ; Levi Stephen, Port Louisa ; P. D. Bailey, 


Benjamin Jennings, Elm Grove ; Robert Carson, Union ; F. F. Kiner, Marshall ; 
Levi Stephen, Port Louisa ; P. D. Bailey, Eliot ; A. Gamble, Columbus City ; John 
Hunter, Concord ; H. A. Keyes, Oakland ; S. Jamison, Wapello ; H- M. Ochil- 
tree, Morning Sun ; H. J. N. Parsons. Jefferson ; Philip Wagner, Grandview. 

Andrew Gamble, Columbus City ; P. D. Bailey, Eliot ; S. Jamison, Wapello ; 
H. A. Keyes, Oakland ; H. M. Ochiltree, Morning Sun ; H. J. N. Parsons, Jeffer- 
son ; G. H. Crow, Port Louisa ; Barton Garrett, Concord ; J. C. Riley, Elm Grove ; 
S. N. Spurgeon, Union ; Philip Wagner, Grandview ; John Sloan, Marshall. 

Andrew Gamble, Columbus City ; N. M. Letts, Grandview ; W. P. Smith, 

Andrew Gamble, Columbus City ; N. M. Letts, Grandview ; P. D. Bailey, Eliot. 

Andrew Gamble, Columbus City: N. M. Letts, Grandview; P. D. Bailey, Eliot. 

Andrew Gamble. Columbus City : P. D. Bailey, Eliot ; Robert F. Newell, 

P. D. Bailey, Eliot ; R. F. Newell, Concord ; Cyril Carpenter, Oakland. 


R. F, Newell, Concord; C. Carpenter, Oakland; E. F. Smith, Morning Sun. 

Cyril Carpenter, Oakland; E. F. Smith, Morning Sun; B. F. Coe, Elm drove. 

Cyril Carpenter. Oakland; I'.. F. Coe, Elm Grove; T. M. Parsons, Jefferson. 

C. Carpenter, Oakland; P. F. Coe, Elm Grove; T. M. Parsons, Jefferson. 

C. Carpenter, Oakland; T. M. Parsons, feft'erson; R. T. Tones, Columbus 

T. M. Parsons, R. T. Jones. Barton Garrett. 

R. T. Jones, Barton Garrett, T. M. Parsons. 

Barton Garrett, T. M. Parsons, R. T. Jones. 

T. M. Parsons, R. T. Jones, Barton Garrett. 

R. T. Jones, Barton Garrett, S. F. Small. 

Barton Garrett, S. F. Small, II. M. Letts. 

S. F. Small. II. M. Letts, Barton Garrett. 

II. M. Letts, Barton Garrett, S. F. Small. 

Barton Garrett, S. F. Small, II. M. Letts. 

S. F. Small, H. M. Letts. Thomas Newell. 

H. M. Letts, Thomas Newell, T. M. Parsons. 

Thomas Newell, T. M. Parsons, F. J. Moore. 

r8 93 

1. M. Parsons, F, J. Moore, Jacob Lieberknecht. 


F. J. Moore. Jacob Lieberknecht, Isaiah Downs. 


Jacob Lieberknecht, Isaiah Downs, F. J. Moore. 

Isaiah Downs, F. J. Moore, Jacob Lieberknecht. 

F. J. Moore, Jacob Lieberknecht. Isaiah Downs. 

Jacob Lieberknecht, Isaiah Downs, J. Cal Duncan. 

Isaiah Downs. J. Cal Duncan, J. Lieberknecht. 

J. Cal Duncan, J. Lieberknecht, Isaiah Downs. 

J. Lieberknecht. Isaiah Downs, J. Cal Duncan. 

Isaiah Downs, J. Cal Duncan, J. Lieberknecht. 

J. Cal Duncan. J. Lieberknecht, George R. Deihl. 

J. Lieberknecht (died), George R. Deihl, J. Cal Duncan, William Wilson (to 
fill vacancy). 

George R. Deihl, J. Cal Duncan, William Wilson. 

George R. Deihl, William Wilson. J. Cal Duncan. 

William Wilson, D. W. V. Herrick, R. S. Johnston. 

William Wilson, R. S. Johnston, D. W. V. Herrick. 

D. W. V. Herrick, R. S. Johnston, O. C. Farmer. 


R. S. Johnston, O. C. Farmer, S. F. Wilson. 

O. C. Farmer. S. F. Wilson, R. S. Johnston. 


1853 — Thomas Stoddard, elected April 4, 1853. 
1857 — Alexander Ross. 
i860— H. C. Blake. 



1851 — Samuel McCullough, elected August 6, 1851. 


1846 — E. B. Isett, elected August 3. 1846. 
1847 — E. B. Isett, elected August 2, 1847. 



1838-40 — James M. Clark. First and Second (Muscatine, Louisa and 

1840-44 — Francis Springer, Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth (Louisa and 

1845-46 — Enoch Ross, of Washington county. Seventh and Eighth (Louisa 
and Washington). 


November 12, 1838, to January 25, 1839 — William L. Toole, Levi Thornton, 
John Frierson, S. C. Hastings, First (Represented Muscatine, Louisa and Slaugh- 
ter counties). 

November 4, 1839, to January 17, 1846 — Daniel Brewer, Jacob Mintun, Sec- 
ond (Louisa and Washington). 

November 2, 1840, to January 15, 1841 — William L. Toole. Third. 

December 6, 1841. to February 18, 1842 — William L. Toole, Fourth. 

December 5, 1842, to February 17, 1843 — Joseph Newell, Fifth. 

December 4, 1843, t0 February 16, 1844 — George W. McCleary, Sixth. 

May 5. 1845, to June 11, 1845 — George W. McCleary, Seventh. 

December 1, 1845, to January 19, 1846 — George W. McCleary, Eighth. 

From only partial returns of the election in August, 1846, we infer that 
Andrew Kendall, of Grandview, was elected representative, over Dr. J. M. Rob- 
ertson. As Iowa became a state in December, 1846, this election was rendered 



1846-49 — Francis Springer, First, First Extra and Second. 
■850-53 — Norman Everson, Third and Fourth. 
1854-57— H. T. Cleaver, Fifth. Fifth Extra and Sixth. 
1858-60 — Samuel Reiner, Seventh and Eighth. 
1862-64 — James S. Hurley, Ninth. Ninth Extra and Tenth. 
1864-68 — James M. Robertson, Eleventh and Twelfth. 
1870-72 — James S. Hurley, Thirteenth and Fourteenth. 


1874 — Joseph D. Miles, Fifteenth. 

1876-78 — William Wilson, Sixteenth and Seventeenth. 

1880-82 — John W. Prizer, Eighteenth and Nineteenth. 

1884-86 — Francis A. Duncan, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, Twentieth and Twenty- 

1888 — S. T. Chesebro, Twenty-second. 

1890-92 — John M. Gobble, Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth. 

1894-96 — C. A. Carpenter, Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth and Twenty-sixth 

1898-1900 — George M. Titus, Twenty-seventh and Twenty-eighth. 

1902-04-06 — F. M. Molsberry, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth and Thirty-first. 

1907-09 — Jay I. Nichols. Thirty-second, Thirty-second Extra and Thirty- 

191 1 — Alexander M. Garrett, Thirty-fourth. 

The following senators of the above list resided in Washington county : Sen- 
ators Everson, Miles, Wilson and Prizer. The following resided in Muscatine 
county : Senators Chesebro, Gobble, Titus and Nichols. Those interested in 
the matter can find when the various senatorial districts were changed by refer- 
ence to the table in the appendix, showing the various charters, laws, etc. 


Wright Williams, First, First Extra and Second. 

Andrew Gamble, Third. 

John Cleaves, Fourth. 

Micajah Reeder, Fourth. 

John C. Lockwood. Fifth. 

Lewis Kinsey, Fifth Extra. 

N. W. Burris, Sixth. 

Andrew J. Kirkpatrick, Sixth. 

Royal Prentiss, Seventh. 

D. X. Sprague, Seventh. 

John H. Williamson, Eighth and Eighth Extra. 

John Cleaves, Ninth and Ninth Extra. 

Enoch Potter, Tenth. 

N. T. Brown, Eleventh. 

Albert Ellis, Twelfth. 

George D. Harrison, Thirteenth. 

Francis A. Duncan, Fourteenth. 

Benjamin Jennings, Fifteenth. 

Robert E. Benton, Sixteenth. 

George Jamison, Seventeenth. 

William A. Colton, Eighteenth. , 

Francis A. Duncan, Nineteenth. 

Oliver H. P. Linn, Twentieth. 

L. A. Riley, Twenty-first and Twenty-Second. 

J. F. Holiday, Twenty-third and Twenty-fourth. 

Harry O. Weaver. Twenty-fifth, Twenty-sixth and Twenty-sixth Extra. 


Hilton M. Letts, Twenty-seventh and Twenty-eighth. 

E. L. McClurkin, Twenty-ninth, Thirtieth and Thirty-first. 

Robert L Reaney, Thirty-second, Thirty-second Extra and Thirty-third. 

James M. Brockway, Thirty-fourth. 

G. H. Crow was elected in 1866, on account of the death of X. T. Brown, 
but did not serve. 

Andrew |. Kirkpatrick resided in Washington county and represented what 
was called a floating district composed of Washington and Louisa counties. 
This floating district was changed and Des .Moines and Louisa counties were 
made a floating district and D. X. Sprague, residing in Louisa county was a 
representative of the floating district composed of Des Moines and Louisa 


Convention of 1N44 — John W. Brookbank, William L. Toole. Wright Wil- 

Convention of 1846 — John Ronalds. 

Convention of 1857 — Francis Springer, chosen president. 

Other offices held by Louisa county citizens: 

lames M. Clark. President Legislative Council. Extra Session, 2nd Ter. 
Assembly, 1840. 

Francis Springer, President Pro Tern Sixth Legislative Council, on account 
of failure to elect a president, he presided from Dec. 4. 1843, to J an - [I > l! ^->4- 

George W. McCleary, Speaker of the House. Eighth Legislative Assembly, 


George W. McCleary, Secretary of State, from Dec. 2. 1850. to Dec. I, 
1856. (After his election in 1850 Mr. McCleary became a resident of Johnson 
county. ) 


Dec. 8, 1836— Samuel Smith. Sheriff. 

Dec. 8. 1836 — William Milligan, Justice of the Peace. 

Dec. X, [836 — Christopher Shuck. Justice of the Peace. 

Dec. 8, 1836 — Isaac Rinearson, Justice of the Peace. 

Dec. 8, 1836 — William L. Toole, Justice of the Peace. 

Nov. 25, 1837 — Seratus C. Hastings, District Attorney. 

Jan. 15. 1838 — James G. Hall. Justice of the Peace. 

Ian. 15, 1838 — Zadock C. Inghram, Justice of the Peace. 

Jan. 15. 183S — John Reynolds, Justice of the Peace. 

Jan. 15, 1838 — William Kennedy, Justice of the Peace. 

Jan. 15, 1838 — Isaac Parsons. Justice of the Peace. 

[John Reynolds should he [ohn Ronalds, and Inghram's first name should 
be spelled Zadok.] 

Jan. 19, 1838 — Seratus [Serranus] C. Hastings, District Attorney for Louisa 

All the foregoing appointments were made by Gov. Henry Dodge of Wisconsin. 
Ian. 16, 183c) — Ruben S. Searls, Judge of Probate. 


Jan. 16, 1839 — Cavil M. McDaniel, Sheriff. 

Jan. 18, 1839 — Fourteen Justices of the Peace, as follows: William Milli- 
gan, John Gilliland, John Ronalds, Jacob Mintun, Maxmillian Eastwoods, Isaac 
Parsons, Samuel Woodside, Truman S. Clark, Joseph Crane, George Humphrey, 
William Fowler, Thomas Stodard, Hiram Smith, Christopher Shuck. 

Jan. 19, 1839 — John Ronalds, Colonel 1st Brigade, 2nd Division. 1st Regi- 
ment; Z. C. Inghram, Lieutenant Colonel, 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 1st Regi- 
ment; Robert Childers, Major. 1st Brigade, 2nd Division, 1st Regiment. 

Jan. 13, 1841 — John Rinearson, Captain Wapello Cavalry, in place of M. 
Wilson, resigned. 

— , 1842 — Edward II. Thomas, District Attorney for Second District. 

Lewis Kinsey appointed Clerk of the Supreme Court, Nov. 3, 1856. Re- 
appointed Jan. 12, i860, served until January 7, 1867. 

Arthur Springer, member of the Educational Commission to Revise the 
School Laws, appointed in December, 1907. 


Francis Springer, was Postoffice Inspector, Register of the Land office at 
Fairfield, and Internal Revenue Collector. For dates see sketch in chapter of 
Personal Mention, in this volume. 

Harry O. Weaver, is at present Revenue Collector. See his sketch in 
Biographical Volume. 



The state was not yet districted, and S. C. Hastings, of Muscatine, and 
Shepherd Leffler, of Burlington, both represented the entire state. 


On February 22, 1847, the legislature divided the state into two districts, 
and Louisa county was put in the second district, comprising the counties of 
Des Moines, Louisa, Washington, Muscatine, Scott, Clinton, Cedar, Johnson, 
Iowa and Poweshiek, and all the rest of the state north of a line drawn through 
the northern boundary of Polk county. 

Shepherd Leffler represented the second district in the thirtieth congress. 


On January 24, 1848, the legislature passed an act changing the districts 
by taking Poweshiek from the second district and putting it in the first. Shep- 
herd Leffler represented the second district in the thirty-first congress. 



Second district represented in this congress by Lincoln Clark, of Dubuque. 


Second district represented in this congress by John P. Cook, of Davenport. 


Second district represented by James Thorington, of Davenport. 
January 28, 1857, the legislature transferred the counties of Des Moines, 
Louisa and Washington from the second to the first district. 


First district represented by Samuel R. Curtis, of Keokuk. 


First district represented by Samuel R. Curtis. 


First represented at first session by Samuel R. Curtis, who resigned to 
accept commission as brigadier general. 

James F. Wilson, of Fairfield, was elected, October 8, 1861, to fill the 
vacancy, and represented the district at the second and third sessions of this 


April 8, 1862, the state having become entitled to six members of congress, 
a radical change was necessary, and Louisa county was left in the first district. 
but the district was composed of the counties of Lee, Des Moines, Henry. 
Jefferson, Louisa, Davis, Van Buren and Washington. 

Thirty-ninth Congress, 1865-67 — James F. Wilson. 

Fortieth Congress, 1867-69 — James F. Wilson. 

Forty-first Congress, 1869-71 — George W. McCrary, of Keokuk. 

Forty-second Congress. 1871-73 — George W. McCrary. 


April 17, 1872, the state became entitled to nine members of congress, and 
in the reapportionment Davis county was transferred to the sixth district, leav- 
ing the first district with the seven counties which it has had ever since. (Gen- 
eral J. P.. Weaver was then looming up as a probable successor of McCrary, 
and it was to dispose of him that John H. Gear had Davis county taken out of 


the first district. At that, General Weaver got to congress eight years before 

George W. McCrary represented the first district in the forty-third congress. 

Forty-fourth Congress, 1875-77 — George W. McCrary. 

Forty-fifth Congress, 1877-79 — Dr. Joseph C. Stone, Burlington. 

Forty-sixth Congress, 1879-81 — Moses A. McCoid, Fairfield. 

Forty-seventh Congress, 1881-83 — Moses A. McCoid, Fairfield. 

Forty-eighth Congress, 1883-85 — Moses A. McCoid, Fairfield. 

Forty-ninth Congress, 1885-87 — Benton J. Hall, Burlington. 

Fiftieth Congress, 1887-89 — John H. Gear, Burlington. 

Fifty-first Congress, 1889-91 — John H. Gear, Burlington. 

Fifty-second Congress, 1891-93 — John J. Seerley, Burlington. 

Fifty-third Congress, 1893-95 — J onn H. Gear, Burlington. 

Fifty-fourth Congress, 1895-97 — Samuel M. Clark, Keokuk. 

Fifty-fifth Congress, 1897-99 — Samuel M. Clark, Keokuk. 

Fifty-sixth Congress, 1899-1901 — Thomas Hedge, Burlington. 

Fifty-seventh Congress, 1901-03 — Thomas Hedge, Burlington. 

Fifty-eighth Congress, 1903-05 — Thomas Hedge, Burlington. 

Fifty-ninth Congress, 1905-07 — Thomas Hedge, Burlington. 

Sixtieth Congress, 1907-09 — Charles A. Kennedy, Montrose. 

Sixty-first Congress, 1909-11 — Charles A. Kennedy, Montrose. 

Sixty-second Congress, 1911-13 — Charles A. Kennedy, Montrose. 



Local government is an interesting study in itself, and one to which the 
sovereigns and tax-payers ought to devote, occasionally at least, a few moments 
of silent, prayerful, and, where possible, intelligent consideration. This con- 
sideration ought to be approached with a feeling composed of three parts of 
patriotism, or public spirit, to one part of selfishness, and one of economy. 
With many individuals parsimony would be the more appropriate word, but 
economy sounds better. If this problem is approached in the proper spirit, wc 
will perhaps all agree that the people ought to have the best and most efficient 
local government which their necessities demand and their circumstances justify, 
and that this government should be obtained as economically as possible. It 
is not meant by this that we should have the cheapest government, regardless 
of quality : but that we should get the very best government at the least cost. 
Most people will agree to this in the abstract, but will take neither thought nor 
pains to put it in force. Perhaps a study of the county finances will bring this 
matter more closely home to the people, because their pocket-books are affected. 
It is with this thought that we have been induced to depart somewhat from 
the beaten path of county histories, by collecting information drawn from our 
tax levies and expense registers. It may be interesting, if not a little startling, 
to learn that less than forty years ago when we had in the county practically 
the same population as we have now (to be exact, just 22 more), our total tax 
list for all purposes, including state, county, school, municipal and road, amounted 
to $84,129.36, while for the past year of grace it was $208,175.49. Of the tax 
levied in 1873, $14,078.15 was Air Line Railroad tax, which, for purposes of 
comparison should be deducted, and this would show an increase of $137,000 
in the current taxes of the county in less than forty years with the same num- 
ber of people. The mere fact of this enormous increase does not of itself indi- 
cate that the local government we are getting now is not worth what it costs 
us, but it ought to serve to put us upon inquiry, and to cause us to study the 
conditions now existing and to see where, if at all, savings can be made. It 
would be a difficult matter to make those who are familiar with affairs as 
they existed forty years ago, and as they exist today, believe that our local 
government is worth three times as much to us now as it was then. 

Our school tax in that time has grown from about $35,000.00 to $78,000.00, 
though it is as certain as it is lamentable, that the schools on the average are 



not a penny's worth better than they were then, and in most cases are of less 
practical value. But in this, as in other cases of governmental imperfections, 
we may console ourselves with the thought that the people rule, and that they 
really are not entitled to any better or more economical school system than they 
want, and that the people of this state have recently been quite pronounced in 
their adherence to a system which puts ten million dollars a year and the edu- 
cational chances of a half million children in the keeping of an unorganized and 
uncaptained army of forty thousand school officials, none of whom are re- 
quired to have, and most of whom do not have, any special qualifications for 
such work. We have in this county a superintendent of common schools, it is 
true, but the law practically limits his power to visiting schools and scolding 
school Ma'ms, while the real control of school affairs is exercised by 244 officials 
in about fifty-seven different ways. 

Tf this be a wise and logical system in regard to our school affairs, why not 
turn our general county affairs over to the management of 244 men? 

It is proper to observe also, that the greater part of this increase of $137,000 
in our total county tax list from 1873 to 1910, is not, as many fondly believe, 
due to the increase in state taxes. The state tax levy in Louisa county during 
the period above mentioned, has only increased $9,025.32. thus leaving $128,000 
of this increase to be accounted for in some other way. 

It would also be interesting to know just how manv thousands of dollars 
have been expended, or rather wasted, in the payment of road taxes in this 
county during the seventy-five years of its existence. We are now paying 
$17,000.00 a year for the privilege of using the roads in dry weather, — a privi- 
lege which we would have, if we only paid enough road tax to keep up the few 
bridges which are not cared for out of the County Bridge fund. 

Another subject worthy of attention is as to the number of our county 
officials. It is not long since a leading business man of the county remarked 
that the county business could be done by two competent officials, each with a 
competent deputy, fully as well as it is now done, and at a considerable saving. 
He instanced the fact that there were several banks in the county, which each 
did a much larger amount and volume of business in a year than the county 
business amounts to. Perhaps if he had known that it has cost the county 
over $1,700.00 in the past six years, and $600.00 in the past year to investigate 
its county officials, he would have been strengthened in his opinion. It is hard 
to escape the conclusion that if this expenditure was necessary, the system 
which makes it so, is wrong; and of course, if it is unnecessary, the wrong lies 
in the expenditure itself. 

In the early years, when the sheriff's office was not a very lucrative posi- 
tion, he was made county assessor. Now, the sheriff has the least to do of any 
of our salaried officials, and gets much the best pay, while our assessments in 
the county are made by nineteen different assessors in nineteen different ways. 

It goes without saying that these suggestions will not be popular in some 
quarters; and it may be that they are too radical. They will accomplish their 
purpose if they set even a few people to studying these matters for themselves. 

As we have already seen, the first body which had charge of our county 
affairs was the Board of Supervisors, but its powers were somewhat limited. 
Our next governing body, so to speak, was the Board of County Com- 


missioners or as it was sometimes called, Commissioners' Court, con- 
sisting of three members. This Board of Commissioners held sway from 
1838 to 1 85 1. At that time the people of the state seemed to have become 
dissatisfied with the county government as administered by three commissioners, 
and when the laws were revised provision was made in the Code of 1851 for a 
County Judge. The County Judge was made, by law, the accounting officer 
and general agent of the County and was invested with the powers which had 
been exercised by the three commissioners and the Probate Judge. This County 
Court continued until 1861 when another change was made by which the affairs 
of the county were to be controlled by a Board of Supervisors consisting of 
one from each township ; in this county the new board, therefore, was composed 
of twelve members. 

In 1870 another change was made by which we went back to the system of 
three supervisors, and that has continued to the present time. 

In these days when so much is being said about referendum, it is well for 
us to remember that under the County Judge system of governing county affairs, 
provision was made for the submission of a great many questions to a vote of 
the people. There was also provision made in some cases for an appeal to be 
taken from the decision of the County Judge to the people at the ballot box ; 
this right was exercised in one case at least, in this county, in regard to the 
Wapello Ferry franchise. It may be that the people in their wisdom will some 
day return to the County Judge system, or to something of that kind. In this 
county we had but three County Judges, the first was Wright Williams, the 
next Francis Springer and the last Joseph L. Derbin. Judge P. M. Casady of 
Des Moines, who was one of the ablest and most successful of our Iowa pioneers, 
in an article upon Judge Springer read by him before the Pioneer Law Makers 
Association in 1900, referring to the fact that Judge Springer had been County 
Judge of Louisa county, said : "The office of County Judge of Louisa county 
was a very important one. At the time Judge Mason was County Judge of 
Des Moines county, Judge Johnstone was County Judge of Lee county, three 
prominent and well respected men having charge of the county business of 
their respective counties. If such men had continued in office, the County 
Judge system would not have become unpopular." 

It is hard to form a judgment from the history of Louisa county, as to which 
particular system would be the best. In the last analysis, it probably depends 
more upon the men who hold the offices and who are entrusted with the people's 
affairs, than it does upon the name or character of the office or the number of 
officers. In this respect we may agree with Pope as expressed in the latter part 
of the following lines: 

"For modes of faith let graceless zealots fight, 
His can't be wrong, whose life is in the right ; 
For forms of government, let fools contest. 
That which is best administered, is best." 

A complete list of all our county officials so far as there are any records 
to show of their existence, will be found in the preceding chapter. Something of 
the manner in which they have transacted the county business at various times 


and of the expenses incurred and taxes levied, may be learned from the following 
financial items which we have taken somewhat at random. It would be im- 
possible to give all the financial transactions of the county, and we have made 
no special selection except as to the period during which the Air Line Railroad 
taxes were being paid. We have given account of all the taxes for all of the 
years during which that tax was paid, covering the period from 1869 to 1879. 
The items for this period, and for the earlier years, are given because of their 
historic interest ; those of later years are given because they are thought to be 
of importance from an economical, as well as a historical standpoint. 

The first financial item we find is in an old book which has nothing on the 
outside, or on the fly leaf to indicate what it is. but which appears to be the 
beginning of a sort of cash account of Louisa county. The first item is dated 
May 15, 1837, from which it appears that the county received $28.50 from 
William II. R. Thomas. 

The next item is November 2d of the same year and shows the receipt from 
William II. Creighton, collector of the county, $380. This was probably from 
poll taxes. These two items make a total of $408.50, and on the following 
page and one or two subsequent pages appear payments made out of this fund. 
There are payments of sums ranging from eighty-five cents to $2.70. to the 
various grand jurors and petit jurors, also payment to Samuel Smith, sheriff. 
of $10 for summoning the grand jurors and $3 for two days' attendance on 
court. This payment is under date of May 15, 1837. Z. C. Inghram, clerk, 
was allowed $10 for stationery, and William II. R. Thomas was allowed $1.50 
for two days' attendance on court. 

Under date of November 2. 1837. are the following items of payment: 
William H. R. Thomas, deputy sheriff, $12.25; Z. C. Inghram as judge of 
election one day, $r : J. S. Rinearson, clerk of the board, $2; I. H. Rinearson, 
$40, as assessor. Then there are payments to William Milligan of $5 and to 
Jeremiah Smith of $5 and to William Kennedy of $4.87. The payments to 
Milligan and Smith are undoubtedly for their services as members of the board 
of supervisors and the payments in William Kennedy was doubtless for his 
services as clerk of the board and township clerk. 

The first treasurer's report found on the file is a very brief document. We 
quote it in full: "To the board of county commissioners, a true statement of 
all the moneys received and of all the moneys received and disbursed by me 
since the October term of A. D., 1838. 

Received into the county treasury, $82.15. 
Paid out, $7.50. 

April the 3d, A. D., 1839. Hiram Smith, Treasurer. 

L. C. I. T." 

On the files is a paper said to be an "exhibit of the receipts into the county 
treasury of Louisa county since the 1st of January, 1839." and it shows receipts 
for fines and for licenses from stores, groceries and ferries up to January 6, 
1840, of $291.31 r 4, and from county revenue paid in as per treasurer's receipt, 
$5°7-S7 T /2, a total of $799.1834. The same paper also gives an exhibit of the 
expenditures of the county since the rst of January, 1830. as follows: 


I in 

To cash paid County Corns, for services as a board doing County 

business $ 202.37JX 

To cash paid clerk of District Court for official services, furnishing 

stationery for his office, etc 169.00 

To cash paid clerk to commissioners board for official services, fur- 
nishing stationery for the use of his office, etc 160.37 

To cash paid Shff. & Deputies for official services 186.83 

To amt. paid Grand and Petit Jurors 281.04 

To amt. paid Judges & Clerks of Elections 42.00 

To amt. paid Witnesses for attendance before District Court, etc ... . 38.63 V2 

To amt. paid Const, in attendance before court 15.00 

To amt. pd. house rent for holding District and County Courts.... 76.00 

To amt. paid prosecuting Atty 47-69 

To amt. pd. chn. bearers and staker in surveying out Wapello 23.00 

To amt. paid crier of court 9.00 

To amt. paid justice fees, etc [5.80 

To amt. paid assessor of taxes 57-50 

To amt. paid corns, surveyor chn. and marker for surveying territorial 

road, etc 103.31 

To amt. paid Recorder for Recording Town plat clerking, sale of lots 

in Wapello, etc 10.00 

County roads, etc 0.00 


We find another interesting document from which it appears that the poll 
taxes in those days were fully as hard to pay as the heavier taxes of the present 
time. On July 9, 1840, C. M. McDaniel, collector, filed a schedule of the de- 
linquents for the year 1839. We give the names and amounts: 

"Samuel Chaney $1.12 

W. H. Sheldon 1.00 

John Fleming 1.00 

George Emerson 1.00 

Robert Knox 1.00 

James Williams 1.00 

Alhanon Sebriel 1.62^ 

Bishop Stephens i-32/<2 

Charles Ristien 1.00 

John Payton 1.02^ 

Jacob Holbrook 1.00 

John Alloway r -3 2 ^ 

Benjamin C. Maxon 1.00 

Nathan Blevins 1.00 

William Mooney 1.00 

Joshua Steam 56J4 

William A. Dexter 1.00 

Isaac Johnson 1 -74 Z A 

Albert Morgan 1.00 

Charles Hill r.65 

John Swair 1.00 

Moses H. Reed 1.00 

John Creighton 1.00 

Anthony Thrasher 1.00 

John McGowin 1.32 

R. E. Slaughter 1.00 

William Bevins 1.00 

James Majors i.cjo 

G. W. Barr 1.91 

Alexander Smith 1.10 

Fliphelet Chapman 1.00 

Angelo Driskell 3.73 

Halcom Jonson 1.20 

Jacob Wren t . so 

Joshua Adams \ .00 

Samuel Bartimus 1.00 


E. A. Badgers i.oo Jarred Lewis i.oo 

Zachariah Easton i.oo George Faxon i.oo 

Joseph Jeffreis i.oo J. W. McClewain i.oo 

William Hendrix i.oo John Ecker I -5 1 /^ 

David M. Hanson 1.84^ A. J. Stark 2.55 

Jacob Martin 1.00 Esquire Boyers 1.50 

Thomas Knopp 1.51 ' 2 Lewis Nicewonger i-07^4 

Charles Woodworth 1.00 J. C. Brown 1.00 

Loring Hows ^■2, 2 V- Joseph Bigger 2 - I 7/ / 2 

Samuel Buel 1.24 A. Beard I -°7% 

William Mustien 1.74 William H. Gordon 1.00" 

Auston Bond 1.00 Joseph Coder 1.00 

We have given the spelling in the above schedule where we could make it 
out. There are a number of mistakes that will be apparent to almost any one. 
The name given in the schedule as Alhanon Sebriel may have been intended 
for Elhanon Siverly. 

In addition to the foregoing names the schedule contains the list of taxes 
dlegally assessed, being poll taxes assessed against persons over sixty years of 
age. There are six of them assessed at a dollar each, namely: Sylvanus Cary, 
Aaron Chamberlain. Richard Slaughter, Elisha Searl. Abram Adams. Sr. and 
John Gilliland. 

The first tax levy was made by the board of county commissioners on July 3, 
1839, when it ordered the levy of a tax of five mills on the dollar and a poll 
tax of one dollar per head on every male white inhabitant over the age of twenty- 
one. On August 1, 1840. the tax levy was five mills on property, and the poll 
tax seventy-five cents on each qualified voter under fifty years of age. On Jan- 
uary 6, 1841, the following exhibit of the county's financial affairs was made: 

"By amt. of Receipts into the Treasury for fines assessed, Store, Groc- 
ery & Ferry Licenses $224.19^2 

By Amt. of Treasurer's rect. for tax assessed for 1839 214.37^2 

By Amt. Revenue in part of the Revenue assessed for 1840 as per 

Treasurer's rect 887.65 


The Expenditures of the County in the above period are as follows, to wit: 

"To Cash paid County Corns, for services as a Board doing County 

business $178.50 

Cash paid Sheriff for official services 249.68% 

Cash pd. Clk. of District Court for official services 200.74 

Cash paid Clk. to Coins. Board for official services 154.341/ 

Cash paid assessor of Taxable property 121.00 

Cash pd. Grand Jurors 422.68 

Cash pd. Petit Jurors 66i.o8j4 

Cash pd. Judges & Clks. of Election 45-8o 

Cash pd. witness before District Court 39-07 

Cash pd. Constables 69.00 


Cash paid Prosecutor 50.00 

Cash paid Crier of Court 18.00 

Cash pd. Road Comr. etc 161.37J4 

Cash pd. house rents for Court & Jury 50.00 

Cash for books & stationery for the various officers entitled thereto. . 54.50 

Cash pd. on publick buildings &c 45-50 

Cash for furniture for Clks. office 35-°o 

Cash pd. illegal assessments 24.00 

Cash expended on Co. property 16.00 

Cash pd. Co. Treasurer 1441 

Cash for Court house stove 48.25 

Justices fees 1 -2> 1 V2 

Furniture for Corns. Clk 7.29^2" 

The receipts of the county for the year 1842 were $2,090.83}^, nearly all of 
which was from the collector on the assessment roll of 1841, being we suppose 
on the tax levy of 1840. We note, however, that there was paid in that year 
for grocery license $25 and on fines for breaches of the peace, $41, and a few 
small items for ferry license, etc. 

Among the assets of the county given on the treasurer's statement for 1842 
are the following: Promissory notes against sundry persons considered respon- 
sible, given for town lots in the county seat in the year 1839, the legality of the 
collection of which is a question now pending in the supreme court of this ter- 
ritory, such notes amounting in principal and interest to $2,038.57, also on hand 
for the sale of lots subsequent to said sale of 1839, notes against sundry persons 
amounting, including principal and interest, to $434.89. Also the county orders 
on hand taken in payment for county lots which orders the county holds against 
the treasury, $681.05. The expenditures of the county are given at $i04i-35 1 / 4 
as follows : 

"To amount paid to Co. Commissrs. for A. D. 1842 $ 102.00 

To amount paid to Clk. of Dis. Court for services in civil and crim- 
inal cases, stationery, etc 27.63 

To amount paid to John Gilliland Clerk of the Co. Com. Board for 

services as clerk for 1842 117.80% 

To amount paid to C. M. McDaniel Sheriff for fees in certain crim- 
inal and civil cases, 1842 99-Z7 l A 

To amount paid to C. M. McDaniel as Collr. for 1841 165.48 

To amount paid to Wm. H. R. Thomas, Assessor, for 1842 75-00 

To amount paid to Appraisers of Town property IO -75 

To amount paid to Collector for money collected by mistake for 1842 4.00 
To amount paid to R. P. Lowe as prosecutor for the years 1841 and 

1842 225.00 

To amount paid to Bailiffs for attendance before Dis. Court for 1842 30.42 

To amount paid to Sundry persons for wolf scalps for 1842 67.00 

To amount paid to John Drake for fuel for Court Room .75 

To amount paid to Chas. Ristine for furniture for office of Clk. of the 

Dist. Court 10.00 


To amount paid to P. Swigart for furniture for probate court I5- 00 

To amount paid to J. S. Rinearson for furniture for Recorder's office 7.00 

To amount paid to Sundry persons for illegal assessments 19.82 

To amount paid to N. I. & C. M. Ives for error in judgt. in their 

favor against County 48-07 

To amount paid to Alexr. Finley for making returns of election .... 1.00 

To amount paid to Jacob Mintum for services as Clerk of election. ... 1 1.00 
To amount paid to J. S. Rinearson for stationery for Recorder's office 

for '42 6.8714- 

To amount paid to G. F. Thomas for stationery for '42 1.50 

To amount paid to Geo. L. Coe for hauling lumber &c 2.00 

To amount paid to J. W. & E. Isett for stationery furnished Clk of 

Dis. Court for 1842 3-§7^ 


The case referred to as then pending in the supreme court was a case of James 
M. Clark against John O'Laughlin, reported in 1st Morris Reports, Page 375. 
James M. Clark, plaintiff, was the commissioner appointed to sell the town lots 
in Wapello belonging to the county. The case was originally tried in June, 
[842, in the Louisa county district court before Judge Joseph Williams, who 
rendered judgment for the defendant on an agreed statement of facts. Edward 
H. Thomas and Ralph P. Lowe were the attorneys for the plaintiff and Learned, 
Grimes & Wood, of Burlington, were the attorneys for the defendant. The suit 
was on two promissory notes given by O'Laughlin as part payment for certain 
town lots in Wapello. It appears that Commissioner Clark gave O'Laughlin 
a bond for a deed reciting the sale to O'Laughlin of certain town lots for the 
sum of $318 and acknowledging receipt of one-eighth of the money and the 
giving of three notes for $92.75, each payable in six, twelve and eighteen months 
from the date of the sale, that being June 18, 1839. The bond was conditioned 
that these notes be paid when due, then on payment of the last note O'Laughlin 
should have a deed for his lots, but should he fail to pay either or both the first 
two notes when due, he should pay twenty per cent on the money due until it 
was paid and should he fail to make full payment of all the notes when the 
last one became due, with interest as aforesaid, then the lots should revert to 
the county and the purchaser should forfeit what he had paid on the lots. Suit 
was on the first two notes. The matter at issue is thus stated by the supreme 
court : "The only question in the case is to determine the legal effect of this 
contract. Had the defendant the right to forfeit all he had paid, and thus exon- 
erate himself from further liability; or was the enforcement of the forfeiture 
left to the option of the plaintiff? We think the latter is clearly the case. . . . 
The defendant gave his promissory notes absolute on their face, which, by the 
law of this territory, might be negotiated, and in the hands of an assignee would 
at all events, have been collectible. That fact of itself would seem sufficient, in 
the absence of contrary proof, to show that the defendant intended to bind him- 
self absolutelv to pay the money." The decision of Judge W'illiams was reversed 
and it was held that the notes given for the Wapello lots at the sale in June, 1839, 

were binding. 


It seems that in 1844 there was trouble about the collection of taxes, for at 
the May session of the county commissioners in that year, William J. R. Flack, 
collector, was ordered to advertise a sale of land for unpaid taxes and to begin 
the sale on June 27th. However, at the July session of the board it was ordered 
that Collector Flack have until the 1st of January, 1845, to collect the taxes and 
that he offer the lands of delinquents for sale on the second Monday of De- 
cember. The tax levy which up to this time had been five mills each year on 
county property, was, at the July session in 1844 made four mills for county pur- 
poses, with a poll tax of fifty cents on each male person over twenty-one years; 
and a road tax of ten cents on each dollar of property assessed, and a territorial 
tax of a half mill on each dollar. 

We find the reports of Collector Flack for these tax sales, the first of the 
kind ever held in the county, and they are of interest for that reason. The first 
report covers the land sales for taxes of 1843, held on the 28th and 29th of June, 
and the 1st of July, 1844. for the sale of seven different tracts of land all as- 
sessed to persons who were named as non-residents or described as unknown 
owners. The total county tax on all this property was $8.7834, the territorial 
tax was forty-four cents and the additional costs were $3. At this sale all but 
one of the tracts were sold to Edward H. Thomas, the other being sold to 
Samuel Townsend. The report of the sale held on Monday and Tuesday, the 
9th and 10th days of December, 1844, for the taxes of 1842 and 1843 shows the 
sale of seven tracts aggregating six hundred and forty acres, the total tax of 
which was $10.37, and the costs $2.6234. All these tracts were sold to Edward 
H. Thomas. 

We copy in full the statement of the receipts and expenditures of the county 
for 1844. compiled on January 1, 1845: 


"Received from Geo. F. Thomas, Co. Revenue for the year 1844. .$543.81^4 

Reed, of same for Territorial tax for 1844 59-68J4 

Reed, of Wm. J. R. Flack for Co. taxes due for 1842-3 1 199.4034 

From same for Territorial tax for 1842-3 50.00 

From Wm. H. 1\. Thomas Co. Revenue for 1843 300.16 

Territorial tax 20.33 

Ferry Licenses — 

Messrs. Todd & Brown 3.00 

E. C. Whipple 3-00 

Wm. L. Toole 1.00 

Grocery Licenses 

Geo. Helbig 30.00 

A. Dressier 30.00 

License to sell clocks — 

Ira Brown 7.50 

Cash reed, on Acct. of Estrays 8.50 

Cash reed, on Acct. of fines 10.00 




County Commissioners — 

Wright Williams $ 39.50 

Spencer Wilson 40.00 

Merit Jamison 40.50 

J . R. McGannon 5.00 

John Gilliland, Clk. of Co. Commisrs 159.18% 

Z. C. Inghram Clk. of Dist. Court for services &c 28.00 

Geo. L. Thomas, Treasurer, for services 182.14*4 

Wm. H. R. Thomas 9300 

Constables for services at District Court 9.00 

Expenses for the Court House -.37/4 

Talesmen on Petit Jury 1 1.00 

For Surveying and other expenses on Roads 21.25 

For Wolf Scalps 106.50 

Co. Recorder J. S. Rinearson for stationery 3.00 

Stationery for various County Officers 14-34 

Assessors — 

J. S. Morrison, Columbus City Township 26.00 

James Helverson, Florence 21.00 

Joseph Burr, Grandview 20.00 

John Benson, Jefferson 20.00 

Geo. W. Messick, Fredonia 20.00 

Jas. W. Isett, Wapello 21.00 

District Prosecutor — 

Edward H. Thomas 175-00 

Francis Springer 10.00 

L. D. Stockton 10.00 

Jacob Milligan for notifying coins. &c 1.50 

For taking acknowledgmt. of deeds , -87^2 

For guarding a prisoner 4.00 

Judges of Elections 29.90 

Clerks of Election 22.60 

Witnesses in Criminal Cases 17.08 

Sundry expenses for paupers !3-50 

County furniture .75 

E. H. Thomas bal. on old account 2.65 

Amount of Expenditures 1 170.65^4 

Paid out for free ferry 1 14.75 

Assets of Louisa County $1285.40^4 

Notes on hand given for lots upon the Co. qr. sold (some doubtful) 

amounting to 2465.54 

County Revenue uncollected & due for the year 1843 II 47- I 4 

Ditto for 1844 1569.99 

Town lots (value unknown) 5182.67 



Amt. of Judgmt. Ives &c. vs. County $ 836.09 

Territorial Tax vs. County i9 8 -3 6 

County Orders outstanding say 50.00 

Amt. of assets over indebtedness exclusive of Town lots unsold .... 4098.22 


Receipts of Louisa County for 1844 2272.39^ 

Expenditures for 1844 1285.40^4 

Excess of receipts over expenditures $ 986.99^" 

Following is the receipt of Treasurer Thomas for the tax list of 1845 : 

"Received August 18, 1845, of the Board of Commissioners for Louisa county 
Iowa Territory six several abstracts of the assessment rolls of the several Town- 
ships in said County for collection of the Taxes therein charged for the year 
1845 amounting to, in County Tax eighteen hundred and sixteen dollars 29^2 
cents and Territorial to Two hundred and four dollars and 33J4 cents. In all 
Two thousand and twenty dollars and sixty-three cents. 

George F. Thomas, 
Treasurer & Exoffic'w Collector of Louisa County, I. T." 

On the 2 1st of January, 1846, Treasurer Thomas made a complete statement 
of the condition of the county treasury at that date. It is a lengthy document 
and is in the handwriting of Francis Springer. The receipts since January 1st, 
1845, are given as follows: 

From William J. R. Flack collector for the year 1843 $ 64.85 

From William J. R. Flack in county orders 181.81 

Taxes collected by the treasurer in 1845 on the tax list of 1844 9^9-44 

Penalties on delinquent taxes 74-75 

Taxes of 1845 collected 39°- 8 5 

Various other items on ferry licenses and notes for town lots in Wapello 
bring the total receipts up to $829.20. The report shows also that the treasurer 
had paid on judgment to Kirkpatrick & Company against the county $470 and to 
the territorial treasurer $65, and had taken up county orders amounting to 

The report then gives in great detail the assets of the county which we sum- 
marize as follows : 

Outstanding county and territorial taxes $2,417.23^4 

Cash in treasurer's hands 339- 8 4 

Notes for lots in Wapello 1,843.88 


Concerning these notes it is said : "The ahove notes were all given for lots 
in Wapello and may be considered available (though not perhaps for the whole 
amounts due) because they are liens upon lots. It is also said that there are one 
hundred and thirty unsold lots in Wapello, the average value of which is $20. 
making for this last term $2.1 1:10. 

There are also given a few accounts on individuals due to the county, amount- 
ing to $55.(12' j. which makes the total assessment of the county $7,256.58%, and 
its liabilities are stated as follows: 

Due S. M. Kirkpatrick & Company on judgment $ 712. n 

Due the territory 2 47-54 

School money 71.81 

Total liabilities of the county 1,031.46 

The count)' receipts for 1846 given in Treasurer Thomas' report of January 
1. 1847, amounted to 81,022.7(1, the principal amounts being from collections on 
the tax lists of 1844, 1845 and 1846. The report shows county orders taken up 
by the treasurer amounting to $1,184.08, and the payment of $480 on the Kirk- 
patrick judgment and the payment to Francis Springer "captain of Louisa 
( kiards" of the following items: 

• >ne stand of collars $15.00 

One French born 8.00 

One bugle 2.00 

( )ne trumpet 4 crook 6.00 

It would appear from the following report that it was either the duty or the 
custom of the treasurer to make a separate report as to school funds in his hands. 

"To S. M. Kirkpatrick, Clerk of the Board of Commissioners of Louisa 
( ounty. State of low a. The following is a report of the amount of school funds 
on hand on the first Monday of March. 1847, to be divided among the several 
townships in said Louisa County, State of Iowa. 

"Amount collected on tax duplicate for 1846 $232.94 

Amount arising from strays 83.00 

Amount arising from breach of the peace TI 3- 2 5 

Amount arising from grocery license 100.00 

Total amount $529.19 

"Respectfully submitted to your Honor this eighth day of March, 1847. 

G. F. Thomas, 
Treasurer of Louisa County, Iowa." 

The following is the receipt of the taxes collected for the first tax list levied in 
the county after Iowa became a state and it shows that statehood was expensive 
from the very first. 


'■Received Wapello Aug. H>, 1847, of the commissioners of Louisa County, 
State of Iowa, the tax list for collection for the year Eighteen hundred and forty- 
seven ( 184- ). Amounts as follows to wit: 

cents mills 

I 'oil tax $ 3/8.50 

County tax 1 1 15.48.8 

State tax 1076.99.2 

Schooi tax 269.24.8 

Samuel Townsexd, 
Collector of Louisa Comity, Iowa" 

It will be interesting to compare the receipt for the tax list of 1847 with the 
following receipt for the tax list for the year 1851 : 

"Received Wapello, September 10, 185 1, of the Hon. Wright Williams, County 
Judge, the tax duplicate for the year 1851, for collections. 

Amount of County Tax $2,148.12 

Amount of State Tax 2,148.12 

Amount of School Tax 358.02 

Amount of Road Tax 716.04 

No. of Polls 965 at 50c 482.50 

No. of Polls 915 at $2.00 assessed for road purposes 1,830.00 

Amounting in all to the sum of $7,682.80 

Samuel Townsend, 
Treasurer of Louisa County, Iowa." 

The report of Samuel Townsend made July 7, 1852, for the year ending July 
1st contains a few items of interest. It shows the total amount of taxes collected 
as follows : 

County Tax $2,824.17 

State Tax 2,138.41 

School Tax '. . . 655v8 

Road Tax 1.896.75 

It shows payments from these various funds as follows : 

From the county fund $2,656.90 

From the school fund 602.00 

On account of roads 1 ,907.45 

being a slight overpayment, and it shows paid to the state treasurer $1,499. 

The following receipt shows the tax levy made in 1852 and the large increase 
in the amount of countv tax is accounted for by the building of the new court 
house : 


"Received of the county judge for collection the tax list of Louisa County, 
State of Iowa, as follows, to wit: 

Amount of county tax including poll $6,338.67 

Amount of state tax 2,122.45 

Amount of school tax 730.21 

Amount of poll road tax on personalty 2.174.24 

Amount of road tax on real estate 1,046.28 

Wapello, September 15. 1852, said taxes having been assessed for the year 

Samuel Townsend, 
Treasurer of Louisa County, Iowa." 

The following is an abstract of the assessment for the year 1852: 

"Abstract of the Assessment of Louisa County, for the year 1852, as made 
and returned by Samuel K. Helmick, Assessor. 

Property No. Val. Cts. 

1. Lands (No. of acres) 168,089^ $990,859 

2. Town Lots 47,980 

3. Horses 1,931 85.159 

4. Mules and Asses 29 1 ,325 

5. Neat Cattle 7,444 73,201 y 2 

6. Sheep 5,°77 ''.849 

7. Swine 10,942 ^-goS 

8. Capital employed in merchandise 48,550 

9. Capital employed in manufactories 21,867 

10. Carriages and vehicles of every description <>-- 10,718^4 

11. Monies and credits 78,341 

12. Taxable household furniture ''.427 

13. Stocks or shares in any corporation or companv . . . -.472 

14. Boats or other vessels 689 

15. Annuities 

16. Ferry franchise 93 

17. All other personal property not enumerated -".533 

18. Polls 1. 013 

Total valuation 195, 502 y 2 $1,414,969 

State of Iowa, Louisa County: to wit: 

I, Jacob Mintun, Clerk of said County, do hereby certify the above to be a 
true and correct Abstract of the Assessment of said County for the year 1852, as 
taken from the original returns now on file in this Office. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed the Seal 
of said County, this 10th day of June, 1852. 

Jacob Mintun, 
Clerk of Louisa County. 
By G. A. Jones, 

Depty. Clk." 


We next give the receipt for the tax list of 1854: 

"Received of the County Judge of said County the tax list for the year 1854, 
with the following amounts footed up for collections, to wit : 

County Tax $8,100.92 

State Tax 2,326.85 

School Tax 928.69 

Poll Road Tax 2,552.07 

Road Tax 1,858.38 

Total $15,766.91 

John C. Tucker, 
Treasurer Louisa County, Iowa." 

From the report of Samuel Townsend, treasurer of Louisa county, for the 
year ending June 30, 1856, we take the following items: 

The receipts for that year of the county fund, state fund, road fund, school 
fund and swamp land fund, aggregated $24,051.96, the greater part of which 
was county fund. The road tax collected that year was a little over $4,000. 
The school tax collected that year by the county was about $1,200. 

The same treasurer's report for the year ending June 30, 1857, according 
to this report was : Receipts for the year about $34,000, in which is included 
the item of railroad tax amounting to $5,340.34. At the close of the report 
for 1857 the treasurer gives the following account of the assets and liabilities 
of the county : 


Public buildings $ 10,000 

Courthouse square and town lots 5.000 

Poor farm and buildings 7-5oo 

Swamp lands, preempted and sold 21,147 

Claims against United States for swamp lands 20,000 

Fund in hands of treasurer !,79 2 

Railroad stock 100,000 

Interest for county bonds on hand 1,466 

Unpaid taxes 1 ,500 

Total assets $168,405 


Outstanding warrants about $ 2,000 

Railroad bonds 100,000 

Interest due on railroad bonds 933 

Due on poor farm buildings 2,500 

Due on poor farm 1 ,800 

Total liabilities $107,233 

Assets over liabilities 61,172 


The following is the treasurer's receipt for the tax list for the year 1S57, 
which shows among other things. Mime Air Line railroad tax: 

"Received Wapello, November 25. 1857, of Jos. L. Derbin, County Judge 
of said County, the tax duplicate of said County for the Year 1857 f° r collec- 
tion according to law. said duplicate containing the following taxes, viz: 

County Tax $14,25.?. 71 

State Tax 10.650.78 

School Tax 2,658. 16 

Railroad Tax 10,650.78 

Road Tax 5,320.56 

T. .tal Amt. of Taxes $43>53 2 - ( >' ' 

Nov. -'5. '57 William A. Colton, 

J. M. Wilson, 


The following statement covering the years 1858, 1859, i860 and 1801. was 
published in the Wapello Republican, early in the year 1862: 

Statement of Expenditures of Louisa County for 1858, 1859, i860 and 
[861, including amounts allowed by the Board of Supervisors at January session, 

[86] i860 185., 1858 

Attorneys Fees $ -'40.00 $ 418.50 $ 301.45 S 536.50 

Sal. and Ok. Hire, Co. officers 3,009.57 3,814.71 4,172.48 3,201.10 

Jail Expenses No. 411 388.71 782.63 212.40 

Jail Building ''52.51 2,191.99 

Pauper Expenses ^(>2.22 77^-7'' 040.34 1. 505. 12 

Poor Farm Expenses 185.68 198.51 32.80 130.00 

Printing 501 1.85 906.40 73-00 5-5-40 

Assessors 735-5° 402.31 854.98 302.50 

Roads and Bridges 51.50 219.85 0157 I02 -55 

Swamp Lands 281.76 3,162.83 224.52 17.483.43 

Elections 176.84 201.90 165.60 440.50 

Books and Stationery 390.87 717.88 340.64 on. 10 

Court House Expense 46.'>5 348.28 1,321.59 

Public Square 17.75 109.22 562.83 

Contingent Expenses 388.09 108.72 44'-77 7 l - l 9 

Township Officers 370.27 433-34 401. 1 1 420.80 

District Court 635.25 698.58 7<;4-35 7 ,fl -35 

Criminal Expenses 425-75 "63-64 751-75 500.61 

Wood and Lights 85.79 1 14.65 128.40 239.50 

Inquest 16.25 107.38 51.45 66.20 

Grand Jury Expenses 481.00 470.20 497-79 57 1 - 10 

Volunteer Relief 219.96 

Insane Hospital '87.17 

$9,683.23 .SrO.103.20 $11,493.20 $29,620.46 


County Warrants outstanding January 7, 1861 $19,779.91 

County Warrants outstanding January 6, 1862 14,947.02 

County Tax uncollected 25,355.29 

County Tax collected in 1861 12,679.58 

In 1866 the assessed valuation of property was as follows : 

Lands $1,731,324.00 

Town property 154,938.00 

Personal property 885,577.00 

Total $2,771,839.00 

The tax levy that year was as follows : 

State Tax $ 6,932.97 

County Tax 12,306.41 

School Tax (both county and district) 26,024.70 

Road Tax 864.72 

Insane Hospital Tax 2,769.71 

Bridge Tax 2,769.71 

Total Tax Levy $51,668.22 

The tax levy for 1868 was quite similar to that for 1866 except in the matter 
of school taxes, the total of which amounted to $32,219.77. 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him October 27, 1869, 
shows a total of $71,442.29, of which the 

State tax was $ 6,432.54 

County tax 14,189.03 

Bridge tax 4,815.13 

Insane hospital tax 3,213.89 

This year an Air Line railroad tax was also levied. The treasurer's receipt 
for this tax on Dec-ember 13, 1869, shows the amount of $57,900.22. 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him November 5, 1870, 
shows : 

State tax $ 6,271.84 

County tax 13,901.18 

Bridge tax 4>7°3- 88 

Railroad tax 31,352.80 

An "Airline" tax was levied in February, 1870, amounting to 32,194.04 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him November 6, 1871, 
shows a total tax for all purposes of $110,080.59, 0I which the 

State tax was $ 7>555-93 

County tax 16,428.85 

Vol. 3—11 


Bridge tax 7.555-93 

Insane hospital tax 3>777-96 

Railroad tax 37,779.61 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him November 1, 1873, 
shows : 

State tax $ 7.039.05 

County tax 14,078.15 

Bridge tax 8,798.80 

Railroad bond tax 14,078.15 

District school tax 31,381.06 

County school tax 3,519.54 

The total of this list, including corporation taxes, road taxes, etc., amounts 
to $84,129.36. 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him November 2, 1874. 
shows : 

State tax $ 7,066.23 

County tax 14,132.46 

Bridge tax 7,066.23 

District school taxes 26,985.01 

County school taxes 3,533.12 

Insane hospital 1 ,766.55 

Railroad bond 35-33 I - I 5 

The total of this list amounts to $101,145.56. 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him November 2, 1875, 
shows : 

State tax $ 7,287.64 

County tax 18,219.10 

Bridge tax 5,465-73 

District school tax 21,125.42 

County school tax 3,643.82 

Railroad bond 18,219.10 

The total of this list amounts to $81,314.40. 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him October 2^,, 1876, 
shows : 

State tax $ 7,455.20 

County tax 22,365.58 

Bridge tax 5.59MO 

Railroad bond 18,638.00 

District school tax 22,765.03 

County school tax 3,727.60 


The total for this list for all purposes is $88,606.05. 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him November 2, 1877, 
is not materially different from the preceding, the total being $93,855.62. The 
railroad bond tax on this list was $11,069.52, and there was also a pauper tax 
of one mill on the dollar, amounting to $3,689.84. 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him November 1, 1878, 
shows substantially the same as the preceding, the total being $92,057.81 ; the 
railroad bond tax was $10,937.08, and there was also this year a pauper tax of 
$3,645.69, being one mill. 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him November 3, 1879, 
shows a total of $84,810.02, being for 

State tax $ 7,086.26 

County tax 21 ,258.77 

Bridge tax 10,629.39 

District school tax 24,211.21) 

County school tax 3-543- ' 3 

Railroad bond tax 8,857.82 

We may note in passing that the railroad bond tax levied in 1879 was the 
last of that tax levied and that the total amount of railroad bond tax levied 
beginning with 1869 and ending with 1879, was $285,217.24. It will be seen 
by the article on the Air Line railroad that the total expense of that project 
to the people of the county is placed at $298,665.52. The addition of the 
$13,448.28 represents the interest and penalties which accumulated on the taxes 
levied in 1869, 1870 and 1871. 

The receipt for tax list for the year 1891 shows a total lax for all purposes, 
including corporation taxes, road taxes, etc., $77,424.14. Of this the 

District school taxes were $31,255.46 

County school tax 3>73 x -93 

State tax 7,463.87 

County tax 14,927.74 

Bridge tax : 9,329.84 

The treasurer's receipt for tax list delivered to him on December 30, 1893. 
shows a total tax levy for all purposes, including schools, corporations, roads, 
etc., $93,700.65. Of this the 

District school tax was $32,794.38 

County school tax 3,862.02 

State tax 7,726.68 

County tax 23,172.14 

Bridge tax 11,586.07 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered on December 1, 1895. shows 
a total tax levy for all purposes of $96,158.74. Of this the 


District school tax was $36,212.04 

County school tax 3-797-°9 

State tax 9,492.60 

County tax 22,782.49 

Bridge tax 1 1 ,391 .27 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered on December 31, 1898, 
shows a total for all purposes of $98,300.05, of which the 

District school tax was $36,395.32 

County school tax 3,475.74 

State tax 11,122.37 

County tax 1 5,640.82 

Bridge tax 10,427.22 

Relief for the poor 5,213.61 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered December 31. 1900, shows 
a total for all purposes of $1 19,272.79, of which the 

District school tax was $40,240.33 

County school tax 3,654.95 

State tax 9,502.39 

County tax 18,274.84 

Relief of poor 3,654.95 

County farm improvement fund 10,967.43 

Bridge tax 10,964.81 

The insane tax on this list was $7,309.83, which is fully twice as large as it 
was on most of the lists previously noted. 

The treasurer's receipt in December, 1902, for the tax list of that year 
shows as follows : 

I 'oil tax $ 1 ,699.00 

State tax 13,601.09 

State university 777-20 

State normal school 388.60 

State college 777.20 

County fund 15,545.10 

Poor relief 7,772.05 

Bridge fund 11 ,659.07 

Insane hospital 1,943.01 

County insane : 97 x -50 

County school 1,336.03 

District school 47,456.71 

County road tax 562.50 

Delinquent road tax 3,003.27 

Corporations 8,088.82 

County board of health 906.41 


There are a few small items such as cemetery tax, dog tax, repairs on the 
Hoffman levee, etc., these latter amounting to about $2,000. The total of the 
tax list for this year was $123,653.71. 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him in December, 11)03, 
shows as follows : 

Poll tax $ 1,656.00 

State tax 12,630.80 

State university 842.05 

State college 842.05 

State normal school 4- I -°3 

County fund 16,838.28 

Poor relief 8,420.53 

Bridges 1 2,630.80 

County insane 1 ,052.56 

County road 4,210.27 

Township road tax 13,251.89 

Delinquent road tax 5,421.54 

County school tax 4,210.27 

District school tax 49,155.29 

Soldiers relief 1,032.56 

Corporations 8,542.10 

There are a few smaller items, amounting to a little over $1,000, which 
bring the total for this year up to $144,474.73. 

It will be noticed that the total tax levy took a jump of over $20,000 from 
1902 to 1903. It was not long after this increase was noticed until certain 
county politicians were blaming the gentleman who then happened to be gover- 
nor, for the enormous increase in taxes in this county. A comparison of the 
items of tax for the two years, however, will show that there was an actual 
decrease in the tax levied for state purposes and an increase in almost every- 
thing else. 

It will also be interesting to note the corporation taxes for 1903 for principal 
towns in the county and also the school taxes for school districts which em- 
brace these same towns. It must be borne in mind, however, that the boundaries 
of the school districts and of towns are not identical, there being considerable 
land included in the school districts which is not included in the towns. 

Columbus Junction school district $5,037.96 

Columbus Junction corporation 2,756.31 

Columbus City school district 1,860.21 

Columbus City corporation 211.59 

Letts school district 1,847.81 

Letts Corporation 416.60 

Grandview school district 766.44 

Grandview corporation 1 70.46 


Morning Sun school district 3,956.27 

Morning Sun corporation 1 ,933-87 

Oakville school district 671.57 

Oakville corporation 462.51 

Wapello school district 7,162.09 

Wapello corporation 2,760.30 

The treasurer's receipt given in December, 1905, for the tax list of that year 
shows a total of $148,296.02, the principal items of which are as follows: 

State tax $13,697.39 

Count)- tax 21,404.51 

Bridges 17,123.56 

County school tax 4,280.89 

District school tax 56,592.86 

Township road tax 12,964.77 

County road tax 1,070.22 

Delinquent road tax 452.00 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him in 1907 shows a total 
of $146,163.34, the principal items of which are as follows: 

State Tax $15,296.93 

County Tax 19,796.03 

Poor 2,249.55 

Bridges 17,996.39 

County School Tax 4,499.10 

School Districts 50,853.03 

Total Road Tax 14,403.40 

The treasurer's receipt for December, 1909, shows a total of $168,873.26. We 
note the following items : 

State Tax $15,887.68 

County Tax 21,788.82 

Poor 2,269.97 

Bridges 18,157.36 

County Road Tax 2,269.67 

Township Road Tax 15,012.16 

Soldiers Relief 9°7-99 

Poll Tax 1,58400 

Dog Tax 1,166.00 

County School Tax 4,539.34 

District School Tax 55,532.47 

Total tax for this year $168,873.26 


We note also for 1909 the tax levy for the same school districts and incorpor- 
ated towns as are given for 1903. 

Columbus Junction School District $ 6,613.51 

Columbus Junction Corporation 3,243.01 

Columbus City School District T ,39742 

Columbus City Corporation 617.78 

Letts School District 2,160.32 

Letts Corporation 604.96 

Morning Sun School District 10,967.53 

Morning Sun Corporation 2,693.26 

Oakville School District 1,083.84 

Oakville Corporation 698.05 

Wapello School District 5> 2 49-46 

Wapello Corporation , 5,418.00 

Grandview School District 1,652.78 

Grandview Corporation 426.88 

The treasurer's receipt for the tax list delivered to him in December, 1910, 
shows the following: 

State Tax $16,064.37 

County Fund 23,366.36 

Bridges 19.471.96 

Poor 3, 8 94-39 

Soldiers Relief 1,460.40 

State University 973- 60 

State College 973-6o 

State Normal School 486.80 

County School Tax 4,867.99 

District Schools 73,234.20 

Township Road Tax 15,245.05 

County Road Tax 2,434.00 

Poll Tax 1,616.50 

Dog Tax 1,126.00 

Delinquent road and some state taxes 2,310.59 

Corporation Tax 17,413.90 

Township Cemetery Tax 1,779-59 

General Purposes 296.01 

Total exclusive of drainage taxes $188,434.63 

The drainage taxes levied at the same time to be paid in 191 1 amounted to 
$19,640.86, making the total contribution of the people of Louisa county for the 
benefits of state, county and local government, $208,175.49. 


The school taxes and corporation taxes for the same districts and towns as 
heretofore given for 1903 and 1909, were on the 1910 tax list as follows: 

Columbus Junction School District $ 7,165.69 

Columbus Junction Corporation 5,169.70 

Columbus City School District 2,027.14 

Columbus City Corporation 904.23 

Letts School District 2,668.74 

Letts Corporation 802.40 

Grandview School District 1,289.26 

Grandview Corporation 790-!9 

Morning Sun School District 9,151.28 

Mi niiing Sun Corporation 3,276.66 

Oakville School District 4,219.07 

Oakville Corporation 614.40 

Wapello School District 7,475.02 

Wapello Corporation 7,136.14 

Following is a list of the assessed valuation of all the property in the county 
for the years from 1900 to 1901, and of the total taxes levied in the county for all 
purposes for the years from 1900 to 1910: 

Popula- Assessed Value of Total Taxes of 

tion Year County County State Taxes 

11,873 — 1900 $14,619,068.00 $119,389.18 $9,502.39 

1 901 15.330,664.00 1 18,94548 

i<K)2 15,544.100.00 123,653.71 

1903 16.841,068.00 144,474.73 

1904 16,980,092.00 145.691 40 

12,893 — T 9°5 19,241,996.00 148,296.02 

1906 17.236,292.00 143.010.28 

[907 17,985.144.00 146,162.04 

1908 16,525.088.00 153,715.76 

1909 18,307.224.00 168,873.26 

1 2.555— iqio 208,175.49 16,064.37 

swamp land and drainage. 

Closely related to Finances and Taxes is the subject of swamp land and 

This matter has been of considerable importance to Louisa county from a com- 
paratively early date. Our first County Judge. Wright Williams, seems to have 
made the first move in the matter, soon after the first swamp land legislation 
was enacted by the Iowa Legislature. We next find that County Judge. Fran- 
cis Springer interested himself in the matter, and the records contain a copy of 
a letter addressed by him to the commissioner of the general land office at Wash- 
ington, complaining of the fact that the swamp land selections for Louisa 
I ounty were not made available to the county. It seenis from the letter, that 


the land office had adopted a rule not to confirm the swamp land selections for 
any of the counties in Iowa until reports had been received from all of the coun- 
ties. The letter points out that at that time a large part of the state was sparsely 
settled, and many of the counties not yet fully organized. It is stated in this letter 
that the swamp land selections in Louisa county embraced some 40.000 acres. 
This letter was dated April 20, 1865. 

About 1857 the county began to realize something from its swamp lands. 
It is difficult to get at the exact facts and figures. A part of the confusion is due 
to the fact that the Swamp Land Act passed by Congress September 28. 1850, 
under which the State of Iowa secured title to the swamp lands, was at first 
believed only to include such tracts as were designated on the plats of the govern- 
ment surveys as swamp lands and unfit for cultivation. This was the form of 
the bill as originally reported, but it had been amended to include overflowed 
lands without reference to their description on the government plats. While the 
country was settling up, thousands of acres of lands which were in fact subject 
to overflow, but which were not designated as swamp land on the government 
plats, were settled upon. Of course these lands afterward were selected as 
swamp lands and claimed by the various counties in which they were situated. 
Several thousand acres of swamp lands in Louisa county were settled upon prior 
to their selection, and many others had been sold by the government for cash. 
Eventually the county was compensated for these lands, compensation for those 
sold by the government was in cash, and other lands were granted to Louisa 
county in lieu of the Louisa county swamp lands which had been sold before the 
selection. Most of these lands .were situated in Emmet and Hancock counties, 
and were afterwards sold by the county for prices ranging from $1.25 to $2.50 
per acre. 

Under the act of Congress it was contemplated that the proceeds of the 
sales of swamp lands should be used toward reclaiming them and for making 
roads and bridges. The first enterprise of this kind undertaken by the county 
was in Eliot township. The matter was brought to the attention of Francis 
Springer, County Judge, by a petition signed by William Stewart and a number 
of other residents of that locality : at this time Alexander Ross was Drainage 
Commissioner, and on July 7, 1857, he issued a notice stating that in accordance 
with an order of the County Court, the work on Section number one of the 
swamp land improvement in Louisa county would be to let to the lowest bidder 
on August 8, 1857 : the work was described as being the construction of an em- 
bankment commencing 2,000 feet west of the Iowa slough on the south side of the 
Iowa river, and running east and north three miles according to the report of 
the county surveyors then on file: or so much thereof beginning at the initial 
point at the west end as the means at the disposal of the County Court would 
allow. Contract for the work was let on August 8, 1857, to Michael Buckley & 
Co. at 17 y 2 cents per cubic yard. The surveying was done by engineers G. P. 
Sherwood, W. S. Kremer, T. W. Bailey and A. B. Miller at different times, the 
principal part of the surveying seems to have been done by G. P. Sherwood. 

The amount expended by Louisa County on this particular improvement was 
about $9,262.85. On May 17, 1858, the County Judge notified Michael Buckley 
& Co., that the means at the disposal of the County Court for the construction of 
the Eliot township levee were exhausted and that they should discontinue work. 


On September n. 1858, it was reported to the Court that a continuance of the 
swamp land improvement in Section One would enhance the value of lands in 
Des Moines county, and that Des Moines county, at its expense, would build three- 
fourths of a mile of said improvement commencing at Station 128 of the original 
survey. An order was made permitting Des Moines county to continue the work. 

About this same time, that is, in 1857 and 1858, the county expended nearly 
Si 5.000.00 in building a levee on Muscatine Island; and also expended about 
$1,400.00 on the road between Toolsboro and Burris City, and something like 
$1,000 or $1,200.00 in Wapello and Morning Sun townships. These items to- 
gether aggregate nearly $27,000.00 of the swamp land fund which was expended 
by this county in 1856, 1857 and 1858. The lands which the county received in 
the northern part of the state were not sold until about 1870; it appears that the 
county realized from these lands and a few scattering pieces of swamp lands still 
left in this county, about $28,000.00 more, and a considerable part of this money 
was expended in drainage projects in the various townships which contained 
swamp lands, other than Eliot and Port Louisa. The expenditures for this pur- 
pose at this time, were about, as near as can be ascertained from the records, 

A Swamp Land Commissioner was appointed for each of the various town- 
ships where money was to be expended. T. M. Parsons was the first commis- 
sioner for Jefferson township, and was succeeded by Asher Sillick. Jesse Harris 
was the commissioner for Wapello township, William Bell for Morning Sun, H. 
P. Pike for Marshall, James Higbee for Elmgrove, S. E. Wilson,for Columbus 
City. S. S. Wilcox for Union, Phillip Thompson for Concord and Milton Car- 
penter in Oakland township. 

I (rainage work was practically at a standstill in this county from this time 
until the passage of the new drainage law by the 30th General Assembly which 
inaugurated a new drainage era. A large number of drainage districts have been 
organized in Louisa County under this law and the amendments that have since 
been made to it, and we append hereto a brief reference to those of importance. 
We hail hoped to be able to give the figures for each of these districts showing the 
ami mnts expended for different purposes, but they are not yet available for any 
but Xo. 4 which are given. 

On September 16, 1903, the board of supervisors established what has since 
been known as Drainage District No. 1, which included all that portion of sec- 
tions 2T,. 24. 2^, and 21 1, township J}, north, range 2 west, lying within the cor- 
porate limits of the town of Oakville. This took in practically all of the town of 
Oakville. The total cost of the work done in this district was about $2,000.00. 

Drainage District Xo, 2 was established on the petition of W. S. Gunnels, 
March 22. 1906, to include about 2,717 acres. The engineer was J. A. Shriner 
and his original estimate of the cost was $11,311.20. The engineer originally re- 
ported that the main ditch in this district should be six feet deep, with a bottom 
width of twenty feet and the top width twenty-four feet, and the first assessment 
of the costs was made on this basis. Later it was agreed by all parties that the 
ditch be only twenty feet wide at the top and five feet deep, and six feet wide 
at the bottom, and the assessment was made at $9,355, the basis being at a rate 
of about $4 an acre for land benefited one hundred per cent. It w-as found after- 
wards that it was necessarv to raise something like two or three thousand dollars 


additional. This district was situated southwest of Wapello in sections 4, 5, 6, 
7, 8 and 9, of township yi, north, range 3 west, and in sections 1, 12. 31 and 32 of 
township 74-3. 

District No. 4 was a joint district, situated in Louisa and Des Moines counties. 
The part in Louisa county was situated entirely in Eliot township and about three- 
fourths of the land in the entire district was situated in Louisa county. Petition 
for this district was filed by G. W. Gale and others on June 20, 1907, and J. A. 
Shriner was appointed engineer. His first report seems to have been filed, Feb- 
ruary 20, 1908, and his estimate of the number of acres included in the district 
was 16,750, and his estimate of the cost was as follows : 

For excavation of ditches $ 2,619 

Removal of obstruction in channels 1,000 

Boiler, engine, pumps and fixtures 2 7- J 89 

Buildings and sitting machinery 5,ooo 

Preliminary expenses, superintendents, etc 3-55° 

Total $39,388 

M. J. Deihl. of Louisa county, and Gust A. Bergston, of Des .Moines county, 
were appointed commissioners and they in conjunction with the engineer went 
over the ground and these commissioners approved the engineer's report with the 
addition of a number of tile drains, which would cost as estimated by the engineer, 
$2,926, making the probable cost of the improvements, $42,314, as estimated by 
these commissioners. As originally contemplated, this district included the town 
of Oakville, comprising District No. 1, already established and also about 4,000 
acres contiguous to Oakville, mostly on the south and southwest, and a little of 
it immediately north of Oakville. The landowners of this part of the proposed 
district objected to its being taken in, with the result that when the district was 
established on June 24, 1908, this land was left out of the district. 

On June 27. 1908, the joint boards appointed Jacob A. Harmon engineer, and 
required him to give bond in the sum of $5,000 and entered into a contract with 
him, providing for him to do all the work required as engineer and to employ such 
additional labor as might be necessary and that the compensation therefor should 
be as follows : For Jacob A. Harmon. $10 per day for the time actually employed 
by him in such work and his necessary and reasonable traveling expenses. For as- 
sistant engineers and draftsmen $5 per day; for recorders, $3 per day, ten hours 
to be a day's work in the field, and for all other labor employed on such work, the 
actual cost thereof. It was also agreed that said engineer Harmon should be 
paid in installments as the work progressed, five per cent of the cost of construct- 
ing the levee and ditches, and five per cent of the cost of the pumping plant, ma- 
chinery, etc. Engineer Harmon made elaborate plans for the entire work and 
the same was completed at a total cost of $131,664.34. The principal items of 
this cost are as follows : 

Pumping plant complete, including machinery $46,521.31 

Open ditches 31,579.81 

Tile ditches 15,525.91 


Engineer's residence i ,980.09 

Attorney's fees 1,280.00 

Miscellaneous 1 ,102.27 

Printing 694.25 

Damages 8,447.00 

Engineering expenses 24,543.70 

Total actual cost $131,674.34 

Estimated when established 42,314.00 

The amount stated for engineering expenses may not be entirely correct, but 
it is the nearest approximation that can be made from the records in the Au- 
ditor's office of Louisa county. The share of all the expense of District No. 4 
borne by Louisa county was three-fourths, or practically that, and the Auditor has 
a record so made that it shows the various amounts paid by Louisa -county for 
the various purpose-;, as above stated, except that there is an item of $6,246.52 
being Louisa county's share of the preliminary expenses, which is not thus sep- 
arated. The amount paid by Louisa county, including this last item is $98,755.76, 
and Des Moines county's share would be about $32,918.58 making a total cost 
of $131.6,74.34. 

It is possible that there were a few hundred dollars in the preliminary expense 
account that would not properly be chargeable to the engineering expenses, but 
it is sa'fe to say that the engineering expenses of this drainage district have 
already amounted to considerable more than one half of the original estimate 
for the whole enterprise. Whatever else may be said of Drainage District No. 
4. its history at least shows the wisdom, from the engineer's standpoint, of hav- 
ing a contract whereby his compensation will be, in addition to his per diem, 
five per cent of all that he can make the work cost the district. 

The amount given for miscellaneous expense includes some extra work in 
the Auditor's office of the two counties, surveying, notices, pav of commissioners, 

In regard to the amount of $8,447.00 given as damages, it is probable that 
something like $4,000.00 of that was for the purchase of the farm which the 
supervisors have been leasing since that time. 

Soon after the establishment of District No. 4, two levee districts were estab- 
lished, being Nos. 5 and 6. The two together included all of the levee on the Mis- 
sissippi and Iowa river referred to so far as it protected any of the lands in Drain- 
age District No. 4. At a somewhat later period the entire levee constructed by 
the United States government near the mouth of Flint creek was included in one 
levee district, being Louisa and Des Moines District, No. 16, and this latter dis- 
trict absorbed the levee districts 5 and 6. 

The next district established in Louisa county was Levee District No. 8, 
petitioned for by J. N. Dutton and others. This levee was along the east side of 
the Iowa river southeast of Wapello and north of Oakville, and commenced near 
the quarter section corner on the south side of section 22. 73-2. and extended 
about five and a quarter miles to the north to a point on the bluff a little south 
and west of section 8, 73-2. This district included about 2.600. J. A. Shriner 


was appointed engineer and he estimated the cost of the levee and the outlet pipe 
for the interior waters of the district to be $23,279.57. The contract for the 
work in this district was let to W. P. Bumgardner, of Wapello, and he sub-let 
the same to Phelps & Peterson. The improvement was completed for about the 
original estimate. The order of the board establishing this district was made 
September 28. 1908, and the work was completed within about a year. 

The next district was Levee District No. 9, and was petitioned for by J. E. 
Dennis and others, December 29, 190(1. and included the land in Oakland town- 
ship known as Marsh or the Big Marsh, lying in sections 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 15 and 
16, in township 76, range 5, and included about 890 acres. W. S. Kremer was 
appointed engineer of this district. He afterward resigned and J. A. Shriner 
succeeded him. Mr. Kremer's original estimate of the cost of the improvement 
to be made in this district was $4,300. The contract for this work was taken 
by some of the landowners interested in it, and the total cost was not far from 
the original estimate. 

The petition for Levee District Xo. 10, signed by H. B. Brock and others was 
filed May 11, 1908. and J. A. Shriner was appointed engineer. He made his 
report July 18, 1908, favoring the establishment of the district and showing that 
it comprised a total of 2,346 acres, all in the north part of Oakland township, 
and that the probable cost including outlet pipes, etc., should be $3,890.25. This 
district was established on March 4, 1909, and the contract was let to W. P. Bum- 
gardner, of Wapello. The total cost of the improvement in this district was 

The next district is Levee District. No. 11, which includes 3,421 acres of land 
immediately across the Iowa river from Wapello. J. A. Shriner was appointed 
engineer. The petition for this district was signed by John G. Grim and others, 
and filed January 4, 1909. J. A. Shriner was appointed engineer and estimated 
the probable cost to be $35,467.25. The district was established on May 21. 
1909, and the contract was let to R. H. McWilliams, of Mattoon, Illinois. The 
commissioners who were appointed to assess the costs and damages in this dis- 
trict reported that the items for which the assessments were made were as follows : 

For work under contract $25,000.00 

For culverts ' 2,000.00 

For land damages 3,000.00 

For preliminary, legal and engineering and contingencies 3,446.31 

Total $33,446.31 

The actual amount of tax levied in this district was $34,108.28 and it will 
require about $1,700 more to finish paying. 

The next district established was Drainage District, No. 12, which takes in 
about 13,000 acres west and southwest of Wapello. The petition was filed May 
26. 1909, signed by J. A. Hale and others and J. A. Shriner was appointed en- 
gineer. Mr. Shriner recommended the establishment of the district, stating two 
plans upon which the work might be done and estimated the probable cost on 
plan No. 1 at $73,855, and on plan No. 2, $64,716.84. The following estimated 
items of the cost were included in each of the two plans, namely: 


Land damages $6,000 

Railroad crossings • 4,000 

Preliminary and legal expenses, etc 6,000 

This district was established by order of the board on January 7, 1910. The 
contract was let to Chapman Brothers, at that time residents of Muscatine. The 
total cost of the improvements made in this district was about $90,000. 

Levee District No. 14 was petitioned for November 11, 1909, by H. O. Weaver 
and W. E. Shew, and J. A. Shriner was appointed engineer. This district included 
about a thousand acres on the east side of the Iowa river, immediately north of 
Hogback. Air. Shriner's estimate of the probable cost of the improvements was: 

Levee 47,000 cubic yards at 20c $9,400 

Outlet pipes • 500 

Ditch 6,000 cubic yards at 20c 1.200 

Engineering, legal and other expenses 1,1 10 

Total $12,210 

The next district established was No. 13, a joint district in Louisa and Musca- 
tine counties. The petition was filed by W. H. Hurley and others. March 11. 
1910, and a commission was appointed by the boards of the two counties, con- 
sisting of J. W. Garner. Louisa county, and J. C. Park, Muscatine county, and 
these commissioners selected Engineer F. A. McDonald as the third member of 
the commission. This district was located on Muscatine Island, about one-third 
being in Muscatine county and about two-thirds being in Louisa county, and is 
said to contain about 30,000 acres. The commission estimated the total expense 
of the improvements proposed in this district at $201,106.45. Included in this 
estimate is $85,000 for a pumping plant; $8,500 for engineering; and $9,338 for 

On June 14, 191 1. the boards of supervisors appointed Jacob A. Harmon, 
engineer, to make a survey of the proposed district, with plans and an estimate 
of the cost. Mr. Harmon's report suggested a modification of the plans by elimin- 
ating the construction of a levee along the Mississippi river from Port Louisa 
to Toolesboro. recommending that that levee be constructed by a separate levee 
district to be organized for that purpose, and suggesting a different location for 
the pumping plant and certain modifications due to that change. Air. Harmon's 
estimate is as follows : 

For the necessary ditches $ 49,830 

Pumping plant, machinery and building 1 10,000 

Sluice way, incidental engineering, court costs, etc 12,670 

Total $172,500 

Air. Harmon's report estimated the total area of land within the proposed 
drainage district to be 15,900 acres, and that the average cost would be $10.90 
per acre. 


This district was established by the supervisors of Louisa and Muscatine 
counties on October 24, ign, and on the next day a contract was made by them 
with Jacob A. Harmon of the Harmon Engineering Company of Peoria, Illi- 
nois, as engineer, which contract provides in substance that Mr. Harmon should 
have $25.00 per day for his time on said work, and in addition thereto, five per 
cent of what he succeeded in making it cost the district ; and also $10.00 per day 
for assistant engineers, $6.00 per day for instrument men, $4.00 per day for 
recorders and $6.00 per day for draughtsmen and computers, and also pay for 
all other labor, traveling and living expenses while on the work away from the 
home office at Peoria. It is hardly necessary to say that the supervisors who 
made such munificent provision for the engineer were not expecting to have to 
pay any part of it out of their own pockets. This contract means that the 
engineer will not merely get big pay for all his time on the job, and the same for 
all his assistants, but in addition to this he will get $5,500 for preparing the plans 
of the pumping plant, and nearly $2,oco for making specifications and profiles 
of the ditches, etc. If, as is sometimes the case, the plans and specifications of 
the pumping plants are furnished in advance by the bidders, the tax-payers might 
be inclined to characterize this contract by a harsher word than we have used. 

There was some work done by M. L. Jamison on Muscatine Island in 1883, 
in building a levee which had been petitioned for by land owners of Muscatine and 
Louisa Counties. The contract price for the work was something like $30,000. 
Quite a number of the taxpayers resisted the project; the first tax levied was set 
aside by the court, and it required a long series of litigation and an act of the Iowa 
Legislature to enable Mr. Jamison to get his pay. 

This matter of drainage is one which has created considerable controversy in 
the county, due largely to the manner in which the law has been administered. 
The benefits which accrue from necessary drainage, are recognized by everybody, 
but it is undoubtedly true that some of the drainage projects put through in Louisa 
County have cost the tax-payers far more than they should. It so happens that 
of the dozen or more drainage and levee districts in the county which have been 
established by the Board of Supervisors, there is not a member of the Board who 
has any land in any of these districts. This probably accounts for the fact that 
the engineers have been given practically absolute power to determine the kind 
and character of the work to be done. 

In two of the districts viz: No. 4 and No. 13, the contracts made with the en- 
gineer are so drawn as to make it to his pecuniary interest to see that the most ex- 
pensive kind of improvements shall be made. In addition to* this, his contract 
provides that he shall have a certain amount per day for his different assistants 
ranging from $10.00 to $3.00. The contract is open to the construction that he is 
to receive these amounts for his assistants whether they cost him that much or not. 
It has been openly charged in regard to District No. 4, that the bills filed by the 
engineer include pay for various assistants, of amounts from 50 to 100 per cent 
greater than the amount actually paid by the engineer. At one time at a joint 
session of the Des Moines and Louisa County Boards this matter was brought to 
their attention, while the engineer was being examined, but they refused to allow 
it to be inquired into. It may be that these charges were entirely unfounded but 
the taxpayers as well as the impartial observer will be likely to think that if this 
were so, it could have been shown in the same length of time that was required 


for the supervisors to deliberate upon, and sustain a technical objection. The 
drainage law is lamentably lame in that it does not provide some way whereby 
the taxpayers protect themselves from extravagance, carelessness or incompe- 
tency of those who control drainage projects. The people of Eliot township have 
been taxed nearly $100,000, by the six men who compose the Boards of Super- 
visors of this and Des Moines county, while the voters of Eliot township have 
no opportunity to vote for or against but one of these six men. If this is the 
kind of government our forefathers fought for, they might well have saved 
some of their blood and treasure. 




The first territorial governor of Iowa, Robert Lucas, was himself something of 
a military man, and at once interested himself in an effort to organize a territorial 
militia. He had difficulty in many of the counties in getting them to take any in- 
terest in the matter, but it is undersood that the military spirii showed itself quite 
early in this county. On January 19, 1839, Gov. Lucas made the following militia 
appointments in this county, all of them being of the 1st Regiment of the 1st 
Brigade of the 2nd Division : 

Colonel. John Ronalds. 

Lieutenant, Z. C. Inghram. 

Major, Robert Childers. 

There are no records to be found showing just what military organizations 
were perfected in this county at that time. Such as there were, however, came 
very near having something to do in connection with the controversy between the 
state of Missouri and Iowa territory over the location of the southern boundary 
of the territory. This incident is sometimes called the Border War, or the Puke 
War. The state of Missouri claimed that the northern boundary of that state ex- 
tended far enough North to include a great part of Van Buren County, and 
brought the matter to a crisis by sending an officer up there to collect taxes. This 
officer was arrested and put in jail in Van Buren County, whereupon the governor 
of Missouri issued a tierce proclamation and called for a thousand volunteers. 
Gov. Lucas responded with a much bigger proclamation and called for 1.200 
troops. In an article on Louisa County history in the Annals of Iowa for 1870, 
William L. Toole, referring to this incident, says : 

"Louisa County, like its adjoining counties, had for its early settlers a people 
patriotic and spirited, as was fully shown at the time of our border war; for, al- 
though then but few in number, they eagerly and freely attended to the call to 
repel the invaders." Mr. Toole then relates that public meetings were held and 
patriotic speeches delivered and resolutions made to stand ready for a move 
against the intruders from Missouri. The display of patriotism was not confined 
to the males, but the wives and daughters were also zealous in their patriotism. 
Maximillian Eastwood, justice of the peace, blacksmith and tavern keeper 
in Toolesborough, was a man of considerable local note and influence and his 
cabins were places of public resort. On the occasion of one of these "war meet- 



ings," Mrs. Eastwood, who was a favorite among the people, "assisted by her 
female friends, prepared a free dinner for all assembled, and enough for all. 
The dinner was made noted through the huge (John or journey) cake she pre- 
pared for the occasion ; it was fourteen feet long and about one foot wide, baked 
on a board before a fire fixed along a large log, and perhaps the largest cake ever 
made in Iowa." 

In addition to the public meetings referred to by Mr. Toole, there were other 
warlike occurrences in this county at the time, notably the march through the 
county of a company of the militia from Muscatine. It is said also that a com- 
pany from Johnson county came as far as the bluff south of Wapello, and then, 
learning that there would be no war, returned home. The controversy over the 
boundary was settled some years after by the Supreme Court of the United States 
in favor of the contention of Iowa. 

Among the old files are found the records of two courts martial held in 1840. 
The following, which seems to have been held on Sept. 19, 1840, was doubtless 
held in Grandview township, although it does not so state. We quote it literally : 

"I do heare by certyfy that the folowing is a corect transaction acording to 
law. Martin Gray Capt. 

"A court marcial being Detailed of the undersined acording to law of the 5 
"comp. 1 Reg. 1 Birgade 2 Division, S. M. on the 19th of September 1840 was 
"organised, an as folows asesed the fines of Delinquents as follows: 

"Jacob Holbrook fined $2.00. 

"Wm. Thompson, Jim. fined $3.00. 

"Lot Thornton, fined $2.00. 

"Thomas MCoy, fined $3.00. 

"Thomas Suleven. fined $2.00. 

"Wm. Shoemaker, fined $3.00. 

"Abraham Mclearey, fined $3.00. 

"Abraham Sellers, fined $2.00. 

"S. R. Crow . prs., 
Jesse Benefiel, 
Wm. P. Noreis, 
John Tayler, 
AtExer. Ross." 

It seems from the foregoing that Martin Gray was captain of the militia at 
Grandview. The record of the one held at Florence is as follows : 

"Court Martial Held at Florence on the 17th Day of September A. D., 1840, 
the following are the names of persons Returned by the Court and each one 
Fined two dollars: fame- Morris. James Hate. Joseph < >gle, Obadiah Garison, 
Mark Davidson. James R. Willson, John Devenport. James Willson, Samuel 
Dunham, Nathan Linton. Thomas Stanly, Henry McFall, Jefferson Frizzle, 
Richard Curry. 

Attest Samuel Smith. 
President of the Court." 


These fines were probably for failure to attend drills. 

The executive journal of Gov. Robert Lucas shows that on January 13, 1841, 
he appointed John Rinearson captain of the Wapello Cavalry, in place of M. 
Wilson, who had resigned. Mrs. Sarah Hurley says she remembers the Wapello 
Cavalry quite well, and that it was in the habit of drilling out west of town ; and 
that her uncle, David Clark, who at that time lived in Muscatine and had been 
commander of a militia company back in Indiana, came down here occasionally 
to drill the boys. 

It was the duty of the township assessors at one time to make a return of all 
of the able-bodied males between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, and these 
returns are among the files for Wapello, Florence, Jefferson, Grandview and 
Columbus City townships, but none from Fredonia township. From the report 
made by John Gilliland, Clerk of the County Board of Commissioners, to the ad- 
jutant general, on June 24, 1844, it appears that the persons subject to military 
duty in the county were as follows : Wapello township, 143 ; Florence township, 
191 ; Jefferson township, 86; Grandview township, 117; Columbus City township, 
143 ; Fredonia township, estimated, 55. Total, 635. 

The return from Grandview township made by Joseph Burr, assessor, shows 
that there were the following officers residing in that township at that time : 
Robert Childers, Colonel ; Alex. Ross, Major ; Nicholas T. Brown, Lieutenant ; 
Morton Brown, 2nd Lieutenant. 

The returns from other townships do not make mention of any officers. One 
military item of interest is found in the report of Treasurer George F. Thomas, 
made January 1, 1847, for the year 1846, in which he mentions the payment to 
Francis Springer, "Captain of Louisa Guards," of the following amounts : 

One stand of collars $15.00 

One French Horn 8.00 

One Bugle 2.00 

One Trumpet, 4 Crook 6.00 

The history of the Union Guards, will be found in the chapter on Columbus 


According to the report of Adjutant General Baker, made in 1866, the quota 
of troops to be furnished by Louisa county for the suppression of the rebellion 
under the calls made by President Lincoln in 1861 and 1862 was five hundred, 
and the number of troops furnished by the county under these calls is given by 
the same report as eight hundred and forty-two. This gives the county a surplus 
over the call of three hundred and forty-two. We find no other official statement 
as to the quota to be furnished by Louisa county under any of the calls made by 
the president subsequent to this. Since then the number of troops furnished by 
this county in the war of the rebellion has been placed at eight hundred and forty- 
two. We have long supposed that that number was entirely too low, and have 
made a very careful investigation in the effort to give not only the full number 
of soldiers' furnished by this county, but the names of the soldiers with their 
respective commands. 


We have prepared an alphabetical list, which is given at the close of this chap- 
ter, showing the names and commands of all the Louisa county soldiers so far 
as we have been able to ascertain them. This list was first made by copying from 
the reports of the adjutant general for the various years covering the rebellion, 
the names of those soldiers who were credited to Louisa county. The list was 
then submitted to quite a number of the Louisa county soldiers and many addi- 
tional names were suggested. Colonel J. W. Garner was kind enough to go over 
the list and compare it with the adjutant general's reports and add such names 
as he could think of not found there. Colonel Garner himself added in the neigh- 
borhood of one hundred names, which were not on the original list. The list of 
those whose commands are given numbers upward of twelve hundred. To this 
list there are fourteen names added, all of whom are believed to have been resi- 
dents of this county when they enlisted, but whose commands we have not been 
able to learn. 

Louisa county furnished nearly the whole of the following companies: C 
of the Fifth Infantry; K of the Eighth Infantry: F and G of the Nineteenth 
Infantry; F of the Twenty-fifth Infantry, and F of the Thirty-fifth Infantry. 
It also furnished quite a number in Companies C of the Eleventh ; C of the 
Eighth : E of the Fourteenth ; C of the Fourteenth ; I of the Sixth ; E of the Six- 
teenth ; 1 ). G and H of the Seventeenth, and one or more in the following com- 
panies : A, C, D and E of the First Infantry: Companies A. G and H of the 
Second Infantry ; G of the Fifth ; A and I of the Seventh ; 1 1 and I of the Eighth ; 
A of the Ninth ; F. G and Ft of the Eleventh ; K of the Thirteenth ; K of the 
Fourteenth; H of the Fifteenth: C of the Sixteenth; C of the Eighteenth: C 
of the Nineteenth; D, F and T of the Twenty-fifth; C of the Thirtieth: A and 
D of the Thirty-fifth; II and G of the Thirty-seventh; C of the Forty-first, and 
B, F and H of the Forty-fifth; and Companies A. P., C, D and E of the First 
Cavalry : A. H, T and K of the Second Cavalry ; K and L of the Fourth Cavalry ; 
M of the Seventh Cavalry: D, E. F. II, K. L and M of the Eighth Cavalry and 
A of the Ninth Cavalry. There were also some Louisa county soldiers in the 
following commands : Engineer Regiment of the West ; the First Battery Iowa 
Light Artillery; the Fourth Veteran Infantry; Fifteenth United States Regulars: 
the Sixteenth Illinois and the Fifty-fifth Illinois. 

A fair idea of the patriotism of Louisa county and her devotion {,, the Union 
can be gained from the fact that by the census of i860 the county had a popula- 
tion of but 10,370 and that she furnished during the war 1,217 soldiers. This 
means that practically fifty per cent of the men of Louisa county enlisted in the 

It is not our purpose to write a history of the war of the rebellion, nor to give 
a detailed account of the various battles and campaigns in which Louisa county 
soldiers were engaged. It is probable that some of them were engaged in the 
following battles, and doubtless in many others : Bull Run, Wilson's Creek, Bel- 
mont, Fort Donelson. Shiloh. Chickahominy, Manassas, Antietam, luka, Corinth, 
Prairie Grove, Fredericksburg, Chickasaw Bluffs, Arkansas Post, Chancellors- 
ville, Champion Hill, Yicksburg, Gettysburg, Jackson, Mississippi, Sterling's 
Plantation, Rappahannock, Missionary Ridge, Mine Run, Virginia, Meridian 
Expedition, Sabine Cross Roads, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Totopotamy, Gun- 
town. Mississippi, Atlanta Campaign, Cold Harbor, Sherman's March to the Sea, 
Petersburg, Kenesaw Mountain, Tupelo, Mississippi, Nashville and Bentonville. 


It is hardly necessary to say, in view of the foregoing record, that no citizen 
of Louisa county was ever drafted. In addition to paying bounties for soldiers 
who enlisted, the supervisors of the county did a great deal to assist the families 
of volunteers. Their records show that they received a circular from Governor 
Kirkwood on this subject and later a letter from Judge Francis Springer, and 
that thereupon the)' appropriated a thousand dollars to be expended in the vari- 
ous townships. The expenditure of this money in each township was under the 
supervision of a person appointed by the board called a commissary. The super- 
visors expended several thousand dollars in this way during the war. It is also 
known that private citizens spent money freely in aid of the families of soldiers 
where such aid was needed. The following is the alphabetical list referred to 
and it is believed that nearly every soldier who enlisted from Louisa county is 
reported in the list. Many of them enlisted either in Burlington, or Muscatine, 
or Keokuk, and for this reason some are credited to those localities, when in fact 
they belonged in Louisa county. . The list contains no name which is not vouched 
for by some of our Louisa county veterans, or contained in the official lists. 

By the use of this list, which gives the company and regiment of each soldier, 
it will be an easy matter, by aid of the recently published "Roster" of Iowa 
Soldiers, to get the military history of any Louisa county soldier. The "Roster" 
is published by the state, and has been quite generally circulated ; it also contains 
a history of the organization and service of all the Iowa regiments. The Iowa 
soldiers bore an honorable and conspicuous part in the suppression of the rebel- 
lion, and those from Louisa county, while claiming no superior merit over their 
comrades in arms from other counties in the state, cari truthfully claim to have 
done their full share. This is honor enough. 


Abbott, Charles H., Thirtieth, colonel. 

Acheson, Anderson D., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Acheson, Martin, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, fifth corporal. 

Acheson, Ramsey, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Acheson, Samuel R., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Albaugh, Alexander, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Albaugh, John, Company C, Fifth Infantry, first lieutenant. 

Allen, Charles R., Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, wagoner. 

Allen, Joseph, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, second sergeant. 

Allen, Joseph B., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Allen, Joseph P., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Allen, Newton, Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Allen, William, Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Allen, William G., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, captain. 

Allison, Eugene, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, sergeant. 

Alloway, William. Company H, Fifteenth Infantry, private. 

Anderson, Clark, Company K, Second Cavalry, private. 

Archibald, Robert E., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, second private. 

Archibald, William W., Company — , Eighth Infantry, private. 

Arrowhood, Thos. J., Company K, Fourth Cavalry. 


Ashbaugh, Andrew J., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Ashby, Alexander, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Ashby, Bladen, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Asher, George, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Ashford, Aaron M., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Ashford, Elijah M., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Ashford, Jacob, Company — , Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Ashford, Percifer C, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Ashford, William, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, seventh corporal. 

Asp, John, Company I, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

Atcheson, Samuel W., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Ayers, Charles F., Company K, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Ayers, William M., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Bailey, Caldwell, Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Bailey. Charles C, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Bailey, Charles O., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Bailey, George E., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Bailey, Hosford, Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Bailey, Jonathan E., Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Bailey, Thomas W., Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), captain. 

Bailey, Willard F., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Bailey, Willard F., Company I, Fourth Veteran Infantry, private. 

Bailey, William A., Company C, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Baldrige, Alfred E., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, second corporal. 

Baldrige, John W., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Baldry, Samuel, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Ballaine, Edward, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Barcus, Henry, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Barkoff, Wm., Company D, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Barr, Robert, Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Barringer, Abraham C, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Barringer. Samuel, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Barringer, William. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, first corporal. 

Barshaw, John, Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), private. 

Bates, John D., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Bayless, Peter M., Company C, Fifth Infantry, eighth corporal. 

Beamer, William S., Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Beane, Horatio, Company E, Fourteenth Infantry, private. 

Beatty, J. N., Company E, First Infantry, private. 

Beatty, John N., Company K, Eighth Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Beck, George, Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Beck, V. B., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Beck, William, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Bede, Jackson, Company E, Eighth Iowa Cavalry, private. 

Bede, Richard, Company K, Eighth Iowa Infantry, private. 

Bedwell, John H.. Company F, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Bell, George M., Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Bell, John, Ninth Infantry, surgeon. 


Bell, John C, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Bell, John S., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Bell, Thomas, Jr., Company K, Second Cavalry, saddler. 

Bell, Thomas S.. Nineteenth Infantry, assistant sergeant. 

Bennett, Joseph, Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Bennett, Jas. W., Company D, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Benson, George H., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Benson, Henry H., Company K, Eighth Infantry, captain. 

Berkoff, William, Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

Bevins, Charles, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Bevins. Cyrus, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Bevins, James M., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Bigger, William F., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, third sergeant. 

Bird, John, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, captain. 

Bishop, Zion, Company K, Second Cavalry, private. 

Bissinger, Mathias, Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

Blair, Martin, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Blair, William, Company M, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Blake, Henry C, Company C, First Cavalry, private. 

Blake, John B., Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Blake, Leander, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Blake, Levi M., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Blake, Nehemiah, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 

Blake. Ward. Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Boke. Samuel F., Company D, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Bolean, William L., Company G, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Bond, Heber, Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Botha, Detrich, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Bowman, Elliott M., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Bowman, J. F., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Boyd, Henry, Company B, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Branden, William P.. Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Bras, Alexander, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Bras, Charles W., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, fourth sergeant. 

Bras, Edgar A., Company K, Eighth Infantry, fourth corporal. 

Bras, Frank, Engineer Regiment of West. 

Bras, Garry A., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Breston, George W., Company E, First Infantry, private. 

Bretz, Benjamin F., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Bretz, John, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Brewer, James H., Company E, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Brewer, Nathan J., Company K, Thirteenth Infantry, sixth corporal. 

Briggs, George N., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Brinley, David, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Briston, George W., Company E, First Infantry, private. 

Britt, Alexander, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Britt, Sylvester, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Brown, Basil, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 


Brown, Dennis, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Brown, Isaac P., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Brown. James. Company I, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Brown, Joshua, Company K, Second Cavalry, private. 

Brown, Mills C, Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Brown, Robert H., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Brown, Thomas, First Battery Iowa Light Artillery, private. 

Brown, Thomas K., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Brown, William B., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Brownson, Edgar, Company B, First Cavalry, private. 

Brownson, Milan, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Brubaker, Abraham II., Company F, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Brubaker, John A.. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Brumage. Thomas, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Bryan, Timothy, Company H, Second Cavalry, private. 

Bryant. Joseph, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, third corporal. 

Buffington, Joseph H., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Buffington, Joseph R., Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, second corporal. 

Buffington. Richard \\\, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Buffington, S. A., Company A. Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Bunting, Parish L., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Burger. Alfred S., Company K, Second cavalry, private. 

Burris, Benjamin, Company C, First Infantry, private. 

Burris, Charles, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Burris, Jacob B., Company H, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Burris, L., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Burrows, William H., Company G, Nineteenth Cavalry, private. 

Buster, S., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Buster, Simon, Company G, Nineteenth Cavalry, private. 

Butcher, Joseph, Company A, Second Cavalry, private. 

Butler, Finley, Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Butler, Henry C. Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Butler, John H., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Butler, Sylvester, First Cavalry, third musician. 

Butler, Webster, Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Butler, William, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, corporal. 

Butman, Alpha. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Butman, Alphonso, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Butman, Evander, Company L, Second Cavalry, private. 

Butman, Manson B., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Caldwell. Stephen H., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, first lieutenant. 

Calhoun. Junius. Company C, Fifth Infantry, fourth sergeant. 

Campbell. Andrew )., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Campbell, William, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Capper, William. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Carey, Charles. Company — , Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Carney. Patrick, Company C. Fifth Infantry, private. 

Carpenter, Charles E.! Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 





Carpenter, John, Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Carringer, George C, Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Carringer, William H., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Carson, Joseph S., Company H, Second Infantry, private. 

Carter, John F., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Carey, George H., Company C, First Cavalry, private. 

Cellan, James, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Chapman, Charles W., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Chapman, Madison G., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Chapman, Samuel, Company C, First Cavalry, private. 

Chapman, Thomas D., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, second sergeant. 

Chapman, William, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Chase, Levi, First Cavalry, major. 

Chasteen, J., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Chenoweth, Joel, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Chenoweth, Joel, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, fifth sergeant. 

Chenoweth, William, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, first corporal. 

Cissne, Pomroy, Company A, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Clark, Daniel, Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), private. 

Clark, James W., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Clark, John W., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Clark, Morris W., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, captain. 

Clark, Samuel, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Clark, Samuel. Company H, Eighth Cavalry, seventh corporal. 

Clark, William, Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), private. 

Clement, Joseph W., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Cocklin, Reuben F., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, eighth corporal. 

Coe, David M., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, second lieutenant. 

Coe, Edward E., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Coe, George F., Company D, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Cole, Henry H., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Cole, Thomas, Company F, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Coleman, David F., Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Coleman, John G., Company G, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 

Colip. William R.. Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Colton, Frank, Company E, Fifteenth United States Infantry. 

Colville, Beman, Company B, First Cavalry, private. 

Compton, O. P., Company C, Sixteenth Cavalry, fourth corporal. 

Compton, Wesley B., Company H. Second Infantry, private. 

Conway. Isaac J., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Cook, Archibald, Company C, Fifth Infantry, second corporal. 

Cooken, Charles F., Company F, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Cooper, Valentine, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Corbin, James C, Company — , Second Cavalry, private. 

Cornelius, F. James, Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Cornelius, Finley J., Company K, Eighth Infantry, fifth corporal. 

Cornelius, John, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Cosgriff, Richard L., Company L, Fourth Cavalry, private. 


Coulter, John, Company K, Second Cavalry, second lieutenant. 

Covet, Albert L., Company I, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Cowgill, James. Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Cowles, Thomas, Company L, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Coyle. Patrick, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Craddock, Albert, Company A. Second Cavalry, private. 

Craddock, John W., Company E, Eighteenth Infantry, private. 

Craig, Thomas, Company I, Eighteenth Infantry, private. 

Crain, David, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Crammond, William J.. Company — , Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Crane. James \Y.. Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Crawford, Thomas H., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Creighton, H. L., Company E, First Infantry, private. 

Creighton, Hugh L., Company C, Thirtieth Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Creighton, Joseph H.. Company C, Thirtieth Infantry, musician. 

Creighton. Samuel. Company C. Forty-first Infantry, private. 

Creighton, Samuel N., Company E, First Infantry, private. 

Creswell, John M., Company D, First Cavalry, private. 

Grill, Charles W.. Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Crilly, Theodore, Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, second corporal. 

Crim, Morris, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Crow, John H., Company C, First Infantry, private. 

Crocker, Wm. H., Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Cummins, David, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Cunningham, G. W., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Cunningham, Lewis, Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Cunningham, William, Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, musician. 

Cunningham, William, Company K, Eighth Infantry, eighth corporal. 

Cutkomp, William, Company D, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Dakes, Richard H., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Daniels, Emmer, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Darnell, Newton, Company D, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Darnutzer, Christian, Company E, Fourteenth Infantry, private. 

Darrow, Wallace, Company F, Eleventh Infantry, musician. 

Darrow, William H., Fifth Infantry, assistant surgeon. 

Davidson, Samuel, Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Davis, Edward, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Davis, Robert, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Davis, William, Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Davison, George F., Company A, First Cavalry, private. 

Davison. Hiram B., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Davison, Nathaniel, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Dean, Lewis, Company L, Fourth Cavalry, private. 

De Camp, Marcellus. Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, first corporal. 

Dalzell, Samuel P.. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Denham. Obed E., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, fifth corporal. 

Dennis, Asher, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Dennis, Marvin, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 


Dennis, Oliver, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Dennis, William C, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Deppe, Henry, Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 
Denham, Hugh L., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, third sergeant. 
Detwiler, Michael, Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), fifth 

Devine, Owen, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Dickerson, Aden T., Company E, Eighteenth Infantry, private. 

Dickies, Morris, Company D, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Dildine, W. A., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Diller, Henry, Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Diller, Henry, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Dilley, George W., Company B, First Cavalry, private. 

Dilley, Thomas B., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Dobbs, Elisha, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, musician. 

Dodd, Hiempsal S., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Dodd, James B., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Dodder, Charles. Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Dodder, Isaiah, Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Dodder, Joseph, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Donahoo, James, Fifty-fifth Illinois, private. 

Donaldson, Ogilva, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, fifth corporal. 

Donnahoo, W. P., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Dotson, George B., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Dotson, Joseph M., Company K, Second Cavalry, private. 

Dotson, Mark, Company K, Second Cavalry, wagoner. 

Dougherty, James, Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Dowel, W. H. W., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private.. 

Downs, Davenport, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Dryden, William H., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Dufley, Peter, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Duggan, Thomas C, Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Duncan, Andrew L., Company C, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Duncan, Harvey, Company C, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Duncan, James C, Company C, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Duncan, James H., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Duncan, James M., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Duncan, John C, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Duncan, Samuel H., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Duncan, Samuel J., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Duncan, Samuel K., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Dunn, Hiram, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, fourth sergeant. 

Dunn, John H., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Easton, George, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Easton, Orlando W., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, fourth sergeant. 

Edgington. Allen T., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Edgington, Francis M., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Edgington, Ira, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 


Edmonds, ,11. John W., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Edmondson, William A., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Edmondson. William W., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Edwards, Jacob A., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Edwards, John W., Company L\ Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 
Edwards, Robert, Company F, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Edwards, Rowland. Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Edwards. William M., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Edwards. Zenos L., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Eicher, Samuel, Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 
Ellis, Albert, Company C, Fifth Infantry, captain. 
Ellis. Harvey S., Company EC, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Ellis. John J.. Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 
Endsley, William M., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
English, James M., Eighth Cavalry, sergeant. 
Epperly. James. Company F. Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Epperly, Thomas. Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Epperly. William. Company F. Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Epperly. Xachariah D., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Erwin, George, Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Erwin. Jacob, Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Erwin. Julio N.. Company A. Seventh Infantry, private. 
Erwin, Samuel T., Company H. Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Estep, Noah. Company C, First Cavalry, private. 
Euke. Argalya, Company — . First Cavalry, private. 
Eversull, Ezekiel D.. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Ewing, William. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Fagmirc, William, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Fath. Jacob. Company (,. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Faux, Morgan. Company I-:. Sixteenth Infantry, private. 
Fickle. James. Company K, Second Cavalry, first lieutenant. 
Fish, Evan, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Fisher. Levi, Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Flack. James M., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Flack. Robert F. M., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Fleming, George W., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Fleming. Orson. Company B, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Fletcher. ( ieorge C. Company A. Ninth Cavalry, farrier. 
Flynn. Peter P., Company — , Second Cavalry, private. 
Foor, Lewis R.. Company M, Eighth Cavalry, private. 
Forbes, Thomas J., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Forbes. William. Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 
Fortner. Thomas Company M, Eighth Cavalry, private. 
Fosbender, William, Company K, Second Cavalry, corporal. 
Foster. Fenner, Company I, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), fourth cor- 

Foster, Henry A.. Company K. Fourth Cavalry, private. 
Fowler, B. F., Company K. Eighth Infantrv. private. 


Fowler, E. R., Company A, Seventh Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Fowler, Henry S., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, musician. 

Fowler, John B., Company G. Second Infantry, first lieutenant. 

Fowler, Jonas, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Fowler. William. Jr., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Frazee. Joseph, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Frazier, Elliott, First Battery Iowa Light Artillery, fourth corporal. 

Frazier, John C, First Battery Iowa Light Artillery, private. 

Frazier, William, First Battery Iowa Light Artillery, private. 

Freeland, Isaac C, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Freeland, William S., Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Freeman, Jacob D., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Friend, William EL, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, first sergeant. 

Frisbie, Ichabod, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Fritts, Samuel, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Fry, Josiah, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Fryer, Edward, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Fryer, John J., Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Fulton, Abram, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 

Fulton, Henry, Sixth Infantry, musician. 

Fulton, Hugh, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, wagoner. 

Funk, Henry L., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Gable, David, Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Gable, Ohio, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Gambell. John. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Gambell. Leslie, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Gamble, Martin. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Gamble, Milton, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, fifth corporal. 

Gamble, William. Company C, Fifth Infantry, first corporal. 

Garner J. Witfield, Twenty-fifth Infantry, regimental quartermaster. 

Gasky, William, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Gast, Herman, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Gay, John, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, musician. 

Gebhart, John, Company G, First Cavalry, private. 

Geer, Silas, Company — , Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Gentzler. Martin, Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Gephart, Anthony, Company A, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Getts, John P., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Getts, Spencer I!., Company C, Fifth Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Gibbons. William B., Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Gibbs, Henry F.. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Gibbs, Valentine L., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Gillett, Ferdinand, Company K, Fourteenth Infantry, private. 

Gillie, James, Company D, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Gilmore. William, Company F, Sixteenth Illinois Infantry, private. 

Gillmore, George, Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Gipple, Isaiah, Company K. Eighth Illinois Infantry, private. 

Glasgow, Donald C, Company C, Eleventh Illinois Infantry, private. 


Goodwin, Jacob H., Company K. Second Cavalry, sergeant. 

Gordey, William P., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Gorsach, Thomas, Company I, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Goskey, William, Company M, Eighth Cavalry, second corporal. 

Graham, B. I., Company D, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Graham, Daniel, Company M, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Graham, John, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Graham, Joseph R., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Graham, Vano, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Gravert, Albert, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Graves, Amos, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Graves, Benoni, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Graves, Daniel C, Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

Graves, Elias, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Gray, Absalom, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 

Gray, Samuel M., Company I, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Green. John A., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Gregory, James F., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Gregory, Wallace, Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Gregory, William. Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, third sergeant. 

Griffith, Samuel J., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Griswold, Edward O., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Griswold, Henry E., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Grodewohl. Lewis, Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), private. 

Grubb, John L., Company C, Fifth Infantry, captain. 

( runn, John M., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

< iuthrie, James H., Eighth Cavalry, quartermaster sergeant. 

Guthrie, John L., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Guy, Robert, Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Haas, Adam, Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Haas, Jacob, Company C, Forty-first Infantry, private. 

Hahn, George, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hall, Eugene W., Company E, First Cavalry, private. 

Hall, H. C, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Hall, I. N., Company E, First Cavalry, private. 

Hall, James, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hall, M. O., Sixth Indiana Cavalry, captain. 

Hall, S. E., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Hall, Stephen R., Company A, Second Cavalry, private. 

Hall, Thomas. Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Hall, Thomas L., Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Hall, W. Clark, First Cavalry, first musician. 

Hall, Walter F.. Company C, Fifth Infantry, musician. 

Hall, William A., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, third sergeant. 

Hall, William F., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Hall, Winfield S., Company A, Second Cavalry, private. 

Hamill, Joseph N., Company H, Second Infantry, private. 

Hamill, Robert A., Company H, Second Infantry, private. 


Hamilton, Alexander T., Company C, First Cavalry, private. 

Hamilton, James W., Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Hann, Oscar, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Hardesty, Joseph P., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Hardesty, William M., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Harris, John M., Company E, Fourteenth Infantry, private. 

Harris, Joshua C, Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Hartman, William P., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Hashar, Jacob, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Hatton, Thomas B., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, sixth corporal. 

Haun, William H., Company K, Eighth Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Havenhill, Alexander H., Company. G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Hawkins, Henry C, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Hawkins, John A., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Hayden, Aurelius. Company I, Second Cavalry, private. 

Hayes, John E., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hayes, Martin, Company M, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Hayes, Morris, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hayes, William T., Company K, Eighth Infantry, first lieutenant. 

Hegger, John H, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Heindel, Jacob, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Heininger, John, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Heins, John F., Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

Helmick, Jeremiah, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Helmick, William, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Hemingway, Manley, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Hemingway, T., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Henderson, Andrew, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Hendricks, Ir.a, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hendrix, William, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Herron, David P., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Herron, James H., Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Herron, John R., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Herron, Samuel, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Herron, William M., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Hershay, Christian, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Hewett, Robert B., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Hiatt, Ellis, Company B, First Cavalry, private. 

Hicklin, James H., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, fourth sergeant. 

Hidlebaugh, Alexander, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Hidlebaugh, David, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Higbee, Joseph, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Higby, Merrill P., Company — , Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Higgs, George W.. Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hight, John A., Company H, Second Infantry, private. 

Hight, J. G, Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hiler, Richard S., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Hill, Amos C, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 


J lines, John, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Ilinkle. William, Company (1. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
1 lodge. Ambrose, Fourth Cavalry, adjutant. 
Hoffman. John. Company A, Ninth Cavalry, adjutant. 
Hoffman. William, Company ( i. Nineteenth Cavalry, adjutant. 
Holland, Ellison. Company ( i. Nineteenth Infantry, fifth sergeant. 
Holland, Thomas. Company E, Fourteenth Infantry, private. 
Holland. William, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, second corporal. 
Hood, James S., Company F, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Hoover, Charles, Company A, First Infantry, private. 
Hopper, Frederick, Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 
Houtz, George, Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 
Howe, Samuel IT. Company E, First Cavalry, private. 
Howey, Harris. Twentieth Infantry, surgeon. 

Huff, Barney W., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, first sergeant. 
Huff. Charles W.. Company < 1, Nineteenth Infantry, captain. 
Huffman. Jacob, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Hughes, Edward, Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Hulick, Joseph. Company I, Engineer Regiment of West, private. 
Ilulick. Samuel, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Hull, Thomas, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Hull, Thomas L., Company A. Seventh Infantry, private. 
Humiston, James, Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), first 

Humiston, John, Company K. Engineer Regiment of West, artificer. 

Humphrey. George W.. Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Humphrey, James M., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

ITunsecker, Abram C, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hunsecker, Jacob C, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hunt, Henry, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Hunt, Huron, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, third corporal. 

Hunt. William. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Hunter, Chris C, Company I, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

Hunter, John, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Hupp, Frederick. Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hurley. David C. Company II. Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Hurley, Emery H., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Hurley. John, Forty-fifth Infantry, assistant surgeon. 

Hutchison, David M., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Hutchison, John, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Isett, John H., Eighth Cavalry, major. 

Isett. Fulton, Company C, Fifth Infantry, second sergeant. 

Jackson, Horatio P., Company I. Sixth Infantry, private. 

Jackson, Joseph J.. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

James. Daniel. Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

fames, John F., Company C. Eighth Infantry, private. 

James, Levi, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Jamison. Merit, Company I. Sixth Infantry, private. 



KNOW YE, Tiiat' 

£• nem duij e\ected / . - *s ttM&m.- ai**A^- ul i^. 's-ff-c<.<^iG ° 

ra ((r>ni'«^iw' »((i.Wi'«) of mounted Yoiuntcer&i Hf is, therefore, required .1 

S3 diiigentVv and carefu\\j,lo discharge the duties of said office. Vv doing and yet- j 

ft: forming att things appertaining thereunto: and strictH ohejlag a\\ orders which he ! 

cj receive from Wis superior of*er6-. and aU officers and/privates under hiscovn- 

•"] maud, archcrchj rermired to ohe^ att his iawfu\ comvasu 

-, , — , f , r* , — 


GWEJjf VNDEtt MY 1UND ■aaf&iSBS&r *>>» ' 




Commander-in-Chief, AUinois MiAitia. J 


PUfrLlC I 


L J 


Jarvis, Jesse B., Company E, Eighteenth Infantry, first corporal. 
Jefferson, Thomas, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Jeffries, Jeremiah, Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Jennings, Elijah, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Jennings, Mifflin, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Jennings, William II., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Jewett, Moses. Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), private. 
John, Philip, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Johnson, George H., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Johnson, James B., First Battery Iowa Light Artillery, private. 
Johnson, Peter, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Johnson, Philip M., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Johnson, Samuel W., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Johnson, William D., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Johnston, Andrew D., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Johnston, John C, Company B, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Johnston, Thomas J.. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, eighth corporal. 
Jondisch, Augustus, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 
Jones, Hugh O., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Jones, James B., Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), third 

Jones, John F., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Jones, Wells, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Jones, William J., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Jones William O., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Jones, William P., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Joslvn, Orlando V., Company E, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Joy, Edwin J., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Joy, Joseph E., Company C, Fifth Infantry, sergeant. 

Kassabaum, Abraham, Company B, Forty-fifth Infantry, sergeant. 

Kassabaum, James, Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Keach, William. Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, first lieutenant. 

Keaver, William O. S., Company C, First Cavalry, private. 

Keever, John P., Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Keller, Henry D., First Cavalry, musician. 

Kellogg, James F., Company C, Fifth Cavalry, musician. 

Kelly, Milo A., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, musician. 

Kennedy, Jeremiah, Company C. Fifth Cavalry, private. 

Kent, Jeptha L., Company C, First Cavalry, private. 

Kern, Gottlieb, Company G, Nineteenth Cavalry, private. 

Kerr, Alexander, Company K. Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Key, David, Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Key, John H.. Company E, Sixth Infantry, first lieutenant. 

Key, Joseph S., Company K, Second Cavalry, private. 

Key, Solomon P., Company F, Nineteenth Cavalry, first lieutenant.. 

King, James L.. First Cavalry, battalion sergeant-major. 

King, Richard E., Company K, Fourth Cavalry, private. 

Kingen, John P., Company E, Eighteenth Infantry, private. 


Kinsey, Lemuel M., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Kinsey, Plummer P., Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Kingsland, Harry E., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Kincaid, James W., Company H, Eighth Cavalry, fourth sergeant. 

Kincaid, Legrand B., Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Kircher, Frederick, Company ('., Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Kirk, John. Company D, First Cavalry, private. 

Kirk, Sherman, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Klingaman, Washington. Company E, First Cavalry, private. 

Knap, Clinton, Company D, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Knight. Alonzo, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Knight. Charles E., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Knipes, Thomas, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Knouss, Andrew J„ Company K, Thirteenth Infantry, private. 

Knouss, David, Company K, Thirteenth Infantry, private. 

Knouss. Isaiah, Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Knouss, Samuel, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 

Knouss, Samuel J., Company K, Thirteenth Infantry, private. 

Knowls, David A., Company C, Thirteenth Infantry, private. 

Korn, August, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Kremer, Wesley P., Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Kuder, George M., Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Kuder, Jackson A., Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Kyi, Zachariah, Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Lacey, C. P., Fifty-fifth Illinois. 

Lacey, Edwin B., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

La Cornu, John, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Landes, Peter, Company A, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Lane, Alexander M., Company A, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Lane, Jackson A., Company K, Thirteenth Infantry, private. 

Lane, Joseph B., Company A, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Lathrop, George P.. Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Lathrop, Gilead P., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Latta, Edward T., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Lauback Joseph S., Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Lautz, George F., Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Law, Charles H., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Lawrence, Albert, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Leffler, Abraham, Company K, Second Cavalry, private. 

Lerou, George H., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Lerow, William R., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Lesnet, Martin S„ Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Lester. Christopher. Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Letts, David G., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Lewis. Asa. Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Limbocker. Alfred S., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, second sergeant. 

Limbocker, George, Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Limbocker. George W., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, first lieutenant. 


Limbocker, Jerry M., Company G, Fifth Infantry, captain. 
Limbocker, Thomas, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 
Lincoln, Abraham H., Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Linderman, August, Company — , Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Linderman, John H., Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), 

Lindsey, John F., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Linn, Findley M., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, seventh corporal. 
Linn, Oliver H. P., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, fourth sergeant. 
Linton, H. B., Company I, Sixth Infantry, sergeant. 
Linton, Ira, Company K, Sixth Infantry, lieutenant. 
Little, Sylvester, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Littleton, George, 

Littleton, John W., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Littleton, Kendall, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Littleton, Noah, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Littleton, William M., Company K, Eighth Infantry, fifth corporal. 
Littleton, Thomas S., Company C, Fifth Infantry, fifth corporal. 
Livingston, G. B. S., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, fifth corporal. 
Lockwood, Edwin J., Company G, Eleventh Infantry, first lieutenant. 
Lockwood, John C, Thirtieth Infantry, regimental quartermaster. 
Lovem, Edward, Company — , Seventh Infantry, private. 
Luckey, Albert, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Luckey, James R., Company C, Fourteenth Infantry, private. 
Luckey, Jeremiah, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Luckey. John, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 
Luckey, Samuel, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 
Lunbech, Andrew J., Company C, Fifth Infantry, fourth corporal. 
Lynch, James, Company H, Eighth Cavalry, private. 
McCardel, John K.. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
McCaw, William J., Company I, Second Cavalry, private. 
McClure, Robert, Company C. Fifth Infantry, private. 
McConahay, Joseph, Company A. Ninth Cavalry, private. 
McConnell, Alexander E., Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 
McCowen, Alexander, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 
McCowen, William, Company K, Fourth Cavalry, private. 
McCoy, Charles, Company F, First Cavalry, private. 
McCoy, Francis M.. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
McCoy, John W., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
McCoy, Joseph, Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 
McCoy, Samuel, Company — , Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
McCoy, Samuel H.. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
McCray, Addison, Company K, Second Cavalry, sergeant. 
McCullough, Allen, Company E, Fourteenth Infantry, private. 
McDaniel, Fred H., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, corporal. 
McDaniel, John P.. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
McDaniel, William H., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
McGill, William, Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 


McGrau, Thomas, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 
McGraw, George, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
McGraw, Squire. Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
McFfenry, Thomas, Company K. Eighth Infantry, first corporal. 
McKay, Daniel, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
McKay, Norval W., Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 
McKav. William H.. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
McKee, James H., Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
McKinney, James R., Company I, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
McKinzie, Sylvester, Company C. Eighth Infantry, private. 
McXemer. Nicholas W., Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 
McNemer. Philip, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, sixth corporal. 
McNall, Judson S., Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 
McNatton. Joseph II.. Company C, First Infantry, private. 
McPherson. Orman. Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
McQueen, John, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 
McSweeney, Ed, Company F. Eighth Cavalry, private. 
McSweeney, Daniel, Company F. Eighth Cavalry, private. 
Malier, Michael, Company D, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Mallory, Samuel W.. Company ( i. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Mauley. Andrew J.. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Manley, Franklin C. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, sixth corporal. 
Mauley, James, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Mann, John F.. Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Mann, William IT. Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 
Manners, Joseph, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, second corporal. 
Manners, William A.. Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Marchant, Joseph, Company C, First Cavalry, private. 
Marchant. Samuel. Company C, First Cavalry, private. 
Marshall. John L., First Cavalry, musician. 

Marshall, William H., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Martin, Ackissen, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Martin, Alvin H., Company L, Eighth Cavalry, private. 
Martin, Jacob C, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 
Martin, James, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Martin. John, Company C. Eleventh Infantry, third corporal. 
Massie. Vinton, Company G. Nineteenth Tnfantry, second sergeant. 
Masten, Ames, Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 
Mathews, John A.. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, wagoner. 
Maxson, Francis M., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Maxwell. Absalom, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 
Maxwell. Wilson S.. Company C, Forty-first Infantry, private. 
Mellinger, John, Company — . First Cavalry, private. 
Mench, Charles, Company C. Fifth Infantry, private. 
Merchant, Joseph, Company D, First Cavalry, private. 
Merrill, Asa, Company C. Eleventh Cavalry, private. 
Merrill, George W., Company C, Eleventh Cavalry, first corporal. 
Merrill, Peter, Jr., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, fifth sergeant. 


Merrill, Samuel, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Merrill. Thomas G.. Company C, Fifth Infantry, second corporal. 

Mewhirter, Andrew B., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, wagoner. 

Mickey, Isaac, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Mickey, John, Company D, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Mickey, William H.. Company F. Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Millan, lames H., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Miller, Alexander, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Miller, Henry D., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Miller, Nicholas, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Miller, William P., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Milligan. James, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Milligan, William H., Company I. Sixth Infantry, private. 

Mincher, Calvin, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Mintun, Elbridge, Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, fourth corporal. 

Mintun, Henry, First Cavalry, musician. 

Mitchell, Alvin L.. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, first sergeant. 

Mitchell. John. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Morgan, Daniel, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, seventh corporal. 

Morgan, George W., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, wagoner. 

Morgan, Richard, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, seventh corporal. 

Morgan, William, Company C, First Cavalry, private. 

Mondan, William W., Company H. Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Moore, David B., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Moore, Henry R., Company E, Fifteenth United States Infantry, private. 

Moore, John, Company C. Fifth United States Infantry, private. 

Moore, Toseph M., Company C, Eleventh United States Infantry, private. 

Moore, Robert J. W., Company K. Eighth United States Infantry, private. 

Moore, Shannon R., Company G, Fourth Veteran Infantry, private. 

Morris, Alexander, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Morris, Andrew J., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Morris, Charles, Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Morris, Charles F., Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, fifth corporal. 

Morris. John W.. Company C, First Cavalry, private. 

Morris, Martin C, Company C, First Cavalry, private. 

Morris, Thomas B., Company M, Eighth Cavalry, first corporal. 

Morris, Thomas C, Company C, Eleventh Cavalry, private. 

Murfish, A., Company K, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Murphy, Dennis, Eighth Cavalry, chaplain. 

Murphy, lohn H., Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Murray, Henry, Jr., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Murray, Joseph. Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, third corporal. 

Murray, loshua, Company H. Second Infantry, private. 

Myers, Frederick, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, second corporal. 

Nash, David, Company K, Fourth Cavalry, private. 

Neal, Toseph, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, captain. 

Neal, William, Company B, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Neal. William H., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 


Nellis, George S.. Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, third corporal. 

Nelson, Joel A., Company B. Thirty-seventh Infantry, sixth corporal. 

Nelson. Peter, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Nesbitt, William, Company — , 

Neville, Isaac A., Company E, Fourteenth Infantry, private. 

Nevitt, Joseph H., Company F. Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Newman, Oliver W., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Nichols, Alvin J., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Norrill, James, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Norris, Ira, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Oats, John W., Company M, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Ochiltree, John. Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Ochiltree, Thomas J., Company M, Eighth Cavalry; fifth sergeant. 

Ogden, Thomas A., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Olds, Briggs, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Olds, David, Company A. Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Olds. Henry F.. Company C. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Olds. Jeremiah, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Olmstead, Josiah G., Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, seventh corporal. 

Ong, Finley M., Company K, Eighth Infantry, musician. 

Orr. Samuel F.. Company C, Fifth Infantry, sixth corporal. 

Orr, Samuel W., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Orr, Samuel Y., Company — , Eighth Infantry, private. 

Orr, William F., Company C. Fifth Infantry, private. 

Orris, Levi, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Orris, Martin L., Company C. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Orris, Reuben, Company C. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Osborne, Joseph S., Company C. Fifth Infantry, private. 

Owens, James, Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Owens, John A.. Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Owens, Lewis L.. Company I. Sixth Infantry, private. 

Owens, Robert O., Company I. Second Cavalry, private. 

Owens, William. Company C. Sixteenth Infantry, seventh corporal. 

Paisley, Francis T., Company M, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Paisley. Isaiah. Company C. Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Paisley, John, Company M, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Paislev, Samuel F., Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Pallet. Leander M., Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Pallet. Theodore. Company G, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Palmer, George, Company C. Fifth Infantry, private. 

Palmer, Robinson C, Company K, Eighth Infantry, fourth sergeant. 

Paschal, Allen S., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Paschal, George C, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Paschal. James D., Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, fourth corporal. 

Paschal, Joseph. Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 

Paschal, Milton C, Company F, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 

Paschal, William, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 

Patterson, Charles W., Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 


Patton, James F.. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, third corporal. 

Patton, John, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Patton, John H., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Patton, Robert J„ Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

Patton, William, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Paxson, John, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Paxton, James R.. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Paxton, Robert J., Company K, Fourth Cavalry, private. 

Payson, John, Company I, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Payton, James, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Pay ton, Richard E., Company C, Fifth Infantry, fourth corporal. 

Payton, William. Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, fourth corporal. 

Peck, John H., Company F, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Peel, Samuel K., Company E, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Pennington, Edward, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Perkins, Tobias, Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Pery, Eugene P., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Peterson, Andrew, Company K. Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

Phares, William H., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Philips, Andrew, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Pierce, Albert H., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Pierce, Lyman B., Company K, Second Cavalry, corporal. 

Pierpont, Anson T., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Pierpont, Isaac N., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Pierson, Simeon, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Pierson, Sineus, Company I, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Pike, Hennas P., Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Pike. Henry C, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Pike, Homer, Company D. Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Pinkerton, James B., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Plumer, Ira, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Pontzius, James M., Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Pontzius, William H. Company M, Eighth Cavalry, third sergeant. 

Potter, Charles R., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, eighth corporal. 

Powers, Haymond J., Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Pratt, Adam, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Presbery, George, Company — , Fourteenth Infantry, private. 

Presbery, John C, Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Pressly, Thomas C, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Prettymah, Isaac, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Prettyman, William H, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Price, James P., Company B, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Price, Joseph, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Price. Michael, Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Pugh, Sanford, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Pugh, William, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Racer, Dennis, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Racer, Joseph, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 


Racer, William, Company II, Eighth Cavalry, private. 
Ramey. William H., Company I, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Ramey, William H., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Ramey, William R., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Randall, Warren X.. Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Rathfon, George, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Rathfon, Leonard. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Rathfon, Samuel, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, eighth corporal. 
Rausenherger, Harvey, Company 1. Second Cavalry, private. 
Ranshenberger, J. C, Company F, Second Cavalry, private. 
Raushenberger. Sylvan, Company K. Second Cavalrv, private. 
Raushenberger, William, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Rawmiller, William, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Raymond, Isaac M., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Recce. Benjamin F., Company L, Eighth Cavalrv, private. 
Reece, Martin, Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Reed, James M., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Reed. John A., Company — , First Cavalry, private. 
Reed, Thomas. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Reeder. James W., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, fifth corporal. 
Reiner. Edwin. Company C, Fifth Infantry, first lieutenant. 
Reese, James P., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Reese, Valentine, Company C, Fifteenth U. S. [nfantry, private. 
Reeser. Washington, Company F, Forty-fourth Infantry, private. 
Reiner, Ed. S.. Company C. Thirteenth Infantry, adjutant. 
Reister, David, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Rerhoad. Conrad, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Rexroth, George, Company — , Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Reynolds, Chalmers, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Reynolds, C. M., Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 
Reynolds, Theodore G., Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 
Reynolds, Samuel, Company K, Eighth Infantry, third corporal. 
Reynolds, William D.. Company A, Seventh Infantry, first lieutenant. 
Rice, Jacob, Company C, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Richley, Philip, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 
Ricketts, William, Company K, Eighth Infantry, first sergeant. 
Rickey. Joseph S.. Company F, Eleventh Infantry, private. 
Riggs. Augustus. Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Riley. Isaac T., Company C. Sixteenth Infantry, wagoner. 
Riley, Lewis A., Company II, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Rinehart, Nicholas. Company C, Fifth Infantry, seventh corporal. 
Risocher, John S., Company H, Second Infantry, private. 
Ritter, Jonas, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Robbins, David A.. Company I'., Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 
Roberts, Israel N., Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Roberts, Levi, Company K, Thirteenth Infantry, private. 
Robertson, James, Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 
Robertson, Samuel S.. Company F, Twenty-fifth [nfantry, private. 


Uobctrt Cucas, 

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Adjutant UcHrral. 



^VTIIK l.»M«X 


Robertson, Thomas. Company C, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Robertson, William, Company C, Fifth Infantry, eighth corporal. 

Robertson, William S., Fifth Infantry, major. 

Robinson, Charles. Company — , Fourteenth Infantry, private. 

Robinson. John T.. Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, second corporal. 

Robinson, Joseph A., Company A. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Robinson, Homer A., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Robinson. Omer, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, second lieutenant. 

Robinson, William B., Company A, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Rock, James, Company D, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Ross, Joseph, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Ross, Oscar, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, fourth corporal. 

Ross, Thomas K., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, third corporal. 

Rowe. Adam, Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Rowe, William N., Company D, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Rozer. Franklin A., Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Rumerv. George, Company E, Eighteenth Infantry, private. 

Rusk. Samuel M., Company E, Eighteenth Infantry, private. 

Rutt, Hiram, Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Ryan, ferry A., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Ryan, lohn, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Ryan, Michael, Company K, Eighth Infantry, eighth corporal. 

Sands, John W., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Saunders, William C, Company M, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Sayrs, Jeremiah, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, eighth corporal. 

Schofield, George W., Company K, Fourth Cavalry, private. 

Schofield. Isaac, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Scott, Albert G.. Company C, Fifth .Infantry, private. 

Scroggs, Joseph A.. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Scull, James M., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Scull, William V., Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Seeford, George, Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

Sellers, James N., Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Sellers, Josiah. Company C. Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Sellers, Newton N., Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Selman. Joshua. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Serell, Aaron C, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Shaw. Francis L.. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Sheets. Robert, Eighth Iowa. 

Shepard, Daniel M., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Shepard, William C, Company A, Second Cavalry, private. 

Shepherd, Cicero H., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Shindley, William. Company — , Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Shipman, Alem B., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Shipman, Charles B., Company I. Sixth Infantry, private. 

Shipman, Joseph R., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Shipman. Wesley C. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Shisel, Demeter, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 


Sillick. Asher, Company K, Engineers Regiment of the West. 

Simpson, James, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Sisk, John C., Company G, Twenty-seventh Infantry, Illinois, private. 

Siverly, George, Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Siverly, Ivory, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Small. Isaac L.. Company H, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Small, lames L., Company H, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Smice, David. Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Smice, Harrison Henry, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Smice, John, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Smice, Wesley. Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Smice, William, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Smith, Alvah S., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Smith. Edwin, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Smith, Herschel Y., Company F, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Smith, James. Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Smith. James R., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Smith, John C, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, first lieutenant. 

Smith, Joseph R.. Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Smith, Loammie M., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Smith. Seth. Company G. Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Smith, Sumner, Company K, Eighth Infantry, third sergeant. 

Smith. William C, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Sowash, Daniel, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Sowash. Jacob. Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Snyder. Samuel, Company I, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Spafford, Andrew J., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Spafford, B. F.. Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Spafford. James W., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Spafford, Julius T., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Spafford. William H. H.. Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Sprague, George B., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Sprague, John E., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Springsteen, David R.. Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Sprows, John, Company I, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), wagoner. 

Stacy, Isaac K., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Stahley, Frederick, Company — , Second Cavalry, private. 

Stamm, Severenous, Company K, Second Cavalry, bugler. 

Stark. Thomas G., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Starks, William D., Company K, Fourteenth Infantry, private. 

Stauber. Justus L., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Stein, John H., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Steneman, Isaac L., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Stephens, James F.. Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Stephens, John, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Stephens, Oran, Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Sterlin, James C, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Sterrett, Albert P.. Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 


Sterrett, David, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Sterrett, Robert, Company K, Eighth Infantry, second corporal. 

Stevens, Jacob L., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Stewart, Thomas, Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, fourth sergeant. 

Stewart, William C, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Stineman, Peter, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Stingle, John, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Stocks, John W., Company C, Thirtieth Infantry, private. 

Stoddard, Mason W., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Stone, Henry M., Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry ,_ private. 

Stone, Joseph, First Cavalry, musician. 

Stoneman, Jesse F., Company K, Eighth Infantry, seventh corporal. 

Story, Cornelius A., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Story, John, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Story, Joseph, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Story, Thomas, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

St. Peter, Theordore, Company A, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Strange, John, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Stroops, Eli, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Stroud, Lewis H., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Sullivan, James B., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Sullivan, Joshua B., Company I, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Swan, John A., Company M, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Swank, Francis J., Company A, Second Cavalry, private. 

Swank, Louis E., Company A, Second Cavalry, private. 

Syfrits, Christian, Company I, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Swygard, Frederick, Company C, Thirtieth Infantry, private. 

Talbot, William J., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Taylor, Andrew M., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, captain. 

Taylor, Henry H., Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Taylor, James J., Company K, Second Cavalry, private. 

Taylor, John, Company K, Second Cavalry, private. 

Taylor, Julius S., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Taylor, Samuel, Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Tedford, George B., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Tedford, James G., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Tedford, James M., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. . 

Tedford, William A., Company H, Second Infantry, private. 

Tedford, William H., Company F, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Teets, Henry J., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Teets, William L., Company FI, Forty-fifth Infantry, sixth corporal. 

Tharp, Lee, Company K, Eighth Infantry, sixth corporal. 

Thomas, Cicero, Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Thomas, Edward H., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, seventh corporal. 

Thomas, Griffith. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Thomas, Henry, Jr.. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, fourth sergeant. 

Thomas, Isham, Company G, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Thomas, James. Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 


Thompson. Baylis. Company I, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Thompson. James T., Company F, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Thompson, Samuel A., Company K, Eighth Infantry, first lieutenant. 

Thompson, Stewart. Company C. Fifth Infantry, private. 

Thompson. William. Company H, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Thompson. William li., Company A, Seventh Infantry, private. 

Tice, Adam E., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Tice, David E., Company K, Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Tindall, George, Company C, Fifth Infantry, sixth corporal. 

Tinmoney, E. M., Fifteenth United States Infantry, captain. 

Tiser, Andrew. Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

Todd, James R., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, eighth corporal. 

Todd, Oliver P.. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Tompkins, Ahner W., Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Tompkins, John. Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Tompkins, Sila- W., Company C. First Infantry, private. 

Toole, Charles E.. Company L, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Townsend. Minus. Company G, Xineteenth Infantrv. private. 

Townsley, William. Company F. Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Trask. Herman ]., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Trible, Elijah, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantrv, private. 

Triggs, William, Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Tucker, George, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Tucker, John W., Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Tucker, Lewis. Company C, Fourteenth Infantry, private. 

Tucker, Philip M.. Company E. Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Tudor, Hugh, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Turkington, Samuel, Company ( I, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Turner. James. Company I. Sixth Infantry, captain. 

Turner. Otho W.. Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 

Turnley, Andrew J., Company F, Xineteenth Infantry, private. 

Tuttle. Simeon, Company — , First Cavalry, private. 

Twiggs. William M.. Company C. Eleventh Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Ufford, Thomas. Company H. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Usher, Andrew J., Company — , First Cavalry, private. 

Utt, Elias B., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Utter 1 , Adelbert. Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Utter, Williston, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Vandervort, Charles. Fifty-fifth Illinois. 

Yandervort, Francis A., Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Vandervort, William A., Company G, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Yandevard, John D., Company F. Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Yandyke, Corwin C, Company II. Second Infantry, private. 

Vandyke, J. D. W., Company C. Fourteenth Infantry, private. 

Vandyke, John W. S., Company H, Second Infantry, private. 

Vandyke. William H. H., Company H, Second Infantry, private. 

Vanhorn, John B., Company C. Fifth Infantry, fifth sergeant. 

Vanloon, Charles. Company F, Xineteenth Infantry, private. 


Vanorman, Joseph F., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Vanormand. Daniel W-, Company C. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Vaughn, Elsa, Company H, Eighth Cavalry, private. 

Wabtz, George B., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Wagner, John H., Company F. Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Wagner, Joseph F., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Wagoner. Deter, Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Walcot, Lewis E., Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Walker, David C, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Walker, Hiram, Company G. Second Cavalry, private. 

Walker, William, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Walker. William A., Company I, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Wall. William, Company A, Second Cavalry, private. 

Wallace, William B., Company C, Fifth Infantry, fifth corporal. 

Waltz. George B., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Waltz. Henry C. Company E, Eighteenth Infantry, private. 

Wanzer, Henry, Company M, Seventh Cavalry, quartermaster sergeant. 

Ware. Levi. Company F. Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Washburn, William J., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Wasson, John H.. Company D. Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Watson, John. Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, private. 

Watts, Benjamin B., Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Watts, lames, Company A, Second Cavalry, private. 

Watts, James F., Company G. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Watts, lames M., Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Watts. Thomas J., Company C, Fifth Infantry, private. 

Weaver. Erastus, Company C, Sixteenth Infantry, musician. 

Weber, Frederick, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Weeks, Lysander. Company K, Eighth Infantry, captain. 

Weise, August. Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Welch, Ambrose. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Welch. William, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Welsh. John, Company E, Sixteenth Infantry, private. 

Wescha, Richard, Company F. Thirty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Wescot. Miles D., Company C, Eighth Infantry private. 

Wesier, Peter, Company K. Second Cavalry, eighth corporal. 

West. Wesley, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Westervelt, John. Company D, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Westfall, John W.. Company I, Sixth Infantry, private. 

Wheeler, Charles, Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Whicher. Thomas. Company F. Sixteenth Illinois Infantry, private. 

Whicher. Wiley, Company F, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Whicher, William D.. Company E. Eighteenth Infantry, private. 

Whisler, Adam. Company K, Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), artificer. 

White, James, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Whitescarver, John S., Company K. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Wiggins, Hiram H., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Wilcox. Robert B.. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 


Will, John, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Willcox, William V., Company H, Eighth Cavalry, trumpeter. 

Williams, Alva T.. Company D, Seventeenth Infantry. 

Williams. Austin, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, third corporal. 

Williams. Dennis. Company K. Engineer Regiment of West (Mo.), musician. 

Williams. Gamaliel B., First Cavalry, third musician. 

Williams, Ira W., Company F, First Cavalry, private. 

Williams, James, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Williams, James L., Company B, Forty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Williams, John, Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Williams, Oscar N., Company 15, First Cavalry, private. 

Williams, Thomas S.. Company 11. First Cavalry, private. 

William-. Ward W.. Company K, Fourth Cavalry, private. 

Williams, Warren. Company 1',. First Cavalry, private. 

Williamson. Elisha T.. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, first lieutenant. 

Williamson, William C, Company K. Fourth Cavalry, private. 

Willis, James M., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Willis. Sylvester. Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Willtrout, David, Company — , Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Wilson, Alonzo, Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 

Wilson. James C, Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Wilson. John F.. Company K, Fourth Cavalry, private. 

Wilson. John W., Company G Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Wilson, William F„ Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Winder, David D., Company A, Ninth Cavalry, private. 

Winder, Thomas C, Company ( i. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Wires, John T., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Wood. Aurelius, Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Wood. John, Company F. Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Woodruff. Chalmers. Company F. First Cavalry, private. 

Woodruff. Robert F., Company — , Second Cavalry, private. 

Woolcot, William P.., Company C. Eighth Infantry, private. 

Woolwine. George W.. Company G Nineteenth Infantry, first corporal. 

Worley, Robert. Company F. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Wren. John. Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Wright, Bazaleel F., Company G, Nineteenth Infantry, second lieutenant. 

Wright, Cyprian L., Company F, Nineteenth Infantry, private. 

Wylie, James R.. Company D, Fourth Infantry, private. 

Wylie, John J.. Company A. First Infantry, private. 

Wvman. Joel W., Company G Nineteenth Infantry private. 

Wynkoop, Gerodes. Company C. Eleventh Infantry, private. 

Yeager, Harvey B.. Company I. Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Young. Charles, Company B, Thirty-seventh Infantry, fifth corporal. 

Young, Edward, Company F, Twenty-fifth Infantry, private. 

Young. Lewis, Company A. Ninth Cavalry, private. 

York, William G. Company G, Seventeenth Infantry, private. 

Zeiger, James M., Company C, Eleventh Infantry, fifth corporal. 

Zimmerman. John. Company K, Eighth Infantry, private. 


Henry Fleming. Robert Gillenwater. 

Peter Godwin. George Simpson. 

C. Martin. William Norris (colored). 

Samuel Warnstaff. James Milton. 

Edmund Linton. Daniel .Milton. 

L. C. Williams. Robert McClure. 

Patrick Coin. 




Commodore Bond, Morning Sun. 
Roy L. Hendrix, Letts. 
Samuel M. Jamison, Wapello. 
William Killough, Morning Sun. 
Charles Nichols, Morning Sun. 
Harry Marshall, Morning Sun. 
Win. T. Ochiltree, Morning Sun. 
Frank Paisley, Morning Sun. 
Hugh Paisley, Morning Sun. 
Carl Thompson, Morning Sun. 
Claude Thompson, Morning Sun. 
John Wilson, Morning Sun. 


John C. Jones, Cotter. 

5OTH REGIMENT, CO. "('.." 

Harold R. Stapp, Columbus Junction. 

50TH REGIMENT, CO. "l." 

John C. Bowman, Columbus Junction. 
Edwin C. Hendrix, Letts. 
Harry C. Knaub, Columbus Junction. 
Charles Willey, Columbus Junction. 
Walter V. Willey, Columbus Junction. 


Walter M. Kilpatrick, Morning Sun. 
Ezra Keller, Morning Sun. 
Fred Lacey. Wapello. 

5 1ST REGIMENT, CO. "d." 

Spencer B. Paxton, Columbus Junction. 



Wm. H. Lacey, Wapello. 

Thos. F. McLaughlin. Wapello. 

Frank L. Bishop, Wapello. 

Homer J. Darrow, Columbus Junction. 

Thomas II. Grubb, Columbus Junction. 

Jay Hale, Wapello. 

Norman T. Witherow, Wapello. 

Eugene II. Pease, Wapello. 

Evan M. Roberts, Columbus Junction. 

Alvin Simmons, Columbus Junction. 

Charles W. Finley, Morning Sun. 

loel A. Windmiller, Morning Sun. 

Robert 11. Wilcox, Columbus Junction. 

3 1 s E REGIMENT, CO. "K." 

Edwin 1'. Shellabarger, Columbus Junction. 


Company B. John Gunnels, Wapello. 

Company C. Wm. E. Biggs. Wapello. 

Company C. Wm. Davis, Wapello. 

Company C. Roy Johnson. Wapello. 

Company C. Howard Kelley, Wapello. 

Company D. Geo. Schaffer, Wapello. 

Musician. Gordon Younkin, Wapello. 




We have only been able to get fragmentary and disconnected facts relating 
to the navigation of the Iowa and Cedar rivers. The first steamer of which we 
have any account was called the "Ripple" and ascended the Iowa river as far as 
Iowa City, arriving there on June 20, 1841. This event created great excitement 
in Iowa City, and a full account of it is given in the Iowa City Standard, of 
Tuesday, June 24, 1841. On June 21st there was a public meeting of the citi- 
zens and a committee was appointed to invite Captain D. Jones of the "Ripple" 
and his passengers and crew to a public dinner. The dinner was held at the 
National Hotel and on that occasion addresses were made by Major John B. 
Xewhall, of Burlington, author of "Sketches of Iowa," and by Captain Jones 
and some others. The "Ripple" started on this trip from Burlington, on the 
Mississippi, and, according to Major Xewhall, it was the first steamer to navi- 
gate the "Iowa Fork." Just what Major Xewhall meant by the term Iowa 
fork is hard to determine. It might be that he meant to distinguish it from the 
Cedar, and to allow us to infer that the Cedar had been navigated by steamers 
before that time ; but he also said in his speech that the people from every vil- 
lage and cabin from the mouth of the Iowa to Iowa City, were much excited by 
this voyage made by the "Ripple" and hailed its arrival with loud huzzahs, the 
firing of rifles and other manifestations. This statement would indicate that the 
"Ripple" was the first steamer to ascend either the Iowa or the Cedar. 

In the Bloomington Herald of August 2, 1844, there is a notice that the 
"Maid of Iowa" would leave Burlington on the 15th of August and ascend the 
Cedar river as far as Washington ferry. 

The next steamboat item we find is from a document in the office of the 
Louisa county recorder, from which it appears that the steamboat 'Tola," James 
Sharkey, captain, and James Viets, pilot, on May 8, 1845, in descending the 
Iowa river at a point about eight or nine miles below Iowa City, ran over a log 
which was entirely concealed in the water, and that several timbers of the boat 
were broken and several planks much shattered, causing the steamboat to sink 
immediately in the Iowa river ; that thereupon, in order to save the cargo of 
said boat, all persons named (and the names of thirteen persons are given in the 
record) shifted the freight on said boat and got her under way, but by the even- 
ing of May 9th said boat was found to be in a sinking condition and the freight 
was consequently taken from the boat and put on shore. 



There was considerable activity on the Iowa river in Louisa county, begin- 
ning about 1846. In May, 1846, there was a steamboat loaded at Todd's landing, 
near Columbus City, with produce for Wesley Jones and William D. McCord, 
of Burlington. 

In Tune, 1847, Joseph L. Derbin had a barge built at Fredonia, which was 
launched on the 19th of June and loaded with produce for St. Louis. We give 
herewith the facsimile of a notice posted in Columbus City of date July 13, 1847, 
concerning a fast sailing horse boat under charge of Captain Wheelock. 

In Tune, 1848, the barge of Joseph A. Luckett was built at Todd's ferry and 
loaded with produce for the St. Louis market, and a little later in the same 
vear the barge "Lexington" was built at Fredonia. In the same year the steamer 
"Piasa." owned by Joseph L. Derbin and E. B. Isett. began making trips on the 
Iowa river as far up as Iowa City, and continued this whenever the stage of 
the water permitted, up to the spring of 1850. In 1849 the river was quite 
low and the "Piasa" stuck on a sandbar at Whipple's ferry opposite Fredonia. 
The steamboat "Herald" made three trips to Iowa City in 1849. one the 
latter part of March, and the other two in April. The steamboat "Hawkeye" 
went to Cedar Rapids in the latter part of March, 1849. The "Hawkeye" again 
went to Iowa City in 1852. 

The "Magnet" went to Iowa City in April, 1850, at a time when the "Piasa" 
was also there. At the time of the great flood of the Iowa in 1851. steamboats 
could not land at Todd's ferry, but their landing place for Columbus City trade 
was at David Flack's landing. 

In the spring and summer of 1851 the following steamers appear to have 
navigated the Iowa, most of them as far as Iowa City: The "Daniel Hillman," 
Arnold, captain; the "Archer," Rogers, master; the "Uncle Toby." Clark, master. 
Early in June occurred the unprecedented flood in the Iowa river, when it 
reached the highest point known. About this time the "Uncle Toby" took freight 
from Wapello to Iowa City, and a number of Wapellonians went to Iowa City 
on this boat on a pleasure trip. 

We quote the following articles from the Louisa County Times of April 20, 
1851: "One day last week our citizens were gratified with the sight of several 
boats laden with flour, etc., on their way toward the Mississippi — they were 
built and cargoed at Cedar Rapids, in Linn county. Now it does appear strange 
to us, when flat boats, heavily freighted, can find their way out of one of the 
tributaries of the Iowa into said rivers and thence to the Mississippi. We cannot 
be blessed with the sight of a small class steamer at our place every week at 
least. Why, there is any quantity of freight here just waiting to be shipped, if 
a boat would only give us a call, and then as we said before, if flat boats heavily 
freighted can run out. what is to prevent small steamers from plying regularly 
between here and Burlington, or some other point on the Mississippi? The 
river at this time is about its lowest stage, and yet these boats appeared to get 
along without much trouble." 

The Louisa County Times of April 6, 1852. announced that the fine new 
steamer "Black I lawk" rounded t" last Saturday on her way to Iowa City, and 
the same paper under date of May 11. 1852. has the following item: "Nearly 
every day a steamboat touches the wharf at the foot of what is called Gawky 
street, — rather a pretty place by the way. though so oddly named." 

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In May, 1852, the steam packet "Yankee" was making trips up the Iowa 
and Cedar rivers. The boat was under command of Captain Lavielle. It ap- 
pears from a communication in the Louisa County Times of June 1, 1852, 
written by B. F. Wright, who had recently taken a trip on this boat up to Cedar 
Rapids and back, that the trip from Wapello began on the morning of May 
13th and that the boat arrived at Cedar Rapids on the evening of May 20th, 
having encountered a strong wind and had to lay up the previous night on ac- 
count of the fog. The article also states that the boat left Cedar Rapids at 12 
o'clock M. on the 21st of May, and a little further on states that it arrived at 
Wapello about 12 o'clock M. on the 21st. This latter date is, of course, a mis- 
print, but we have no means of knowing the exact length of this trip. 

We copy the following article from the Louisa County Times of May 17, 
1853: "The 'Dan Hillman' and 'Excel,' two steamboats of character, have been 
plying with remarkable success in the Iowa and Cedar rivers. The 'Dan Hill- 
man' was reported sunk in Cedar river, but it turns out to be a hoax, as she 
passed here in fine style yesterday morning, and, it appears, has been making 
money by maneuvering in Cedar river. The 'Excel' went up on Sunday even- 
ing, bound for Iowa City, loaded to her guards. She is some at running, sure. 
We have never seen a boat in the Iowa stem the rapid current opposite this 
place with such power and speed. She has made the quickest trip 'on record' 
from this place to Iowa City, leaving here on Tuesday morning, and returned on 
Thursday, meanwhile discharging and receiving a large amount of freight and 
laying by, from accident, four hours." 

The "Dan Hillman" made several trips from St. Louis to the forks of the 
Iowa and Cedar rivers in 1853. On one of these trips she had a full cargo of 
general merchandise for Philip Gore and Colonel W. W. Garner, the two lead- 
ing merchants of Columbus City. Colonel Garner's part of the cargo consisted 
of iron, stoves, nails and furniture. 

May 30, 1854, the Iowa was said to be in good condition for boating and the 
little steamer "Berlin" landed at Wapello on a Friday, bound for Cedar Rapids. 

In 1859 the steamer "Cedar Rapids" was making trips to and from that 
city. This is one of the boats referred to in the article of Mr. Thomas, which 
is given at the conclusion of this chapter. 

We find from the Wapello Republican that in the spring of 1861 the steamers 
"Orion," "Black Hawk" and "Eureka" were arriving at and departing from 
Wapello occasionally. 

The Republican of April 24, 1862, notes that on Sunday "the fine little steamer 
'Gen. Halleck' arrived at our landing, bringing a quantity of freight for Messrs. 
M. P. Vanloon and O. Robinson, merchants of this city. On Monday she re- 
ceived a load of freight and left for Burlington." 

The same paper for May 1, 1862, chronicles the arrival of the "Forest 
Queen" on Monday evening, April 28th, and states that after receiving a quantity 
of freight from Messrs. Herrick & Davison, she departed the next day for St. 

About this time the Iowa river was within a few inches of as high as it 
had been in 185 1, and Long creek was so high that at one time no mail was car- 
ried across it for five or six days. 


Another steamer that was navigating the Iowa about this same time was 
called the "Catawba," Captain Root. 

The next item we rind in the Republican is of date August 8, 1865, and 
states that the little steamer •'Turtle" has been making frequent trips recently, 
principally loaded with lumber for the lumber yard of Mr. Semple. 

In August, 1866, the "Iowa City" was making two trips a week between 
Wapello and Burlington. Captain Reninger was her commander, and the cabin 
passengers' fare to Burlington and return was $4; deck passengers, $2. It is 
said that on one of its trips from Burlington two Burlington grain buyers boarded 
the "Iowa City" to buy a lot of wheat that was known to be at the Wapello mill. 
This was in September, i860. Just as the boat was about to start one of the 
-rain buyers went ashore, remarking so that the other could hear him, that it was 
not worth while for both of them to go. However, he had no intention of leav- 
ing the field to the other man, but got a horse and beat the boat to Wapello, and 
bought the wheat. 

At this time a number of railroad bridges had been built across the Iowa 
and Cedar rivers, and railroad transportation had in a great measure taken the 
place of river transportation, ami the people were beginning to want to erect 
wagon bridges across the river. 

On April 10. 18(18. Congressman Loughridge, of Iowa, introduced a bill in 
the house of representatives declaring the Iowa river not navigable above Wapello. 

Just previous to this a resolution had been offered in the senate of the Iowa 
legislature, asking congress to take such action. This resolution was favorably 
reported by the senate committee on commerce, and our Louisa county senator, 
Dr. James M. Robertson, was favorable to it. Senator Fairall. of Iowa City, 
was opposed to it, and desired to substitute Iowa City in place of Wapello. 

On April 2d. 1868, the legislature adopted a memorial and joint resolution 
asking congress to declare the Iowa river unnavigable from the city of Wapello 
north, ami on May 6. 1870. an act of congress was approved, which provided 
that so much of the Iowa river in the state of Iowa as lies north of the town 
of Wapello shall be declared not a navigable river or public highway. 

We will state in this connection, although a little out of its regular order, 
that in August, 1894. a provision was inserted in the river and harbor bill which 
provided that "so much of the Iowa river within the state of Iowa as lies be- 
tween the town of Toolsboro and the town of Wapello in the county of Louisa, 
shall not be deemed a navigable river or public highway, but dams and bridges 
may be constructed across it." 

In 1868, the "Gussy Girclon," owned by Harris brothers of Turlington, with 
Ed. Thomas at the wheel, made frequent trips between Burlington and Wapello. 

In 1869 the only boats which we have any account of were the "Swallow" 
and the "Lily." It seems that in July, 1869, the "Swallow" carried to Pittsburg 
Point some fifteen tons of iron to use in laying the track of the B. C. R. & AT. 
railroad in the long cut near that town. The "Lily" seems to have been run 
by Ed. Thomas on his own hook and she made trips from Wapello to any point 
on the Mississippi river where it could be made to pay. The steamer "Swallow" 
is designated as being from Oquawka. a side wheeler, drawing fifteen inches of 
water when running light and having a freighting capacity of 500 sacks of grain. 

According to the Wapello Republican the "Swallow" had a great deal to do 
during the spring of 1869. 


A large stern wheeler, "Try Us," with Ed Thomas as pilot, came up the 
Iowa river on May 25th as far as Florence and laid up there because Mr. Thomas 
did not believe she could get over the sandbars just below Wapello. Her barge 
was sent up to Wapello after a load of high wines from the Wapello distillery. 

We conclude this chapter with an article written by Edward H. Thomas, 
who was for many years a pilot. Mr. Thomas is a namesake of Edward H. 
Thomas, one of the pioneer lawyers of the county, and was a son of William H. 
R. Thomas, whose name figures quite prominently in the early history of the 
county. Mr. Thomas was also a gallant soldier in the Nineteenth Iowa. Many 
of the older residents of the county will remember Mr. Thomas and his charm- 
ing sister, Miss Lou Thomas, and will be glad to know that both are still living 
in Ottumwa, where Mr. Thomas has charge of the postoffice at South Ottumwa. 


By E. H. Thomas. 

I have been requested to furnish some information for the history of Louisa 
county, in reference to navigation on the Iowa and Cedar rivers. I have no 
data from which to work, and what I shall say shall be entirely from memory. 
If some errors are made they will have to be overlooked. As I was born on 
the west bank of the Iowa river, about six miles below Fredonia, nearly seventy 
years ago, and later on lived in Wapello up to 1870, I remember many of the 
boats which navigated these two streams during the late '40s and for many 
years thereafter. 

The settlement of the Iowa and Cedar river valleys commenced about 1836. 
People from the east came in there, farmers and merchants. Towns were 
started here and there and the farmers commenced the cultivation of the soil. 
The land was very productive. The early farmers brought but little money 
with them and the merchants who furnished them with supplies were compelled 
to take their pay in grain and pork. The nearest market was St. Louis. The 
merchants bought their groceries there and their dry goods in Cincinnati. As 
the land was brought under cultivation, the merchants became loaded with the 
products of the farm. They purchased the stuff cheap enough — corn at ten 
cents per bushel and pork about a dollar and a half per hundred, — but what 
to do with it was the knotty problem for the merchants. 

At Wapello, the Isett brothers, Mark Davison and J. C. Lockwood erected 
large warehouses and packing houses near the river, in which to store the 
grain and pork. Such storehouses were built at other towns along the two 
rivers. During the '40s there were but few steamboats on the Upper Mississippi, 
and they could not be induced to navigate the Iowa and Cedar. 

I believe it was Captain Joe Luckett. of Toddtown, who conceived the idea 
of building and operating a fleet of barges to St. Louis. In those days they 
were called "keel boats." A company was organized, five or six of the barges 
were built and the people of the valleys- had their first communication with the 
markets of the country. This was about the close of the Mexican war and I 

remember that the boats were named after the heroes of that conflict, the 

General Scott, General Taylor, General Wadsworth, etc. 


Loaded with grain and pork and handled with oars, the boats were floated 
to St. Louis. There they were reloaded with goods for the merchants and 
towed back by steamboat to the mouth of the Iowa river. Here was where 
the laborious work commenced. It required eight men, four on a side, with 
polls, to push a barge up against the current of the river. Where a very swift 
place was encountered, a line was taken ahead and made fast, and the boat was 
then pulled up stream along the shore. The barge line was in successful opera- 
tion for several years, but as the lands of the L'pper Mississippi valley were 
brought under cultivation, it soon caused a surplus in the St. Louis market 
and prices went off. About this time corn sold as low as eight cents per bushel 
and pork at a dollar and a quarter. The owners of the fleet of boats discovered 
that their margin of profit was too small, that the expense account of the boats 
was taking it all. Some cheaper and quicker method must be devised to get 
this stuff to St. Louis. 

The next proposition was to purchase a steamboat which would carry a 
cargo and tow the barges. A Captain Durbin, who had experience on the 
water, was sent to the Ohio river and there purchased a steamboat called the 
Piasa, and brought her to Wapello. The arrival of the boat was the greatest 
event of the '50s, not excepting the big barbecue and the breaking of dirt for 
the Philadelphia, Fort Wayne, Platte River, San Francisco Air Line Railroad. 
Crowds followed the Piasa on both banks of the river, and at every landing 
her docks were loaded with the natives. Had the Piasa been provided with 
sufficient power, it might have been a paying proposition, but she was slower 
than a yoke of cattle. She would often consume three weeks' time in making 
a round trip to St. Louis. The shippers soon found that this was also a losing 
proposition and the Piasa and some of the barges were sold. One of the barges, 
the General Wadsworth. now lies buried deep down in the sand just below 

However, the Piasa did one thing. She demonstrated that the Iowa and 
Cedar rivers could be navigated by a steamboat. So in the early '50s the 
Mississippi steamers came into the trade and navigated the two streams up to 
about 1869. Among the boats running during the '50s, I remember the Ken- 
tucky, Uncle Toby, John Bell, Cedar Rapids, Adelia. Magnet, Eureka, Time 
and Tide, and there were others whose names I cannot recall. After the Civil 
war came the Young Eagle, Iowa City, T. P. Benton, Annie Gordon, Red Bird, 
and others. 

There were two of these steamers which were built expressly for the Iowa 
and Cedar river trade — the Cedar Rapids and the Iowa City. Somewhere in 
the '50s, before the railroads invaded that section of the country, there came to 
the then small town of Cedar Rapids, a widow, and she brought some money 
with her. Her husband had made a fortune in operating steamboats on the 
Ohio river. She told the people of Cedar Rapids that the one thing needed to 
bring them prosperity was water transportation to and from the markets of 
the country ; in other words, a steamboat which would make regular trips to 
and from St. Louis. They agreed with her and she at once went back to the 
Ohio river, had the steamer built and named it after the town in which she had 
lived on the beautiful Cedar river. In a short time the Cedar Rapids came 
steaming up the Iowa. The lady, whose name I have forgotten, was not only 


the owner of the boat, but the captain of it. She was a large, fine looking 
woman, had an easy and rapid flow of language, and under her direction the 
crew of men was kept on the move. In fact, her word was the law on the 
steamboat Cedar Rapids. 

The Cedar Rapids was a stern wheel, had good power and a cabin the full 
length of her, but she was too large for the Iowa and Cedar rivers and an 
ugly brute to handle. She would very frequently run away with the pilot and 
go into the bank and the woods. However, the "Rapids," as we called her, 
did a paying passenger and freight business for some time. Her steering gear 
finally put her out of business. On one of her trips to St. Louis she had a 
collision with the Lucy May. It was a dark night and the wind was blowing. 
As the "Rapids" approached the ascending boat, the pilot lost control of her 
and she went into the Lucy May, head on. The "Rapids" had a good heavy, 
hull and was but slightly injured but the Lucy May, with her cargo, went to 
the bottom of the Mississippi river. When the Cedar Rapids hit the levee at 
St. Louis, she was attached and sold to pay for the Lucy May and her cargo, 
which was a total loss. Some passengers on the Lucy May were drowned, and 
the pilot of the "Rapids" and other officers were jailed on a charge of man- 
slaughter. The widow, after this experience, went out of the transportation 

As I see it, the Iowa City was the only boat ever in the trade which fit the 
two rivers. She had good power, built for fifty passengers, and when light 
her draft was but twenty inches. She towed two barges, and with four feet 
of water in the rivers, the three boats loaded to three and a half feet, carried 
five thousand sacks of corn. She did a good business there for nearly four 
seasons, or until the building of the Burlington & Cedar Rapids railroad put her 
out of the trade. In other words, as on the Mississippi, the shippers abandoned 
the cheaper method of transportation and sent all of their stuff by rail, which 
I regard as a serious mistake. People who live along the shore of a river which 
can be navigated for even a portion of the year, should use it. Water trans- 
portation is the cheapest method known and the operation of boats to and from 
river points largely reduces the freight rates by rail. 


Louisa county now has very ample railroad facilities. The Chicago, Rock 
Island & Pacific has a line crossing the county east and west, through Letts- 
ville, Fredonia, Columbus Junction and Cotter. This line was originally known 
as the Mississippi & Missouri Railroad Company. The records show that the 
condemnation proceedings for procuring the right of way were begun by A. O. 
Patterson, attorney, in October, 1855. Peter A. Dey was the chief engineer. 
The road was completed to Fredonia by the 4th of July, 1857. This remained 
the terminus of the road so far as traffic was concerned, for several months. 
The road was completed to the Sand Bank early in the winter of 1857-58. It 
was completed to Washington in 1859. 

An effort was made to get this road to run through Columbus City, and a 
number of the citizens there, including Colonel W. W. Garner and George D. 
Harrison, exerted themselves to this end. At one time Colonel Garner surveyed 


a line crossing the Iowa river half a mile or so south of the present bridge, 
and passing immediately south of Columbus City. However, some of the heavy 
property owners of Columbus City thought that the road was sure to come 
through and refused to aid in securing it. 

The Mississippi & Missouri Railroad was often ridiculed by the Wapello 
Intelligencer, during the years 1853 and 1854. The issue of February 13, 1854, 
contains the following: 

"Hurrah for the Muscatine and Oskaloosa Railroad ! From a gentleman 
who has just returned from Muscatine we learn that work has actually com- 
menced upon that much talked of road. He states that one boss and two hands 
are actually engaged upon the work. Should they prove to be industrious and 
energetic it is confidently expected that the mad will reach the Iowa River 
some time during the present century." 

The Rock Island also owns a line of railway extending through the county 
north and south, by way of Morning Sun, Wapello. Bard and Columbus Junction. 
This road was first called the Cedar Rapids and Burlington Railway Compam , 
and it begun securing its right of way in this county in the spring of 1868. It 
was completed to Wapello in 1869. The people of Columbus City township 
did not want to see it stop at Wapello, and they raised something like $10,000 
to have it built as far as Columbus Junction. Cyril Carpenter, one of the 
leading citizens of Oakland township, made a large contribution to have the 
road extended on farther north. This line has gone under various names since 
that time. Tt has been known as the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Minnesota : 
then the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern, and in June, 1002, it was leased 
for ninety-nine years to the Rock Island which now controls it. 

The next railroad to be built through any part of the county, was the 
Narrow Gauge, called the Burlington & Northwestern. This merely touches 
the county in the southwest corner, the only station in this county being Wyman. 
It was built through the county about 1881. 

The Iowa Central Railway has a line of road passing through the county 
east and west, going through Oakville, Elrick Junction, Newport, Morning Sun 
and Marsh. This road was first known as the Chicago, Burlington & Pacific, 
and the greater part, if not all of its right of way deeds were procured in 1882 
and 1883, and it was constructed about that time. In July. 1888, it was sold 
under foreclosure proceedings to the Iowa Railway Company, and in the fol- 
lowing month it was again sold to the Iowa Central Railway Company. 

The next addition to the county's railway facilities was the Muscatine, North 
& South Railroad Company. Tt was built in i8q8 from Muscatine to Elrick 
Junction, and passes through Grandview and Wapello. 

Taxes were levied to aid in the construction of this road, in Grandview 
township, Wapello township and in the City of Wapello. The proposition to 
vote this tax was bitterly resisted at the time. At this writing, this road has 
been extended by way of Oakville, south to Burlington. 

The Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway Company has an excellent 
line of road, passing in nearly an east and west direction through Oakland and 
Union townships. The only station in this county is Gladwin, in Union town- 


ship. The company began its right of way proceedings in the year 1901. and 
settled with every landowner in this county, whose land it touched, without 

A great many other railroads have been built through this county, on paper, 
aside from the Air Line. There was a Keokuk, Mt. Pleasant & Muscatine, and 
an Iowa Union Railway Company, both projected at about the same time as 
the Air Line. In 1867 there was quite a movement to build a railroad from 
Muscatine to Wapello. Articles of Incorporation were adopted and directors 
elected. John Bird of Wapello, was president, and Allan Brunhall of Muscatine. 
was secretary. 

In 1879 the Mt. Pleasant, Wapello and Muscatine Railway was agitated. A 
meeting was held in Wapello in August, 1879, at which Senator James Harlan 
presided, and L. A. Reiley was secretary. Articles of incorporation were 
adopted. The capital stock was fixed at $1,000,000 and the following directors 
were elected : Henry Ambler, James Harlan and H. S. Clark of Henry county. 
I. S. Hurley, J. P. Walker and George Jamison of Louisa county ; and S. < i. 
Stine, S. E. Whicher and G. B. Johnson of Muscatine county. 

In 1871 the Mississippi & Northwestern Railroad project was taken hold 
of and a tax was voted in Marshall and in Wapello townships in the fall of that 


Louisa county has its share of railroads and has had its full share of rail- 
road projects, but the one which at one time caused the people to indulge in 
the most buoyant hopes, and later, to feel the keenest chagrin, was the Air 
Line project — a project for which the people of Louisa county paid nearly 
.$300,000 without getting the railroad. 

In 185 1 a number of distinguished men, among whom were General Robert 
C. Schenck, General Wilson, Judge Humphrey and others equally noted, began 
a movement to organize an air 'me railroad from some central point in Pennsyl- 
vania to Fort Wayne, Indiana. Meetings were held in 1852 along the proposed 
line, newspapers advocated the movement and companies were formed to prose- 
cute the work. In 1853 the star of this agitation took its way as far westward 
as New Boston, and from there into Iowa. It was confidently believed by 
that time that this road could and would be put through Louisa county and on 
to the Missouri river. To further this project, articles of incorporation of the 
Philadelphia, Fort Wayne & Platte River Air Line Company were filed in this 
county, on Tune 23, 1853. signed by the following named board of directors: 
James Noffsinger. John Bell, Jr.. John Bird, H. T. Cleaver. William L. Toole, 
S. M. Kirkpatrick, J. W. Isett. Wright Williams, Samuel Townsend. 

These articles provided that the main track of said road should commence 
on the Mississippi river at or near Toole*s Landing and run through or by 
Wapello, thence westerly on or near an air line to the Missouri river, opposite 
the Platte river valley. The amount of the capital stock was fixed at $5,000,000 
to be increased as emergency should demand. The shares were $100 each and 
it was provided that when one hundred shares should be taken, the subscribers 
should assemble at the courthouse in Wapello, at which time one per centum 
on each share should be paid to the presiding officer of the board, to be by him 


paid to the treasurer of the corporation. It will thus be seen that this corporation 
was expected to commence business on a paid up capital of $100. But one 
hundred dollars would not go very far toward building a railroad, and the fol- 
lowing petition will indicate the source whence it was expected to get some of 
the necessary aid : 

"To the Hon. the County Court of Louisa Co.: 

"The undersigned, your Petitioners, would respectfully ask that you submit 
to a vote of the people the question of Louisa Co. taking stock in the Phila- 
delphia, Fort Wayne & Platte River Air Line Railroad Company, to the am't. 
of i Hundred Thousand Dollars, believing such investment would be for the 
best interests of the Co., and we humbly ask your Honor to submit the question 
to vote as soon as may be practicable. 

(Signed) "John Bell, Jr., 
John Bird, 
Samuel Townsend, 
S. M. Kirkpatrick, 
H. T. Cleaver, 

Board directors Philadelphia. Fort Wayne & Platte River Air Line Railroad Co. 

"A. M. Taylor, 
Dennis Williams, 
Joseph Thomas." 

The endorsement on the back of this petition is as follows: 

The within submitted this 30th day of July, 1853, 

W. Williams, 
County Judge." 

After a spirited campaign an election was held on Saturday. September 3, 
1853, to pass upon the proposed subscription of $100,000 in aid of this railroad. 
It seems that the sponsors of the project had been able to satisfy a majority of 
the people in all but two of the seven townships in the county. The proposition 
was carried by a vote of 619 for to 230 against. Wapello and Jefferson town- 
ships were unanimous for it, and there were fair majorities in Florence, Grand- 
view and Columbus City townships, while Concord and Oakland townships 
were practically unanimous against it. 

So far as the records show, nothing seems to have been done in the "air 
line" business until August 11, 1855, at which time, as appears by a notice filed 
in the county judge's office, the directors of the company met at Wapello and 
formally located the Philadelphia, Fort Wayne & Platte River Air Line Railroad 
through Louisa county. 

The next thing was to begin the construction of the road, and this was done 
with much ceremony and flourish of trumpets, on Saturday, September 29, 1855. 
History says that it was a cold, disagreeable morning, unfavorable for the be- 
ginning of any enterprise, but notwithstanding this, the people came flocking into 


town from almost every direction, and at one o'clock a large crowd assembled 
in front of the court house, formed in a procession, with the Virginia Grove 
brass band at their head, and marched out west of town to a point on the lands 
now owned by Dr. and Mrs. Woodruff. Sheriff A. M. Taylor was marshal 
of the day, and the following was the order of procession : First, Virginia Grove 
brass band ; second, speakers of the day, being Dr. John Bell, L. P. Wells and E. 
Hurd, at that time chief engineer of the road ; third, board of directors of the 
Iowa division; fourth, corps of engineers with their instruments; fifth, invited 
guests in carriages ; sixth, citizens and strangers in carriages ; seventh, horse- 
men. The procession moved down Main street to Clinton street, down Clinton 
to Second, up Second to Merchant, and out Merchant street to the point of 
breaking ground. 

Arriving at the appointed place, the directors stepped forward, each taking 
his station opposite his respective wheelbarrow, and seizing his respective shovel, 
prepared to throw dirt. The first shovelful was raised by Dr. H. T. Cleaver, 
which exercise was of course preceded by music by the band. Next Dr. Bell 
mounted his wheelbarrow, or undertook to, but impartial history says that both 
the Doctor and the wheelbarrow were upset. Dr. Bell made a second attempt, 
however, and was more successful, and delivered his speech. Then the work was 
commenced in earnest and ground was broken upon the great Air Line railroad 
in Iowa. A box was deposited in the earth, containing a plate, upon which was 
inscribed: "Philadelphia, Fort Wayne & Platte River Air Line Railroad, Sep- 
tember 29, 1855, E. Hurd, Engineer," together with a glass jar containing a 
scroll on which was written the names of the directors of the road, with a brief 
statement of its history up to date. 

This exercise was followed by another piece of music, and then L. P. Wells, 
editor of the Wapello Intelligencer delivered the oration of the day, which was 
received with great enthusiasm. Mr. Wells gave a short history of the road, spoke 
of the troubles through which it had passed, the neglect and contumely that had 
been shown it and the constant cry of humbug that had been raised against it, 
but he was proud that all difficulties had been overcome and that now the road 
was in as good condition as any in the country. Mr. Hurd, the chief engineer, 
then made a few remarks telling of the progress of the road through Illinois, 
promising its early completion to the Mississippi river and the speedy completion 
of the forty miles west of the Mississippi. The procession then marched back to 
the court house to partake of a dinner that had been prepared by the good ladies 
of Wapello. From an article in the Mount Pleasant Observer, whose editor was 
present, we quote the following extract to show how it was looked upon by out- 
siders: "We visited Wapello the latter part of last week in order to witness 
the breaking of ground on the Philadelphia, Fort Wayne & Platte Valley Rail- 
road, which came off at that place on last Saturday. It was evident during the 
forenoon that a large crowd would be in attendance, for from all quarters came 
wagons, buggies and horses carrying people into town. Delegations were present 
from Marshall, Brighton, Washington, Lancaster and Indianola." 

Then after giving a brief account of the exercises, the Mount Pleasant paper 
proceeds as follows: "Mr. Chase, of St. Louis, has the contract for building 
forty miles of this road west of the Mississippi. He is to complete the road, 
put on ten first class engines and rolling stock in proportion, at $23,000 per mile. 


There has been two routes surveyed west — one running via Marshall, in this 
county, then to Brighton, and from thence westward to Council Bluffs. If the 
road should go to Marshall it will pass along the northern line of this county, 
thus adding increased facilities and wealth to Henry county. The citizens of 
Wapello are awake on railroad matters and express a willingness to vote stock 
to the Keokuk. Mount Pleasant and .Muscatine Railroad, whenever called for. 
Wapello is finely situated on the west bank of the Iowa river; considerable im- 
provement is going on. Her railroad prospects are giving an impetus to trade 
and causing an advance in real estate. The town contains about a thousand in- 
habitants, has a large and handsome court house and a number of churches. She 
lacks good hotels — the complaint was general in this respect. We would not, how- 
ever, complain, for we were kindly invited and enjoyed the hospitalities of Dr. 
Cleaver during our stay there. The celebration was a fine affair and will long 
be remembered by the people. It appears to be a fixed fact now that the Air 
Line railroad will be built." 

This project was looked upon with favor by people outside the state ami 
away from its proposed route. A correspondent in the Missouri Republican, 
over the signature of Uno, published an article about this time, from which we 
make a few extracts: "By articles of association filed with the secretary of 
state for the state of Iowa, in the month of February, 1853, this company (re- 
tering to the Air Line company ) is fully empowered to construct a railroad from 
the Mississippi river, opposite Xew Boston, through Wapello to Council Bluffs. 
This is the Iowa portion of that great road, which, on account of its air line pecu- 
liarities, turning neither to the right nor to the left fur any consideration, is con- 
sidered the shortest road, even from Philadelphia to Sacramento City, the dis- 
tance from Philadelphia to Council Bluffs by this line surveyed and located all 
the way, being only 1,242 miles, while the distance from New York to Sacra- 
mento by this route is stated as 3.108 miles — the distance from Council Bluffs 
to Sacramento being estimated at 1,829 miles. . . . This railroad from the 

Atlantic ocean to Nebraska territory. — an air line more than half the way — 
has been viewed by the people of St. Louis as a visionary scheme, but when 
they hear that one of the contractors of our Pacific railroad, L. Thompson, com- 
menced building one of the divisions from Lacon, in Illinois, early last July, and 
that Mr. Levi Chase, another and heavy contractor, on our Pacific railroad, who 
completed our railroad to Herman last August, — eighty-one miles — and who is 
now finishing his contract so that the road will be pushed on to Jefferson city, one 
hundred and twenty-five miles, next month; when they hear that he has taken 
the contract to build the eastern division of this Iowa road, beginning on the 
Iowa river at Wapello, and working both ways, east and west, at once, they may 
be sure that solid men have taken hold of the Air Line route of Iowa." 

At this time Francis Springer was county judge, having succeeded Wright 

Williams nearly a year before. It is a part of the unwritten history of the 
county that Judge Springer, although many of the promoters of this road were 
warm personal friends of his, did not have much faith in the project, and after 
he succeeded to the county judgeship he was approached as to his attitude in the 
matter of the issuance of the proposed bonds, which had been previously author- 
ized by a vote of the people, and he expressed the opinion that if the bonds were 
issued there should be a proviso in them making their payment conditioned upon 


the construction of the railroad, and he declared that he would not issue them 
without such a provision, unless clearly convinced that such was the desire of 
the people of the county. 

We find on the county court records under date of December 10. 1855, a 
proclamation for a vote of the people of the county on the question of subscribing 
$50,000 to the capital stock of the Keokuk, .Mount Pleasant & Muscatine Rail- 
road Company, the election to be held on January 12. 1856. Toward the close 
of this proclamation is the following clause : "The adoption of the above proposi- 
tion will be considered an expression of the opinion of the people of the county 
in favor of authorizing a subscription to the Philadelphia, Fort Wayne & Platte 
River Air Line Railroad Company, which was voted on the 3d of September, 


The insertion of this last clause gave great offense to all the friends of the 

Air Line project. Plow- it was looked upon by some may be gathered from the 
following communication, which was published in the Wapello Intelligencer of 
January I. 1856: "It is a custom in all countries governed by constitutional au- 
thorities, for the rulers to give an account of their actions to the governed, when- 
ever called upon, and those rulers who do not explain to the satisfaction of the 
governed, any or all of their actions, are looked upon as acting despotically. In 
the columns of your paper is a proclamation, calling upon the citizens of this 
county to vote upon a question upon which they have already given a very de- 
cisive voice. A large and respectable portion of the voters of Louisa county 
would like to have Mr. Francis Springer's reasons for submitting the question 
anew, as to whether the county shall take stock in the Philadelphia, Fort Wayne 
& Platte River Railroad. You may rest assured, Air. Editor, that a large portion 
of the voters of the county feel outraged by the latter clause in the proclamation. 
Perhaps 'Mr. Springer would favor us through your columns with the reasons 
for his actions in the premises. It is an old axiom that 'the salve must be as 
broad as the sore.' " 

The attitude of Judge Springer on the subject of issuing Air Line railroad 
bonds was a matter of extended comment and rather exciting debate all over the 
county, and it is said that at one time while he was holding county court here, 
an immense throng of people attended the session of court and were very excited 
and demonstrative in urging the issuance of the bonds. The writer well remem- 
bers to have heard from the lips of the then county judge that he did not issue 
the bonds until he had been presented with petitions signed by a respectable 
majority of the legal voters of the county, including many of the largest prop- 
erty owners and most prominent citizens ; but in subsequent years the fact that 
such petitions were ever presented, has been doubted by men who were supposed 
to be quite well informed about such things. It was with some satisfaction, 
therefore, that we found these petitions with the signatures attached (some nine 
hundred and seventy-one names), and we append herewith as a necessary part of 
the history of this transaction a copy of one of the petitions, with the names of 
some of the leading signers. 

To the Hon. Francis Springer, County Judge of Louisa County, Iowa. 

The Undersigned, voters of Louisa County, having understood that, from the 
recent vote upon the proposition to subscribe Stock, you did not feel authorized 


to take the stock in the Philadelphia. Fort Wayne and Platte River Air Line 
Railroad, we would respectfully request you to subscribe said Stock, authorized 
by the vote September 3rd 1853: Win, J. R. Flack, T. W. Bailey, Alanson F. 
Bemis, Edward B. Isett, John M. Brown, Jesse Yanhorn, James Davison, J. S. 
Marshall, John R. Sisson, James Cummings, Franklin Griswold, John N. Bald- 
rige, T. R. J. Ellis, Wm. Kemp, J. C. Stirlen, Jerry Browning, Forgay Owens, 
R. S. Strong, Y. Willoughby. John Hurley, Henry Marsden, H. P. May, James 
F. Patton, Robert Coulter, Oliver Benton, Win. T. Nichols, lames H. Marshall, 
Joseph Higbee, J. B. Nichols. Joseph Bates, J. T. Cowles, John Keck, J. C. 
Tucker, J. L. Browning, William Shoop, James Keever, Jeremiah Smith, John 
Hays, Thomas G. Taylor, E. Keach, W. A. Knowlton, John L. Sweeney, Wiley 
Gregory, Samuel Jamison, Harvey Bell, John Deihl, George Jamison, John R. 
Springsteen. Samuel Hamilton, Alexander Hamilton, Mark Davison, Henry 
Myerholz, James Brogan, William Clark. Wm. Shipman, Francis Wykert. Amzi 
Donaldson, Henry Thompson, Dennis Williams, C. W. Bras, George L. Coe, 
Wm. L. Toole, George H. Mosier. T. M. Parsons. G. W. Wesley. John Hale, 
George Grasham, Ephrani Owens, S. K. Helmick. H. Hawkins. John 
('.riffith, John Morgan. 1 ). W. 1 lerrick, Thomas Newell, A. D. Hurley, Peter 
Lambert, George Presbury, James R. McDaniel, J. M. Herrick, Francis Curran, 
William Brogan, John M. Wilson, George Yanhorn, Oliver Mickey, S. B. Cleaver, 
B. H. Druse, Samuel Barr, Fredrick Weber, John Allison, G. F. Thomas, Wil- 
liam Keach, George Nearhood, R. E. Archibald, J. R. Kinsey, John Jenkins, 
John Sprinkle. James A. Fleming, J. H. Trask, Nathaniel J. Ives, C. Morgan, M. 
Jamison, William Jamison, James Semple, John P. Walker, George Hutchison, 
Abram McCleary, Thomas Fleming, Samuel Duncan, George Key, S. G. Black- 
born, B. F. Wright, F. M. Ong. W. J. Hewitt, O. A. Taylor, J. B. Miller, Frank- 
lin Bras, D. N. Sprague. J. H. Graham. Ozias Smith, Aug. Wehmier, James 
Sterrett, Samuel Chaney. A. M. Taylor, H. McClurkin, R. Archibald, W. B. 
Robison, Dennis Gregory, Chas. Downs, Royal Prentiss, Lewis Kinsey, J. B. 
Latta, George Beck, Andrew Brockert, David Grimes, William H. Creighton, 
Richard Staige, Robert Gillis. John Pluff, J. D. Barr, Samuel Bell, Levi Wood- 
ruff, L. P. Wells, A. Hodge, W. H. Milligan. Wm. Owens, Merit Jamison, Ernst 
Winter, J. B. Grubb, W. J. Ronalds. PI. T. Cleaver, H. C. Blake, James Drake, 
J. G. Umphreys. John A. Brown, A. P. Hensleigh, R. W. Gray. Hugh Paisley, 
John L. Foor. V. Massie, M. P. Yanhorn. Joshua Marshall. Joseph Mickey, 
Levi Bozman, Jesse Hamilton. John Stafford. H. H. Mickey. D. P. Curran, Jno. 
Bell. Oliver Ball, Parkis Woodruff, Gustavus Jones, Thomas Stoddard, Alfred 
Limbocker, Joseph Storey, John Bird, II. Christy, Joseph B. McDill, James 
Blanchard, T. A. Ball, Kennedy Storey. G. B. Williams, G. A. Plook, Harmon 
Mallory, Willard Mallory. Harvey Harris, Henry Jennings, Barton Jones, Joseph 
Paschal, Jos. L. Derbin. J. W. Isett, Wm. McClemm, John Reed, Elias Marshal, 
John Le Cornu, James Crawford, John Milligan, Abiathur Williams, Wilson R. 
Woodruff, P. C. Brown, David Woodruff, Zebina Williams. B. P. Weston, George 
I^ngland, Gideon Bayne. J. S. Hurley, Christian Heins. Joseph Schofield, Jacob 
Mintun, Jesse Graham, David McMichael. James 1). Martin. Stephen McKinley. 
Thomas Garvin, H. J. N. Parsons. Joseph P. Parsons, Jacob Syphrit, John Ken- 
nedy, G. Ii. Crow, B. F. Coe, H. J. McCormick. John Dill, David McKinley. 


The election on the question of subscribing $50,000 to the Keokuk &c. rail- 
road enterprise, was held on January 12th, 1856, and it was found that the re- 
turns from Wapello, Morning Sun, Oakland, and Union townships did not meet 
the legal requirements. By throwing out these four townships, the proposition 
would be carried by 27 votes; by counting these townships, it would be defeated 
by 30. The county judge solved the difficulty by again submitting the question 
to the people, and it was carried. 

From about 1850 to 1858 several counties in Iowa issued their bonds in 
aid of railroad building, exchanging these bonds for a like amount of stock in 
the railway enterprise. The question of the validity of these bonds was not 
long finding its way into the courts. One of the early cases, perhaps the first 
one, was that of Dubuque County vs. The Dubuque & Pacific Railroad Corn- 
pan}', reported in 4 Greene, p. 1. This decision held that the bonds were valid 
obligations against the county : it was followed by some six or seven more 
similar cases, decided the same way, the last one of these being a Johnson county 
case, decided in 1859, and reported in the 10th Iowa, p. 157. In the latter 
case, and in most of the others, there was a marked division of opinion among 
the Supreme Court judges, and some strong dissenting opinions were rendered. 
In 1862, in a case from Wapello County, the Iowa Supreme Court took a differ- 
ent view, and reversed its former line of cases, and held that the county bonds 
in aid of railroads were invalid, and they continued to hold to that view as to 
all bonds issued during the period we are considering. But, about 1863 a case 
reached the Supreme Court of the United States, involving these same questions, 
as to bonds of the city of Dubuque, which had been issued and sold under the 
sanction of the first decisions of our court, holding such bonds to be valid. The 
United States Supreme Court followed the earlier decisions of our Supreme 
Court, and held the bonds to be valid, and that court continued to hold the same 
day as to all such bonds which were issued and sold under the authority and 
sanction of the first decisions of our court. 

Then came the question as to paying the bonds, and as to the power and 
authority of the State and Federal courts in the matter, as to how in case the 
Federal courts proved to be the more powerful, they would go about it to have the 
judgments paid. 

On January 26, 1856, it is recorded that the board of directors of the Air 
Line company applied for the county subscription of $100,000, and desired to 
have their application considered in connection with sundry petitions, and we 
may presume that the sundry petitions were those to which we have already 
referred. At that time it was ordered that the further consideration of the appli- 
cation be continued until the next regular term of the court and that the con- 
tractors be requested to furnish the court with a certified copy of any contracts 
they had made for the construction of the road and an official statement of the 
actual available means of said company. 

There seems to have been, about this time, a very good list of signers to a 
petition asking the county judge not to issue the Air Line bonds. There are two 
of these petitions among the old papers of this date. They are not in very good 
condition and some of the names can hardly be distinguished. The prime mover 
in getting them up seems to have been J. B. Latta. Sr., and these petitions con- 
tain one hundred and sixtv-one names, chieflv from Grandview and Concord 


townships. We cannot tell from anything in the records of the county court 
nor in the tile- which are still preserved, just what showing the Air Line com- 
pany made to the county court in reference to its available assets and the contract 
it had made for the construction of the line in this county, but it is to be pre- 
sumed that they made some showings which satisfied the county judge of their 
good faith in the matter. We find that on February 25, 1856. Air Line bonds 
for $1,000 each, numbered from one to ten, inclusive, were issued, signed by 
Francis Springer, county judge, and by Lewis Kinsey, county clerk, and that 
thereafter, from time to time, during the year of 1857, the remainder of the 
$100,000 subscription was taken and bonds issued therefor. As these bonds 
figure extensively in subsequent Air Line history, we give herewith a facsimile 
of bond No. 43. with two of the coupons still attached. We also give a fac- 
simile of the endorsement made upon the back of this bond, signed by Robert 
Schenck, president, and Lewis Kinsey, secretary. 

About this time congress was making land grants in favor of various rail- 
wax enterprise^ and had some few years before made a very valuable land grant 
in favor of the Mississippi & .Missouri Railroad Company, which was built 
through this county and is now known as the Rock Island, and the friends of 
the Air Line project had presented a petition to congress in 1854 praying for 
a grant of land in aid of its construction. This matter was up in congress, and 
seems, according to the files of the Wapello Intelligencer, to have been opposed 
or at least sadly neglected by one of our Iowa senators, Hon. George W. Jones, 
of Dubuque. An idea of the progress of the work may be gained from the fol- 
lowing article in the Wapello Intelligencer of July 29, 1856: "We understand 
Levi Chase, the contractor on the above named road, has gone east to purchase 
a locomotive, iron, and the various implements necessary for the completion 
of the same. The work is progressing as rapidly as the most sanguine could 
expect, although it is difficult to get hands to stand up to the work this hot 
weather. Today we walked clown First street, to where they were digging 
away for the hutment of the river bridge. Having removed several feet, per- 
haps fifteen, of soil and sand, they came to solid blue clay which goes down 
to the bed of the river and we do not know how much further. They had dug 
down about eight feet in the clay, wdiere they were making a smooth surface, 
on which the immense piles of huge stones that covered the ground for acres 
around, were to be laid. The masons are to commence laying the stone this 
week wdio, by the way, will have a most interesting time handling those monster 
stones, some of which are nearly as large as an Irish shanty." 

The interest in the Air Line project was by no means confined to Louisa 
countv. It excited a great deal of interest in many of the counties west of 
here, especially in Washington. Mahaska and as far out as Warren county. 
Canvasses were made and meetings were held in its interest during the spring 
and summer of 1856. One held at Indianola about this time will serve as a 
sample of others. Resolutions were adopted expressing deep interest in the 
speedy construction of the Philadelphia, Fort Wayne & Platte Yalley Air Line 
Railroad, and expressing the belief that it was the only road which proposed 
to pass through Warren county and favoring a proposition that the county judge 
should take S100.000 stock in the road and calling for a meeting to lie held of 

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the citizens of the whole county at some future date and of preliminary meet- 
ings looking toward securing a full attendance. 

About this time the town of Burris, which was to be the starting point of the 
Air Line railroad on this side of the Mississippi, began to assume some pro- 
portions. The history of that town will be found elsewhere, as it probably de- 
serves a small chapter by itself. 

On February 28th a meeting was held at Wapello "for the purpose of fur- 
thering a project of the utmost importance to Wapello, Burris City, the county 
of Louisa, and the whole country west of Louisa county. Levi Chase, the con- 
tractor, stated, in response to a request, that the county bonds issued to the 
company had been taken by him and the money advanced upon them and ex- 
pended upon the work, and that $100,000 in money, or its equivalent, would en- 
able him to grade the road and secure its completion from the Mississippi river 
to a point some five miles west of Wapello. On motion of Dr. Cleaver, a com- 
mittee of three, including Dr. Cleaver, John Corson and E. Foster, was appointed 
to wait upon the mayor of Wapello and the council and solicit them to order 
an election on a proposition to aid the Air Line railroad, and Samuel Townsend, 
Leonard Sawyer and Ambrose Key were appointed a committee to confer with 
the citizens of Burris City in regard to obtaining a subscription from them for 
the same proposition. We find in the Wapello Intelligencer of March 31, 1857, 
a little item to the effect that the proposition for the city of Wapello to sub- 
scribe $20,000 stock to the Philadelphia, Fort Wayne & Platte River Air Line 
railroad had been submitted to a vote of the citizens on the Saturday previous, 
being the 28th, and that the vote on the question was 124 in favor of the sub- 
scription and one against it. In the same paper also we find a statement of the 
financial condition of the Air Line company, which will be of interest in this con- 
nection, and states a number of facts which we do not find recorded anywhere 
else. It will be noticed that the private subscription collected in Louisa county 
at that date is stated at $26,986, and that the "assets for Louisa county" were 
stated to be $10,335.30, or just $335.30 more than the amount of the ten bonds 
recently issued by the county judge : 

"stock account. 

"Amount stock subscribed by Louisa county $100,000.00 

Amount private stock in Louisa county 42,400.00 

Amount by Levi Chase, on contract 25,000.00 

Amount Washington county subscription 50,000.00 

Amount private stock in Washington county 25,000.00 

Total subscription $242,400.00 


Of Louisa county, in bonds $100,000.00 

Of Washington county, in bonds 5,000.00 

On private subscription, Washington county 2,000.00 

On private subscription, Louisa county 26,986.00 

Total amount collected $133,986.00 

Vol. I— 1 5 



Amount of unpaid Washington county stock $ 45,000.00 

Amount of unpaid Washington private subscription 23,000.00 

Amount of unpaid Louisa county 15.414.00 

Amount Washington county bonds in the hands of R. C. Schenck, the 

president, to be sold on account 5.000.00 

Amount Louisa county bonds in the hands of Levi Chase, to be sold, 

to apply on the payment of company's notes, given him for cash. . 29,000.00 

Amount Chase's subscription on contract 25,000.00 

Amount Louisa county bonds in hands of S. Townsend, to be sold to 

pay for money advanced by him 5,000.00 

Total assets $147,414.00 


For bills payable to Levi Chase $30,869.45 

For retained percentage 25,983.64 

For bills payable to engineers 1,275.61 

For bills payable on sundry accounts 8,000.00 

Total liabilities $69,078.70 


For grading and ties $i 10,922.02 

For bridging 18,996.20 

Total $129,918.22 

Less 20 per cent, retained percentage 25,983.64 


Amount paid for right of way 2,546.50 

Amount paid for engineering 1 1,999.07 

Amount paid for incidental expenses • 8,091.30 

Total estimates $126,571.35 


Total amount of assets $147,414.00 

Total amount of liabilities 69,078.70 

Balance to company's credit $ 78,335.30 

Deduct Washington county unpaid stock 68,000.00 

Leaves assets for Louisa county $ 10,335.30 

W. C. Wilson, 
March 31, 1857 Secretary." 


It was found, however, that more money would be needed, and steps were 
taken which resulted in the calling of an election to be held on May 16, 1857, 
to vote upon the question of the county subscribing $100,000 in addition to 
the amount subscribed originally. 

The petition asking the county court to order this election was signed by 
490 taxpayers, which was considerable more than the number required by law> 
in order to compel the submission of the question. We give below the tables 
of the vote by townships on the question of this additional $100,000 subscription : 

Township For Against 

Elm Grove 17 15 

Eliot 26 7 

Columbus City 31 286 

Concord o 89 

Grandview 13 175 

Jefferson ■ 267 4 

Marshall 71 7 

Morning Sun 56 48 

Oakland o 53 

Port Louisa 20 78 

Union o 63 

Wapello 425 6 

Total 926 831 

The records of the county court show that this vote was canvassed by 
Francis Springer, county judge, and James C. Stirlen and Jacob Mintun, justices 
of the peace, and that they considered the returns from the townships of Con- 
cord, Marshall and Wapello to be defective but did not think proper to reject 
them and that thereupon N. M. Letts and Micajah Reeder, tax payers and 
voters of the county gave notice that they would contest said election. 

Jefferson township cast 271 votes at this election, while at the election held 
just about one month previous, the highest vote cast on any state or county 
office was ill, and in August following, when the new constitution was sub- 
mitted, the total vote on that question was 94, being 73 for it and 21 against it. 
History does not say whether these 150 extra voters came from New Boston 
or "Bogus Island," or whether they merely failed to come out at previous and 
subsequent elections. 

In accordance with the notice of the contest, a number of the prominent 
citizens who were opposed to the additional subscription for the Air Line, con- 
tested the election held on May 16th, employing Henry O'Connor, of Musca- 
tine, and Charles H. Phelps, of Burlington, and they were successful. 

About this time a new railroad project came into vogue, being known as 
the Iowa Union Railroad Company, which was proposed to run from Iowa City 
southeasterly through Oakland township, crossing the Iowa about at Todd's 
Ferry. According to the map which was used at that day, it would seem that 
this Iowa Union road was to connect with the Keokuk, Mount Pleasant & 
Muscatine railroad near where Columbus Junction now is. On this map the 


latter road is shown as extending north and south through Marshall and Colum- 
bus City townships, running a little west of the old William Helmick farm in 
Marshall township. Jt seems that the Air Line advocates and the Iowa Union 
advocates combined forces, for on June 22, 1857, we find that petitions signed 
by more than one-fourth of the voters of the county were presented to the 
county judge, asking him to submit at the August election the question whether 
the county would subscribe $100,000 to the Air Line Railroad Company, and 
also whether it would subscribe $100,000 to the Iowa Union Railroad Com- 
pany, and in accordance with the provisions of law these two questions were 
submitted to the people and voted on, on Monday, August 3, 1857. The first 
proposition carried by 717 to 639, and the second carried by 709 to 592. The 
same men who had so successfully contested the election of May 16th, also 
contested the one of August 3d and the following item taken from the Wapello 
Intelligencer of September 24, 1857, sufficiently states the result of the contest 
and the points decided: "The injunction upon the issue of the bonds of this 
county to the Air Line and Union railroads was granted by the supreme court 
in full bench, on the 10th inst. The ground fur the injunction was the illegality 
of issuing count)' bonds for a greater amount than $50,000 under the new con- 
stitution. The points held by the court were, first, that although the stock was 
subscribed, the bonds were not issued prior to the adoption of the new constitu- 
tion, and a debt of more than the above amount could not be created; second, 
that the vote in favor of the loans did not create the debt until the issue of the 
bonds by the count}' judge, whose official act alone, as agent of the county, 
made the loans binding." 

So far as we have been able to discover, this case was not officially reported ; 
but from a statement in the paper it was probably decided under Section 3, 
Article 11, of the constitution, which was adopted upon the same day that the 
subscription was voted, it being the clause that prohibits any county or other 
political municipal corporation from becoming indebted for an amount exceed- 
ing five per cent on the amount of taxable property thereof. 

YVe have been unable to find anything which definitely states just how long 
after this injunction the work w : as continued on the Air Line road, but it was, 
probably discontinued within a few months thereafter. Mr. Chase, the con 
tractor, and John Bird and some others recovered judgments against the Air 
Line company in May, 1858. These suits were begun in Louisa county and 
transferred to Des Moines county for trial. Some light is thrown upon the 
matter by the proceedings of arbitration between Levi Chase and the Air Line 
company, which were had under an agreement dated September 20, 1859, whereby 
the railroad company and Levi Chase agreed to submit to Judge Thomas W. 
Newman. H. II. Ilawley and Fritz Henry Warren as arbitrators all matters 
of difference between them, arising from or growing out of the contracts be- 
tween them for building a certain portion of the road of said company in 
Louisa and Washington counties. By a subsequent agreement Judge T. C. Hall 
was substituted for H. H. Hawley as one of the arbitrators, and on February 
23, 1861, the arbitrators filed their decision as follows: 

"To the Hon: District Court of Louisa County, State of Iowa: 

"The undersigned arbitrators chosen by Levi Chase and the Philadelphia. 
Fort Wayne & Platte River Air Line Rail Road Company lo hear and decide 


certain disputes and differences existing between said parties growing out of 
certain contracts for the construction of a portion of a certain Rail Road therein 
named all of which will more fully appear by the articles of submission hereto 
attached and marked exhibit A, would respectfully report, that they caused due 
notice of the time and place of hearing the matters submitted, to be given to 
said parties, and in accordance therewith the arbitrators and each of the paries 
(parties) litigant appeared at the office of Hall, Harrington & 1 Iall in the City 
of Burlington, Des Moines County, State of Iowa, the said Chase in person 
and the said R. R. Company by Samuel Townsend, president of said company 
and Charles H. Phelps and D. N. Sprague, his attorneys, and in the presence 
of both of said parties the said arbitrators were duly sworn and qualified to 
perform their duties as arbitrators under said submission. 

"Both parties expressing their readiness to proceed to the trial in said cause 
and no objection appearing we proceeded to hear said matters in dispute, and 
the same proceeded with the hearing of testimony until the evening of the 20th 
of Februarv. A. D. 1861, and adjouned until the next morning at 9 o'clock. 
We met again at the appointed time and place and proceeded with the investiga- 
tion of the matters and things in dispute from day to day until the 23rd of 
Feby., 1861, and having heard the testimony submitted, and the argument of 
parties and their counsel, and fully considered the evidence find the following, 
to wit, that there was a full settlement of said parties made August 7, 1857, 
for work, labor, &c, &c, under said contracts in evidence, except as to work 
done on abandoned line. 

"We find that at the time of said settlement and prior thereto there was due 
said Chase on notes & interest & on labor, &c. performed since said settlement 
& on percentage reserved by the R. R. Company under the contract. . .$57903.15 
Also damages from breach of contract, less work on abandoned line. . 57156.27 

Total- anit. due Chase . . • . .$115,059.42 

exculsive (exclusive) of Judgements in District Court 

"We find that said Chase has recvd of the company since settlements marie 

August 7, 1857, as follows: 

Sundry collections of stock due the company on Sub & 

interest on same $5,192.91 

Proceeds of 15 Louisa Co. Bonds sold at 45 cts. on $ and 

interest 8,887.50 

2 Louisa Co. Bonds at $1,000 each and interest on same. . . . 2,500.00 
Stock of Co'y. recvd on contract 3,500.00 


Net amt. due Chase on general account to date $94,979.91 

"We also find that the R. R. Company is entitled to a 

credit of $ 9500.00 

and interest on same to date of May f>, '58 — for County 

Bonds ( 19) sold [305.50 

Total $10,805.50 


which credit should be applied on Judgement in D Court of Des Moines County, 
Iowa, in case of J. Bird vs. said Company, for $13,770.54 rendered May 6, 
1858, and made as of the date of the judgement leaving due on said jdmt. May 
6, '58, balance of $2,965.04, which was then the true amt. due on same. 

"We also find that there should be a credit on Judgement of Levi Chase vs. 
said Company for the sum of amts. of stock, &c. collected for the company & 
int. on same to May 6, '58, $734.80, which credit is to be on judgement in Des 
Moines Co. Dist. Court rendered May 6, '58, for $12,703.05 — leaving balance 
due May 6, '58, — to said Chase on same, $11,968.25. 

"From which finding we hereby make and report the following award, to 
wit, that said Philadelphia, Fort Wayne & Platte River Air Line Rail Road 
Company is justly owing and indebted to Levi Chase from the evidence seen & 
heard the sum of Ninety-four thousand Nine hundred and seventy-nine Dollars 
and ninety-one cents ($94.1)711.1)1), exculsive (exclusive) of the judgements he 
has against said Company above referred to, and to draw ten per cent interest 
from this date. We also award that credits be duly entered on the judgements 
which said Chase holds against said company according to the aforesaid finding 
to bear date of May 6, 1858. 

"We also award that each of said parties litegant pa}' one-half of the costs 
of this arbitration — There being none claimed except our fees for services 4 
days at 21$ per day — $84.00, which is the amt. agreed by the parties in the 
submission, February 23, t86i. J. C. Hall, 

T. W. Newman, 
Fitz Henry Warren, 


So ended the great Air Line railroad project; which was intended to make 
(and doubtless would had it succeeded) of Wapello one of the leading cities 
in the state and an important station on a great thoroughfare between Phila- 
delphia and the Pacific coast. Put with the death of the Air Line the $100,000 
bonds issued did not die. Their payment, however, became a live question 
along about 1868, at which time numerous suits were commenced against the 
county in the federal courts to enforce the payment of the bonds and the 
coupons. This railroad bond question in which so many of the counties of the 
state were interested, had already brought about a sharp and decisive conflict 
between the decisions of the courts of this state and the federal courts, and 
furnishes one of the most interesting chapters in the legal history of this state. 
In the early decisions of the supreme court of Iowa on this subject it had been 
held by a divided court that the counties of the state had a constitutional right 
to issue bonds in aid of railroad enterprises, but in December, 1859, the court 
settled the matter so far as this state was concerned by holding the issuance of 
such bonds to be beyond the power of the county and declaring the bonds them- 
selves to be void. Shortly after this latter decision a suit was commenced in the 
district court of this county to enjoin the supervisors from levying a tax for the 
purpose of paying these bonds. The court granted the injunction and made 
it perpetual. Relying upon this injunction for their protection and being backed 
up by an almost overwhelming sentiment of the people, the board of supervisors 
refused to pay the judgments rendered in the federal court and in consequence 


of that refusal the federal court issued a writ of mandamus, ordering the board 
to levy taxes for the payment of the judgments against the county. Still the hoard 
refused and the United States marshal arrested the members of the board for con- 
tempt in failing to levy the taxes in accordance with the writ of the federal court. 
Members of the board at that time were Benjamin Jennings, Elm Grove township ; 
H. C. Blake, Morning Sun : J. Q. Buffington, Columbus City township; John Deihl, 
Wapello township; Henry A. Keyes, Oakland township; Richard S. Strong, 
Jefferson township; Robert Carson, Union township; James R. Letts, Grand- 
view township; F. F. Kiner, Marshall township; S. A. McDaniel, Concord 
township; Levi Stephen, Port Louisa township; and P. D. Bailey, Eliot town- 
ship. The members of the board were taken to Des Moines and required to 
give bond in the sum of $500 each for their appearance before the United States 
court at its October term, 1869. The legislature in 1868 had passed an act 
intended to provide the way for the counties owing railroad bond debts to settle 
them, and negotiations were carried on with the attorneys for the bondholders 
looking toward some sort of a compromise. In November, 1869, the board of 
supervisors ordered a special election for December 29th following, upon the 
question "Shall the county of Louisa settle' its debts owing on bonds and coupons, 
issued to aid in the construction of the Philadelphia, Fort Wayne & Platte 
River Air Line railroad." This was to be done under the act approved April 
2, 1868, before referred to. This election brought on a heated controversy 
which will be fairly understood by reading some of the various communications 
and editorials found in the newspapers of that time. 

Andrew Gamble, who was a member of the board of supervisors in 1869, 
but not a member at the time the board was placed under arrest, had come to 
the conclusion, very reluctantly, that there was no way to prevent the payment 
of these bonds, and he was very anxious that the county should take advantage 
of the act of the legislature authorizing a settlement by the issuance of new 
obligations, and he addressed the following communication to the taxpayers 
and voters of the county: "Fellow Citizens: Doubtless you are all aware that 
sundry persons have obtained judgment in the Circuit Court of the LTnited 
States against this county, amounting in the aggregate to about seventy-five 
thousand dollars. These judgments all draw interest at the rate of seven per 
cent from the date of their rendition, and were all obtained on the coupons of 
the bonds issued to the Philadelphia, Fort Wayne & Platte River Air Line 
Railroad. At the late called session of the Board of Supervisors of the county, 
a tax of eighteen mills on the dollar of all the taxable property of the county 
was levied to aid in paying off these judgments. This amount with the previous 
levy for state, county, school, road, and other purposes, swells the aggregate 
of your taxes this year to very nearly if not quite four per cent of all your 
taxable property! and presents to every taxpayer in the county this serious 
question: How is this tax to be paid? Can we pay it? There is in my opinion 
but one answer to these questions, and that is, practice strict economy and re- 
solve to do it, even if it costs some sacrifice. It were worse. than useless for 
you or me to indulge in invectives and criminations against the holders of this 
class of our indebtedness, or those who, by their votes, brought this burden 
upon us. Suffice it to say we have for years fought these creditors of the 
county from the lowest to the highest of our state courts, and today it is but 


poor consolation for them to tell us as they do in the Lee county habeas corpus 
case, that, although these bonds were issued contrary to law and are therefore 
null and void, yet when we get into the United States courts they have no 
power to help us. This debt is a lien upon every foot of land in Louisa county, 
and, much as we may dislike to do it, it will have to be paid, and in my humble 
opinion the sooner this is done the better it will be for us and for the county. 
T hear some persons say that they will pay all their other taxes but refuse to 
pay this. A more unwise or impolitic course could not well be devised by the 
worst enemies of the county. It is the same old song that has been sung over 
and over again until we are brought to the very brink of ruin, or what is worse, 
repudiation. When these bonds were first issued we commenced paying the 
taxes on them, and had we continued to do so, all would have been well : but 
in an evil hour we, almost with one accord, refused to pay, under what now 
proves to be the delusive hope that we could avoid the payment of principal 
and interest altogether. Xow every one regrets that such a course was taken, 
and realizes how easily he could have paid his proportion yearly. Xow a por- 
tion of the people proposes to remedy the error we then committed by doing 
the same thing over again. Again, it is well known to everybody that a few 
years ago we could have bought up our entire indebtedness at less than fifty 
cents on the dollar, but those in authority refused to do so, and the people 
backed them in their refusal. In the meantime we have paid the lawyers and 
the court officers several thousand dollars in fees, that had much better been 
applied to the extinguishment of the debt, yet today we find ourselves beaten 
at every point, and judgments against us to a large amount, which some feel 
unwilling and others unable to pay. I am asked daily on what terms our 
creditors are willing to compromise. To all such 1 can only say that whilst we 
continue to fight we cannot expect much in the way of compromise. If we 
propose to pay only at the tail end of an execution, we may as well and had 
better retain our self respect by asking no favors of any one. Xo, my friends, 
we must change our course of policy on this question if we would accomplish 
anything. We must pay this tax in good faith and the sooner we do it the 
better it will be for us, as by pursuing such a course we will convince our 
creditors that the fight is over and that we are willing to submit to the decision 
of the courts. By pursuing this course we shall also save all further expense 
of useless litigation and be able successfully to appeal to our creditors for an 
extension of time, should that be desirable. In conclusion, fellow citizens. I 
beg your pardon for volunteering to you this advice, but I could do no less 
under all the circumstances. Over sixteen years ago I counseled you through 
this same medium not to issue these bonds, but you disregarded my advice. 
You have a perfect right to do so again when I advise you to pay them." 

And we find in some of the newspapers of that day vehement editorials 
against voting to settle the indebtedness. We take a few sentences from an 
article in the Wapello Republican of December 25. 1869: "We shall vote no. 
because we are unwilling to pay the whole of these railroad bonds and the 
accrued interest and because we do not wish to take any step that would look 
as though we were willing to pay them. The laws, justly interpreted, do not 
compel us, because the bonds were issued without the due sanction of law. and 
morals do not compel us because the railroads with whom we contracted failed 
to fulfill their part of the engagement, and because we received no equivalent 

F. F. Killer, Levi Stevens, Robert Carson, P. D. Bailey, H. A. Keyes, J. R. Letts 
H. C. Blake, Richard Strong, S. A. McDaniel, John Diehl, J. Q. Buffington, Henry Jennings 


for our money. Yet the bondholders want us to vote 'yes' and having adopted 
their compromise law they expect us to issue them new and valid bonds for 
their old and doubtful ones, with all the accrued interest." 

In the litigation connected with the payment of these railroad bonds from 
beginning to end, the board of supervisors employed many able lawyers and 
did everything in their power to prevent the payment of the bonds. D. C. 
Cloud, of Muscatine, perhaps had more to do with the defense of these cases 
on the part of the county than any other one lawyer, and the following article 
from him, written to the Chicago Post, contains much interesting information 
and shows the position taken by the county at the time. We take Mr. Cloud's 
article from the Wapello Republican of December 26, 1869: 

"As the attention of the public is at the present time somewhat engaged in 
discussing the apparently belligerent attitude of the people of those counties in 
the state of Iowa who issued their bonds to railroad companies, and as we are 
neither milliners nor secessionists, nor even repudiators, permit me to attempt 
to give what I understand to be our position. To do this intelligently, I must 
go back to the time of the issuing of the bonds. Prior to the year 1853 it was 
a question frequently discussed in all those parts of the state where the people 
expected railroads to be constructed, as to whether municipal corporations could 
aid in their construction. Most all those persons who pretended to any legal 
knowdedge contended that such power did not exist ; that it was expressly denied 
or withheld by the constitution of the state and that there was no statute author- 
izing it. About this time a case was made in Dubuque county, and report said 
that our supreme court had decided that the power existed under the constitu- 
tion, and that Section 114 of the Code of 1851 gave the corporations power to 
subscribe stock to railroad companies. I say report said so, for in fact 130 
opinion was filed with the clerk of the court as provided by statute, nor was it 
ever seen until it appeared in 4th Greene's Reports, published in 1858. When 
this volume was published it contained an opinion by the majority of the court 
in favor of the authority. Nearly all of the bonds ever issued in this state were 
issued and negotiated before any opinion or decision was written, filed with 
the clerk of the court, or published ; consequently, those who took the bonds 
from the railroad companies did so upon mere report as to what the court had 
decided, and did not act upon any knowledge derived from an adjudication of 
the question involved ; in other words, they were not 'innocent purchasers.' I 
do not know fully the history of the issuing of these bonds, save in one or two 
counties. Louisa county subscribed $100,000 stock to the Philadelphia, Fort 
Wayne & Platte River Railroad Company in 1856, at a time when the nearest 
point upon which any work was being done on said road was at least two 
hundred miles distant. Yet in order to get possession of the bonds of this 
county, the company began work in the county, called for and got the bonds 
of the county as fast as they could, and so soon as they had got the full amount, 
suspended work, and until the present time have done nothing on the road. 
They disposed of the bonds for a small consideration (some as low as twenty- 
three cents to the dollar), and the county got nothing for them. The railroad 
company guaranteed the payment of principal and interest of the bonds, and 
put the proceeds in their pockets. Muscatine county issued bonds to the amount 


of $150,000 to the Mississippi & Missouri Railroad Company in January, 1854, 
under the following circumstances: The company organized as a corporation 
under the laws of Iowa to build three divisions of their railroad in Iowa. The 
first division extended west from Davenport via Iowa City, the second from 
Muscatine west to the Missouri river, and the third extending from Muscatine 
to Cedar Rapids. 

"The proposition whether the county should aid in the construction of the 
second and third divisions of this road by subscribing $150,000 stock was sub- 
mitted to the voters of the county in October, 1853, and the vote being in 
favor of the proposition, the county judge issued the bonds to the above amount. 
These bonds were issued and sold, upon the guarantee of the company, before 
any decision of the supreme court was written or filed, and did not upon their 
face refer either directly or indirectly to the authority under which they were 
issued to aid in the construction of the railroad. They simply recited that the 
county owed George C. Stone, or bearer, the sum of $1,000 (that being the 
amount of each bond) for money borrowed, and that the faith of the county 
was pledged for the payment of the interest and principal, as they matured, 
neither the second nor third divisions of the road were ever built, vet our bonds 
were taken and sold, and we are called upon to pay them. 

"Many of the other counties were swindled as badly and some even worse 
than those above named. 

"Owing to a diversity of opinion in the different courts, we have got into an 
unsettled state upon this bond question. The first decision of our state supreme 
court that was filed and published was the case of Clapp vs. Cedar county, 5 
Iowa, page 15. In that case a majority of the court decided in favor of the 
validity of the bonds, because of the decision of the Dubuque case, but say they 
had not yet seen the opinion in the case ; but. as it had been decided, they would 
adhere to that decision, and, at the same time, state that the authortiy to sub- 
scribe stock to railroads was not conferred by Section 114 of the Code of Iowa 
(the section that Judge Greene when he published his fourth volume, decided 
did confer the power). This decision was made in 1857, and after most of the 
bonds of the different counties had been negotiated. Following this decision 
some three more were made of the same import in 1858 and 1859. All of these 
decisions were made by a divided court, one of the three judges (Judge Wright) 
dissenting. Following these decisions, commencing in 1859, the supreme court 
of this state rendered some six of seven decisions reversing former decisions, 
and deciding that the power did not exist under the constitution of the state, 
nor had the legislature enacted any law by which these municipal corporations 
could become stockholders in railroad companies. These decisions were made 
by a unanimous court, and have become the fixed and settled law of the state, 
and were made before the question was passed upon by the United States su- 
preme court. The case of Gelpeke vs. the City of Dubuque (1st Wallace, page 
1751. is the first in which the United States courts decided adversely to the 
decisions of our state courts, and we think that decision unjust and in conflict 
with the laws of the United States, and the rule of decisions as established by 
that court. In the case of Leffingwell vs. Warren, decided but one year before 
the Gelpeke case. Justice Swayne .in the opinion of the court, says, that in 


questions arising under state laws, the United States courts will follow the de- 
cisions of the state courts; that such decisions are as binding upon them as 
the text, and that when state courts change their decisions, the United States 
courts would follow the last settled decision (I do not quote verbatim, but 
give the substance). 

"In the Gelpeke case Justice Swayne, while he recognizes the rule in the case 
of Leffingwell vs. Warren, says: 'It cannot be expected that this court will 
follow every such oscillation, from whatever cause arising, that may possibly 
occur.' In other words, he calls the first decisions made by a divided court, 
at one time, based on the ground, and then on a new and distinct ground, without 
harmony or order, 'settled decisions,' and calls the uniform and unanimous deci- 
sions of the state courts for a number of years, decisions that are in harmony with 
the constitution and laws of the state oscillations, and refuses to follow them as 
we think, in violation of the express law of congress enacted in 1789, and now in 
full force. We are now in an oscillating situation. On the one hand we have the 
decisions of our courts against the validity of these bonds ; on the other, the 
United States courts in favor of the validity of the bonds, with writs of man- 
damus coming thick and fast. The edict of this court has gone forth and we 
are commanded to pay whether we can or not. The United States court is send- 
ing its officers among us, commanding us to submit, and threatening us with the 
military power of the government if we do not yield. Some of us have resolved 
to adhere to the decisions of our state courts, believing that some rights are 
still left to the states, and that under the laws of the United States even the 
supreme court must respect those rights, and while we do not expect to secede 
from the Union, or arise in our majesty to resist forcibly the power that is 
crushing us to the earth, we do expect to use all legal means we have in the 
vindication of our rights. We will resist as long as we can, and if we must pay 
in, will get off as cheaply as possible. We do not recognize the debt as just; we 
claim to have been swindled ; we do not look upon ourselves as repudiators, but 
claim that the bonds having been obtained by fraud, and sold and guaranteed by 
the railroad companies, the holders of those bonds should look to the companies 
with whom they have dealt for their pay. By order of the United States courts, 
taxes have been levied in some of the counties as high as six per cent. We 
cannot pay them. If we cannot get rid of these levies, of course property will 
be seized and effort made to sell it. We do not intend to purchase each other's 
property. The bondholders must purchase, and as they leave our counties with 
a long train of lame and blind horses, worn out mules, no-horned coz^s, old 
wagons and steers, with a few old threshing machines, and other articles too 
numerous to mention, they will probably feel disposed to sell out at a discount, 
or should they attempt to sell real estate (which they cannot do if there is per- 
sonalty), they will not find it possible to prosecute a suit in each individual 
case. Our position is to defend as long as we can; and if no satisfactory settle- 
ment can be had, then by all lawful means to retard and prevent the collection 
of these unjust judgments, in the hope of being able to compel such a settlement 
as we can accept, and not without a faint hope that the supreme court of the 
United States, as it oscillates from one position to another, may oscillate so 
far as to decide in accordance with the settled decisions of our own courts, and 


relieve us from the oppression resulting from fraud in the first instance, fol- 
lowed by unjust decisions of courts." 

In this paper there is much other literature on this subject, some of which 
will be of interest as indicating the rather curious legal positions taken at that 
time. The following is an extract from an article in reply to the article of Andrew 
Gamble which we have heretofore given: "Again we are admonished to pay 
such judgments and bonds for the reason 'that these debts are a lien upon every 
foot of land in Louisa county." That proposition is startling, and may have 
induced some persons to pay who otherwise would have not. It is equally as 
absurd as startling. Let us see : Who are these judgments against? Louisa count)'. 
To whom must these judgment creditors look for their money? Louisa county. 
Who owns the land and town lots in this county? Surely Louisa county does 
not own every foot. Louisa count)- may own some swamp land and upon that 
the lien may exist, but on no more." 

The same paper contains the position of Hon. Rush Clark, of Iowa City, 
who at a railroad bond convention held at Muscatine a short time before that 
had delivered one of the principal addresses. This convention, by the wav, 
was attended by delegates from eight counties, viz : Lee. Muscatine, Johnson, 
Washington, Louisa. Iowa, Poweshiek, Jefferson and Cedar, and was presided 
over by J. B. Grinnell, governor, anil Samuel J. Kirkwood was chairman of the 
committee on resolutions. Among other things Mr. Clark said: "We are told 
the courts have disposed of this question and decided against us, but resting on 
the merits of the question, we deny that judgments by the federal courts are a 
lien upon the property of citizens. . . . The judgments are conclusive as 
to corporations, but not as to citizens; as to county or city, but not as to people. 
Private property is safe from the debt of a municipal corporation. It is the 
same as a creditor saying that if he cannot collect what A owes him he will col- 
lect from B. His neighbor, the bondholder, took the worthless bonds from the 
county and city in their own trust and now demand that individual taxpayers 
shall pay it. Let them take the property of the county. What if that property is 
exempt from execution? The bondholders should have thought of that when 
they took the bonds. . . . We are not counties — I am not Johnson county. 
There is a refuge for the people which we should have and will have if we 
stand firmly by our rights." 

The Muscatine convention before referred to declared that the recent de- 
cisions of the federal courts involving railroad bonds seemed "subversive to 
the authority and dignity of our state courts, and dangerous to the rights and 
privileges of the citizens of the states if not positive and unwarranted encroach- 
ments upon the jurisdiction of the state courts, and recommended the payment 
of all taxes except the railroad bond tax. and a refusal to pay that until all legal 
and practical remedies were exhausted." 

The voters of the county at the election on December 29, 1869, refused by 
an overwhelming majority — almost unanimously — to accept the proposition to 
settle the bonded indebtedness under the recent act of the legislature, the people 
resting in the belief that the federal courts either could not or would not enforce 
the payment of the taxes. This belief had been strengthened by reason of the 
fact that in the early part of the year 1869 or perhaps earlier, an application 
had been made to the federal court in a case concerning Washington or John- 


son county bonds for the appointment of a commissioner to levy and collect the 
taxes, and this application had been heard in Des Moines by Supreme Court 
Justice Samuel F. Miller, and overruled, and it was hoped that the United 
States supreme court would take the same view of it. But this hope was ground- 
less. The United States supreme court reversed Justice Miller's decision, and 
as a result the United States marshal was sent here and began the collection of 
the taxes. After he had collected some taxes (we have not been able to ascer- 
tain just the amount, but believe it to have been about $6,000) the marshal de- 
parted. As this is the only case in which a "foreign" officer has ever been sent 
to collect taxes in this county, the notice issued by the United States marshal at 
that time was published in the papers of the county will doubtless be of interest: 

"To the Taxpayers of Louisa Count}- : 

"The undersigned has been appointed by the U. S. Circuit Court at Des 
Moines to collect the tax levied to satisfy certain judgments in favor of Francis 
Fellows and Adolph Knipper. I can be found at the County Treasurer's Office, 
where all persons who have neglected to do so are requested to call and pay 
their R. R. tax. These taxes bear one per cent a month for the first three 
months after the 1st day of March, two per cent a month for the second three 
months, three per cent a month for the third three months, and four per cent a 
month thereafter until paid. And the Court has directed me to collect from 
the delinquent taxpayers my costs and the costs of the Court. 

"The late period at which this order has come into my hands will prevent 
me from making personal demand or selling personal property, except in those 
cases where the taxpayer has no real estate. The real property of all persons 
who fail to pay their taxes will be duly advertised and sold. 

"G. W. Clark. 

"U. S. Marshal. 
"By J. S. Clark, 

"Wapello, 1st July, 1870." 

The matter was arranged so as to dispense with the presence of the United 
States marshal and to have the taxes collected in the ordinary way by our county 
officials. This arrangement was largely brought about my Andrew Gamble, 
Francis Springer and W. S. Kremer on the part of the county, and Grant & 
Smith, of Davenport, attorneys for the principal bondholders. The people gen- 
erally began to pay these taxes in August, 1870, and the greater part of them 
were paid by December, 1873. The amount of taxes paid for these Air Line 
bonds from November, 1869, to January, 1879, amounts to $275,806.25. 

The following report made by County Auditor Allen, in June, 1870, shows 
the expenses of the litigation that had been paid at that time and an estimate 
of those still unpaid : 

"To D. C. Cloud for Atty. fees $1,241.50 

To Henry O'Connor for Atty. fees 324.50 

To C. H. Phelps for Atty. fees 224.49 


To D. X. Sprague for Atty. fees 500.00 

To Tracey & Hurley for Atty. fees i/5-OO 

To J. Tracey for Atty. fees 325.00 

To J. S. Hurley for Atty. fees 340.00 

To Bird & Sprague for Atty. fees 25.00 

To G. B. Corkhill, Clerk U. S. Court 5/i-8o 

To G. W. Clark, U. S. Marshal 192.00 

Expenses of Board in attending U. S. Court and Special Sessions. . 1,463.00 

Costs Pd. in Case of Bolter vs. County 173-28 

Total Paid $5,555-57 

Amount of Court & Atty. fees now due and unpaid estimated at. . . .$1,000.00 

Total costs $6,555-57 

"Respectfully submitted, 

"Wm, G. Allen, Co. Auditor." 

Another item of expense is the taxes originally levied in 1856, 1857, 185S 
and 1859, for the payment of the interest on these bonds. The amount collected 
in taxes then was about $16,299.70. The total cost of our Air Line railroad 
experience therefore was about $298,665.52. 

Here we close a subject which has been both interesting and expensive to 
the people of this county. At the time the road was first proposed a great 
majority of the people were anxious to aid it because they believed in it. After 
it failed, the great majority of the people of the county criticised and condemned 
many of the men who had been instrumental in furthering the project. Looking 
at the matter from this distance and considering the immense benefit that would 
have accrued not merely to Wapello and to Burris City, but to the entire county, 
by the building of this road, the men who favored it were partly in the right- 
We know now. however, and have learned it at a great cost, that it would have 
been better to listen to the voice of those who pointed out the fact that the 
enterprise did not have sufficient capital behind it, and who were anxious that 
the obligations of the county should be issued in such a way that thev would 
only be payable in the event that the county secured the railroad. 




The act of congress, approved June 28, 1834, attached what is now Iowa to 
the territory of Michigan, for the purpose of temporary government ; and on Sep- 
tember 6th of the same year, the legislative council of Michigan divided what is 
now Iowa, into two counties, Dubuque and Des Moines, and these counties were 
made subject to the jurisdiction of the United States circuit court for Iowa 
county, Michigan Territory. This Iowa County was east of the Mississippi, and 
had no relation to what afterward became Iowa Territory. 

The organic act of Wisconsin Territory, approved April 20, 1836, by which 
the Iowa country was made a part of Wisconsin Territory, provided for a division 
of Wisconsin Territory into three judicial districts. And accordingly by an act 
approved November 15, 1836, the Wisconsin territorial legislature established 
the judicial districts and made the counties of Dubuque and Des Moines con- 
stitute the second judicial district, and provided in the same act that Judge David 
Irvin of the supreme court should perform district court duties in the second 

As we have already seen in Chapter VII, Judge Irvin held the first court in 
Louisa county in April, 1837. He also held another term of court in the spring 
of 1838. By the organic act of the territory of Iowa, approved June 12, 1838, it 
was provided that the territory should be divided into three judicial districts and 
that temporarily, and until otherwise provided by law of the legislative assembly, 
the governor should define the judicial districts of the territory and assign the 
judges who should be appointed for such territory, to the several districts, etc. 

The first establishment of judicial districts in the territory of Iowa was made 
July 25, 1838, by the proclamation of William B. Conway, signing himself as 
"Acting Governor of the Territory of Iowa." Mr. Conway was at that time the 
duly appointed and qualified secretary of the territory, and had arrived on the 
scene of action before the newly appointed governor, Robert Lucas, and hence, 
Mr. Conway took it upon himself to "start things" in his own way. Mr. Conway's 
proclamation defined the judicial districts of the territory and the assignment of 
judges of the supreme court to their respective districts. Under this proclama- 
tion the second district was composed of the counties of Scott, Musquitine, Louisa, 
Slaughter and Johnson, and Judge Joseph Williams was assigned to hold district 
court therein, and the court term in Louisa county was to begin on the third 



.Monday in October. Afterward, on January 21, 1839, the judicial districts of 
Iowa Territory were established by the legislature, and the second district was 
composed of the counties of Louisa, Muscatine, Cedar, Johnson and Slaughter, 
with Linn county attached to Johnson, and with Jones county attached to Cedar 
for judicial purposes. Shortly after this the name of Slaughter county was 
changed to Washington. 

We insert here the sketch of Judge Joseph Williams, taken from the pamphlet 
"Our Judges." written by George Frazee, Esq., of Burlington: 

"Of the early history of Judge Williams I have not been able to obtain any 
information. Presumably he was a native of Pennsylvania, since he was ap- 
pointed from that state one of the associate judges of the territorial supreme 
court by Van Buren in [838, came to Iowa to assume the duties of that position 
and became a resident of Bloomington, the name of which has since been changed 
to Muscatine. At that time he must have been of middle age, since, when I first 
became acquainted with him in 1849, he seemed to be verging on the downhill 
side of life. 

"At that time the territory was divided into three districts, the southern, mid- 
dle, and northern, one of the judges residing in each, and individually presiding 
over the district courts held therein, from which appeals could be taken to the 
supreme court composed of the three sitting in bank presided over by Chief Jus- 
tice Charles Mason. All of these three were democrats, and that party being 
dominant at Washington during the territorial existence except during the short 
period of President Harrison's incumbency, all of the three, though appointed 
for terms of four years, were twice reappointed, once by Tyler, who, though 
elected by the whigs to the vice presidency, had gone into the ranks of the op- 
posite party, and secondly, by President Polk. The Hon. T. S. Parvin tells us 
how the last appointment was secured. Judge Williams, upon the accession to 
Polk and change of administration, fearing that he might be superseded, started 
for the capital himself to do what he could towards averting that danger. Of 
course he went by the only feasible route of those days, by river to Wheeling or 
Pittsburg, and thence by stage and perhaps partly by rail to his destination — a 
long and tedious journey. On the way he fell in with a lady, whose destination 
was the same as his own, with whom he made a traveler's acquaintance, without 
learning her name, and to whom in the course of conversation he communicated 
the purpose of his journey. The Judge was eminently social, running over with 
anecdote and repartee, and especially gallant towards the ladies. These qualities 
interested the lady, as well as others. On reaching the capital they parted, and 
a day or two afterwards the Judge called upon the President with the purpose 
of urging his re-appointment. He was received with manifest favor, and on stat- 
ing his errand was promptly assured that his desire should be gratified. The 
1 'resident then told him that he wished to introduce him to a lady, who in a few 
minutes entered the room, and who, to the Judge's surprise, proved to be Mrs. 
Polk, who, it seems had made her husband acquainted with his attentions on the 
way, and the favorable opinion she had formed in regard to him. The Judge 
being successful in his own case, ventured farther and suggested that his as- 
sociates on the bench were equally worthy, and left with the comforting assurance 


that there would he no change, and there was none, and all three retained then- 
positions until the territory hecame a state. 

"The constitution provided that the territorial officers should continue to ex- 
ercise their functions until they were duly superseded by officers of the state, and. 
though the state was admitted December 28, 1846, judges of the supreme court 
were not elected until December, 1848. Meanwhile, Judge Mason resigned in 
!une, 1847, and Judge Williams was appointed chief justice in his place, and John 
F. Kinney appointed in place of Williams. The latter was elected chief justice of 
the state supreme court, December 7, 1848. his term expiring January 15, 1855, 
thus occupying the bench of the supreme court of territory and state for about 
seventeen years. 

"Judge Williams was somewhat under the middle height, well proportioned, 
very active and vigorous, of excellent address, a pleasing countenance, a lively 
temper and disposition. I cannot describe the man better than by adopting the 
language of Judge Springer, who knew him much longer and much more inti- 
mately than I did. He writes of him : "Though not a first-rate lawyer, he was 
a good judge — popular as a man and as a judge. He had wonderful versatility 
of gifts outside of the judgeship. He and my friend, Edward H. Thomas, were 
the life and center of attraction in the social circles of evenings when on court 
circuits. Thev were both adepts in vocal and instrumental music. The Judge 
was at home on almost any instrument, banjo, drum, fiddle, as well as those of a 
higher grade. Mr. Thomas' specialty, though good on other instruments, was 
the flute, on which he had few equals anywhere. The Judge's gift as a comedian 
would keep a crowd in a roar; as a ventriloquist he would sometimes astonish 
the natives. He was withal a consistent member of the Methodist church, and a 
warm friend of temperance. His kindness and respect shown to the younger 
members of the bar were notable and appreciated, and he had a trait sometimes 
seen in great men. that of not caring for money.' What a pleasant companion 
he must have been to the members of the bar in the cramped quarters of log 
taverns when traveling round the circuit and wrestling all day with the dry and 
musty mysteries of the law, the anxieties of clients, or the palpable evasions ot 
reluctant witnesses." 

After the admission of Iowa into the Union as a state, the first general as- 
sembly on February 4, 1847, established the judicial districts of the state, and 
Louisa county was placed in the first district, composed of the counties of Lee, 
Des Moines, Washington, Henry and Louisa. By the act approved January 15, 
1849, Washington county was detached from the first district and attached to 
the fourth district. The judges of the first district under the constitution of 1846 
were as follows: George H. Williams, of Lee county, elected April 5, 1847; 
Ralph P. Lowe, of Lee county, elected April 6, 1852, resigned in 1857; John W. 
Rankin, of Lee county, appointed by the governor, April 9, 1857, qualified April 
13, 1857; Thomas W. Clagett, of Lee county, elected April 6, 1857, qualified 
May 16, 1857. 

Judge George H. Williams, the first judge of this district after Iowa became a 
state, was born in Columbia county, New York, March 23, 1823, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar in 1844, and immediately removed to Lee county, in this state. 
Flewas elected district judge at the early age of twenty-four years and continued 

Vol. 1—16 


upon the bench until 1852. In this latter year he was a democratic presidential 
elector and cast his vote for Franklin Pierce, who in 1853 appointed him chief 
justice of the territory of Oregon. Judge Williams served six years in the United 
States senate from the state of Oregon, his service ending in 1871. At this time 
he was a republican. In 1872 he was appointed attorney general by President 
Grant, and in the following year he was nominated by President Grant for chief 
justice of the United States supreme court. This nomination, however, was with- 
drawn before it was acted upon. Judge Williams resigned the position of attorney 
general in 1875 and resumed the practice of law. His subsequent history we are 
not familiar with. 

Judge Ralph P. Lowe was born in Ohio in 1808, and located at Muscatine 
(then Bloomington) in 1838. He was a member of the first constitutional con- 
vention of Iowa in 1844. In 1849 he removed to Keokuk and was our district 
judge from 1852 to 1857, in which latter year he was elected governor of the 
state to succeed Governor James W. Grimes. In 1861 he was elected a member 
of the supreme court and served in that capacity for eight years. After this he 
returned to the practice of law at Keokuk, but being employed by the state to 
prosecute its claims growing out of the Des Moines river land grant, and other 
grants, and some claims growing out of the rebellion, Judge Lowe removed to 
Washington City, where he resided until his death, which occurred December 22, 
1883. Judge Lowe was a lawyer of ability and a man of good character, and he 
had the good will and esteem of the members of the bar and all others who came in 
contact with the courts. 

John W. Rankin was born in Warren, Ohio, in June, 1823, and came to 
Keokuk, Iowa, in 1848, and became a member of the firm of Curtis, Rankin & 
Love. The firm later became Rankin, Miller & Enster, Mr. Miller being Justice 
Samuel F. Miller of the United States supreme court. Judge Rankin was later 
associated with George W. McCrary in the firm of Rankin & McCrary. Mr. 
McCrary served this district four terms as a representative in congress, and was 
afterward secretary of war in the cabinet of President Hayes, and later became 
United States circuit judge for the eighth circuit. Judge Rankin served as dis- 
trict judge of this district for but a little more than thirty days, but he was one of 
the greatest lawyers who ever sat upon this bench. He was also at one time state 
senator from Lee county and was colonel of the Seventeenth Regiment of Iowa 
Infantry in the war of the rebellion. He was one of the leaders in the republi- 
can party of Iowa in the early history and was a delegate to the convention which 
nominated Lincoln for president. He died Jul}- 10, 1869. 

Judge Thomas W. Clagett was a Marylander, bom in August, 181 5, and came 
to Keokuk in 1850. He is said to have been a wealthy man when he came here — ■ 
a fact which distinguishes him from nearly all the other early members of the 
bar. We quote again from Mr. Frazee, the following concerning Judge Clagett: 

"He was elected judge. April 6. 1857. ail( l qualified May 25th following. He 
continued to occupy the bench for the term fixed by the statute, and was a can- 
didate for reelection, in opposition to Judge Springer. One of the peculiarities 
of that election was the stump canvass of the district by Judge Clagett in his own 
behalf. His occupancy of the bench was not pleasant or in any way satisfactory 
to the bar. He proved to be impatient, hastv, irascible, rash and, as was gener- 


ally thought, quite tyrannous and unendurable. He seemed determined not only 
to preside as judge, but also to conduct both sides of every litigated case accord- 
ing to his passing whims. Sometimes he would not listen to argument; often 
he would limit the time to be occupied in the trial and in argument to jury and 
often was offensive in his remarks to the bar at large or to a particular member. 
On one occasion what he said to M. D. Browning was so insulting that the latter, 
always polite and considerate, was so incensed that he assaulted the judge on the 
bench and probably would have seriously injured him had not others interposed 
to prevent it. Clagett imposed a penalty of twenty-four hours in the county jail 
on Mr. Browning, to which every member of the bar then present attended 
him, leaving the judge alone in his glory, who went on calling cases and dis- 
missing them for want of prosecution, as a punishment for the evident condem- 
nation of his conduct. At another time he required bail of one hundred thousand 
dollars for a trifling misdemeanor, simply because some one, not concerned in 
the matter, chanced to observe in his hearing that the defendant could procure 
bail to that amount, which in fact I think he did without leaving the court room. 
I mention these facts not to derogate from the real worth of Judge Clagett as a 
man, but as one more illustrative of the fact that some natures, 'clothed with a 
little brief authority, play such fantastic tricks before high heaven as make the 
angels weep.' Off the bench the judge was as pleasant, sociable and agreeable 
as any one need to be. He was quite attractive in conversation, kind and court- 
eous to all, liberal and generous to others, a beloved neighbor, a sincere and help- 
ful friend ; and, as that nestor of the Keokuk bar, Daniel F. Miller, writes me, 
'a very, very honest and kind hearted man, for whom he entertained great per- 
sonal friendship.' After leaving the bench, the Judge represented Lee county in 
the general assembly of 1861-62, and next became proprietor and editor of the 
Keokuk Constitution, a democratic newspaper which, under his administration 
during the rebellion, was one of the most ultra of its northern advocates. There 
was an army hospital at Keokuk and at times considerable numbers of sick and 
convalescing soldiers there; and so violent was Clagett, and so much did he in- 
cense the 'boys in blue' that they one night riotously assailed the Constitution 
office and tossed the whole concern into the Mississippi river. There was an 
official investigation of this violation of law, resulting in censure of the officers 
then in command, but not in the discovery of the actual offenders. The judge, 
after an interval, resumed publication of his paper with no change of opinion or 
spirit, throughout the war and afterwards until his death, April 14, 1876, at which 
time he had pretty much exhausted all his means and earnings." 

A great many anecdotes have been told concerning Judge Clagett and his 
court in this county. One of them, for which we do not vouch, is that in a 
noted criminal case he instructed the jury that it was incumbent on the defend- 
ant to establish his innocence beyond a reasonable doubt. The other story illus- 
trates the wit of Henry O'Connor. Mr. O'Connor was engaged in making an 
argument to the jury in a case in which Judge Clagett had already made a ruling 
adverse to O'Connor's client, and one which was likely to have an important bear- 
ing on the verdict of the jury. During the course of his argument, O'Connor 
repeatedly alluded to the court's ruling, giving the jury plainly to understand 
that the court was wrong. Judge Clagett would call O'Connor to order whenever 


he referred to the court's ruling, but O'Connor persisted in criticising it so often 
and so pointedly that Clagett finally said to him : "Air. O'Connor, I must insist 
that you observe the respect due from the bar to the bench." whereat Mr. O'Con- 
nor blandly replied : "Your honor. I have the most profound respect for the bench 
— no matter who occupies it." 

After the adoption of the constitution of 1857, the seventh general assembly 
by an act approved March 20, 185S, established the judicial districts of the state. 
The act declares that the first district shall be composed of the counties of Lee, 
Henry, Des Moines and Lucas. The word Lucas, however, is a mistake, it hav- 
ing been intended for Louisa, as Lucas county was by the act placed in the sec- 
ond district. 

The judges of the first district under the constitution of 1857 were as follows: 
Francis Springer, Louisa county, elected October 12, 1858, re-elected October 14. 
1862, and October 9, 1866, resigned in November, 1869; Joshua Tracy, Des 
Moines county, appointed November 6, 1869, elected October 11, 1870, resigned 
in April, 1874; P. Henry Smyth, Des Moines county, appointed April 25, 1874, 
resigned in September, 1874; Thomas \\". Newman, Des Moines county, appointed 
September 25, 1874, elected October 13. 1874; A. H. Stutsman, Des Moines 
county, elected October 8, 1878, re-elected November 7, 1882. 

It is proper to insert here something about the circuit court, because, when 
in [886 this count}- was put into the sixth district, die circuit court was by the 
same act abolished. By an act of the general assembly, approved April 6, 1868, 
the judicial districts of the state were divided into two circuits called first and 
second, and a circuit judge provided for each of these circuits. The first district 
was divided by making Lee and Henry counties, the first circuit, and Des Moines 
and Louisa counties, the second circuit. Judge John B. Drayer, of Henry county, 
was elected as the first judge for the first circuit, and Judge John C. Power, of 
Burlington, was elected the first judge of the second circuit. This arrangement 
continued for about four years, when by the act approved March 29 1872 the 
two circuits in each judicial district were consolidated and the judge who pre- 
sided in the first circuit of each district was designated to preside in the cir- 
cuit court of the entire district. Judge Drayer thus became the sole circuit judge 
in the district. This latter arrangement continued also for about four years when, 
on March 6, 1878, some of the districts were subdivided again into two circuits, 
the first district being one of these. The governor appointed Charles H. Phelps 
of Burlington, judge of the second circuit, which was composed of Des Moines 
and Louisa counties, as it had been before. In 1884 the constitution was so 
amended as to authorize the legislature to re-organize the judicial districts of the 
state and to increase the number of judges; consequently, the twenty-first general 
assembly, by an act approved April io, 1886, abolished the circuit courts and pro- 
vided for a general re-organization of the district courts, and of the judicial dis- 
tricts of the state, to take effect January 1. 1887. L T nder this act Louisa county 
was placed in the sixth judicial district, composed of the counties of Jasper, 
Poweshiek, Mahaska, Keokuk, Washington and Louisa. This district, while it 
continued, was sometimes called the "shoestring" district. At the time of the 
passage of the act last referred to, Judge W. R. Lewis, of Poweshiek county, 
was a circuit judge, whose term had not yet expired and the. people of his countv 
were very indignant that he had been legislated out of office. Judge Lewis. 


though always a republican, consented to become an independent candidate for 
district judge in the new district. The republican candidates were J. Kelley John- 
son, of Oskaloosa, David Ryan, of Newton, and Lewis A. Riley, of Wapello. 
We have not the official returns of this election at hand, but our recollection is 
that the entire population of Poweshiek county voted for Judge Lewis, with the 
result that his vote was largely in excess of that of either Judge Ryan or Mr. 
Riley. In the official count it appeared that Judge Ryan had a few more votes 
than Mr. Riley, and our first judges under the new arrangement were Johnson, 
Lewis and Ryan. 

J. Kelley Johnson was elected November 2, 1886, re-elected November 4, 
1890, died in 1894; David Ryan, elected November 2, 1886, re-elected November 
4, 1890, and November 6, 1894; W. R. Lewis, elected November 2, 1886; A. R. 
Dewey, elected November 4, 1890, re-elected November 6, 1894; Ben McCoy, 
elected November 6, 1894, to fill vacancy caused by the death of J. Kelley 

Another change was made by the twenty-sixth general assembly by the pas- 
sage of the act approved April 20, 1896, creating the twentieth judicial district. 
This act provided that the counties of Des Moines, Henry and Louisa should 
constitute the twentieth judicial district and be entitled to two judges. The act 
also provided that there should be elected at the general election in 1896, and 
every four years thereafter, one district judge who should enter upon the dis- 
charge of his duties on the 1st of January following, and that there should be 
elected in the twentieth district at the general election in the year 1898, and every 
four years thereafter, one district judge who should enter upon the discharge 
of the duties of his office on the 1st of January. 1899, etc. The act also declared 
that the office of one of the district judges of the twentieth judicial district as 
defined by the act, was vacant, and authorized the governor to fill the vacancy, 
and the appointee to hold his office until the first day of January, 1897. 

Under this act we have had but two judges — Judge W. S. Withrow, of 
Mount Pleasant, and Judge James D. Smyth, of Burlington. At the time this act 
was passed Judge Smyth was judge of the first district and had been since 1891. 

A sketch of Judge Springer will be found elsewhere in this work. Judge 
Springer was succeeded by Joshua Tracy, who held the office of district attorney 
from 1859 to 1869, when he was appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by the 
resignation of Judge Springer. 

Joshua Tracy was born in Belmont county, Ohio, July 12, 1825. He settled 
in Burlington in 1850 and studied in the office of M. D. Browning. In 1852 he 
was admitted to the bar and formed a partnership with Judge Browning. He 
held the office of city solicitor in Burlington and represented Des Moines county 
in the house of representatives of the fifth general assembly. From 1863 until 
his appointment to the bench, he was in partnership with T. W. Newman, Esq. 
When he resigned his position as judge in 1874, he resumed the practice of 
law in partnership with his son, Samuel K. Tracy. Judge Tracy was at one 
time president of the Burlington <x Southwestern railroad, and was for several 
years general solicitor of the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Minnesota Railway 
Company, and the Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Northern Railway Company. In 
1880 he was elected president of the latter company, which position he held 
until his death on the 18th of May, 1884. Judge Tracy was a large, well pro- 


portioned man, having a pleasant expression and an excellent face. He was a 
man of great force of character and great natural ability, and was successful 
both at the bar and on the bench. The members of the Des Moines county bar 
paid him this handsome tribute: "By his death, the bar of this county and the 
state has been deprived of one of its oldest and most eminent members, whose 
career was marked by ceaseless energy, great executive ability and eminent suc- 
cess, and society one of so noble a nature as could neither forget a favor nor 
harbor a revenge." 

Judge P. Henry Smyth was born in Washington county, Virginia, March 
10, 1829. He was admitted to the bar in Henry county. Tennessee, in 1849, and 
commenced the practice of law the following year at Cleveland, Ohio. In 1857 
he located in Burlington, practicing law in partnership with his brother-in- 
law, Davis J. Crocker, and a little later in partnership with Henry Strong, and 
still later, in partnership with his son, James D., our present district judge. 
Judge P. Henry Smyth resigned too soon after his appointment to make a record 
on the bench, but he was a man of great force and ability, and one of the leaders 
of the Burlington bar. He had an elegant property at Cleveland, Ohio, where 
he spent his last years. 

Judge Smyth was succeeded by Judge Thomas W. Newman, who was ap- 
pointed by Governor Carpenter in the fall of 1874. Judge Newman was a Mary- 
lander, born January 23, 1829, admitted to the bar in 1850 and came at once to 
Burlington, where he began the practice in partnership with W. S. Graff. He 
was elected county judge of Des Moines county in 1855 and served until 1857. 
He was a captain in the Eleventh United States Infantry and served for about two 
years at Burlington and in Indianapolis as a mustering officer, when he resigned 
and re-entered the practice of law in Burlington. Judge Newman took an active 
interest in the Burlington University and was connected with it from the time 
of its organization until his death. Judge Newman was a very attractive and 
agreeable man and took a high rank among the lawyers and judges of the state. 
He died at Burlington, November 2, 1892. 

Our next district judge was Abraham H. Stutsman, who was born in Mor- 
gan county, Indiana, December 21. 1840. In 1861 he enlisted at Burlington in 
the First Iowa Cavalry and served until 1864, when he was discharged on 
account of a wound received in the summer of 1863, which resulted in the loss 
of his left arm. After this he read law in the office of Judge J. M. Beck, at Fort 
Madison, and was admitted to the bar at Keokuk in 1865. In the following year 
he located at Chariton, in Lucas county, then took a course in the law school of 
the Michigan University, from which he graduated in 1868. He was a member of 
the thirteenth general assembly from Lucas county. He returned to Burlington 
in 1870 and held the office of city solicitor and police judge for a number of 
years. He was elected district judge in 1878 and re-elected in 1882. After the 
close of his last term he re-entered the practice of law at Burlington, but in a 
short time removed to California, where he now resides. 

We take the following notice of Judge Drayer from Mr. Frazee's work, here- 
tofore referred to: "John Breitenback Drayer, the first judge of the first circuit, 
was born at Lebanon, Lebanon county, Pennsylvania, April 7, 1823. His parents 
were German. His father, a watchmaker, with his family removed to Hamilton, 
Ohio, when John B. was about ten years old, and there the latter learned and 


followed his father's trade until he reached the age of nineteen years, at which 
time he began the study of law in the office of Hon. John Woods, of Hamilton, 
and was admitted to the bar in April, 1844, upon reaching his majority, quite 
early enough for a young man who had enjoyed only a very limited common- 
school education. He commenced practice at Hamilton and there remained for 
about eight years, then removing to Eaton, Preble county, Ohio, where he con- 
tinued to practice until March, 1858, at which time he became a resident of Mt. 
Pleasant, Iowa. Soon after this removal he became a member of the Iowa con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal church as a minister and preached for about 
three years, at the end of which period he entered the military service of the 
United States as captain of Company H, Thirtieth Volunteer Infantry, serving 
as such for about seven months, when he was compelled to resign because of 
bad health. On his return to Mt. Pleasant, he was elected county judge in the 
fall of 1863, and retained that position until the 1st of January, 1869, when, 
having been elected judge of the circuit court at the preceding general election, 
in 1868, he entered upon the duties of that office. He was re-elected in 1872 
and again in 1876, holding the position until January 1st, 1881, when he was 
succeeded by Judge Jeffries. Judge Drayer was first married to Miss Mary 
M. YVithrow, of Butler county, Ohio, January 5, 1847; secondly, to Miss Mary 
J. McCable, of Eaton, Ohio, February 4, 1854; and thirdly, to Mrs. Amanda 
Baird, of Butler county, Ohio, December 24, 1872. He died at Seven Miles 
Station, Butler county, Ohio, in the fall of 1891, leaving one daughter, Mrs. 
Anna Sullivan, who still resides in Mt. Pleasant." 

Although Judge Drayer was the first judge of the first circuit of the first 
judicial district, he was not the first circuit judge to hold court in Louisa county. 

Judge John C. Power was the first judge of the second circuit in this dis- 
trict, and hence, our first circuit judge. He was born at Mount Vernon, Ohio, 
April 18, 1841, and was admitted to the bar at Burlington in October, 1862. 
He was a gallant soldier, having been a member of the Eighth Iowa Cavalry, 
and was captain of Company D. In the fall of 1865 he was elected county judge 
of Des Moines county and was re-elected in 1867. He resigned this position to 
accept the place of circuit judge. After serving one term he resumed the prac- 
tice of law, first as a member of the firm of Power & Antrobus, next as a member 
of the firm of Power & Huston, and later formed a partnership with his son 
under the name of Power & Power, of which firm he is still the active head. 
Judge Power is a man of most exemplary character, and has an enviable record 
both at the bar and on the bench. 

Charles H. Phelps was born at Middlebury, Vermont, in 1825. He first 
taught school for a short time and then studied law in the office of Senator 
Seymour, of Middlebury, who was a relative of his father. He was admitted 
to the bar in 1849 an( ^ m tne following year began the practice of law at 
Burlington in partnership with Judge J. C. Hall. In a year or two he entered 
into partnership with Henry W. Starr and later was a partner of General S. L. 
Glasgow. In 1878 he was appointed by Governor Gear circuit judge and held 
that office until 1886, when he was elected district judge of the first district as 
then constituted, which consisted of the counties of Lee and Des Moines. 
Judge Phelps' service in this county on the bench was entirely as circuit judge. 
Prior to his appointment to the bench he had considerable practice in the courts 


of Louisa county. He was not an industrious man nor a hard student, but he 
had a wonderful legal mind, and a memory which never failed him. 

We have not the material at hand from which to write an adequate sketch 
of the judges who presided over our court while this county was a part of the 
sixth judicial district. Of our present judges. James D. Smyth and W. S. 
Withrow, we need only say that the people of Louisa county would not exchange 
them for any other two judges in the state. While no one could tell from the 
judicial conduct of these gentlemen that they had any politics whatever, it is 
nevertheless true that Judge Smyth is a democrat in politics, and Judge With- 
row is a republican, and for some years it has been the unwritten law in this 
district that when the democrats nominate Judge Smyth the republicans will 
make no nomination against him, and that when the republicans nominate judge 
Withrow, the democrats will run no candidate against him. In this way the 
people of the twentieth district have eliminated politics and partisanship from 
the judicial office. 


From January i, 1859, to January 1, 1887, we had district attorneys, and the 
list of the men who occupied that office in this district is as follows : foshua 
Tracy, Des Moines county, elected October 12, 1858, re-elected October 14, 
1862, and October 9, 1866, resigned in November. 1869; George B. Corkhill. 
Henry county, appointed November 6, 1869 ; D. N. Sprague, Lee county, elected 
October 11, 1870, re-elected October 13, 1874; T. A. Bereman, Henry county, 
elected October 8, 1878: D. N. Sprague, Lee county, elected November 7, 1882. 


From the records of the early law suits we have found many things of his- 
torical interest, showing the doings of earl)- settlers whose names figured in our 
early history, as well as the names of sonic whose names do not appear anywhere 
else. Besides, these suits throw some light mi the character and habits of those 
who are concerned in them, and much more upon the manner of preparing legal 
documents and conducting legal proceedings in the early days. Following is a 
sample of an indictment found at the first term of the district court held in this 
county : 

"United States of America, Territory of Wisconsin, County of Louisa. — District 
Court for said County, April term A. D. 1837. 

"The grand jurors selected tried and sworn in and for the body of the County 
aforesaid upon their oaths present, that James Gordon and. Joshua Smith late 
of the County aforesaid not having God before their eyes; but being persons of 
disolate habits of life- did on the 25th day of March in the year of our Lord One 
thousand Eight hundred and thirty-seven start set on foot play and bet at and 
on a certain game of chance with cards comonly called all fours. In the peace 
of God and the United States to the great damage of divers good and worthy 
citizens and gainst the dignity of the United States of America and the form of 
the Statute in such case made and provided, and so the grand jurors aforesaid do 

Supervisors of Louisa County, June, 1871 

ro« IKN(W 


"Found on the testimony of Phillip Maskell, one of the grand jurors sworn to give 
evidence. — James W. Woods, Atty. pro tern." 

The records show that Loth these defendants were arrested on this indictment 
and gave bond with John Kern as security in the sum of $55. l'hillip Maskell 
seems to have been the only witness summoned, but the case was never tried. 
The records show the following motion, signed by James Gordon: The de- 
fendants move the court to quash the indictment in this case, because (1st) the 
said indictment is not endorsed by the clerk of this court as required by law ; 
(2d) the indictment charges no offense known to the law; (3d) the indictment 
should allege the offense to have been committed without a special act of the 
legislative council of the territory of Wisconsin. 

It subsequently appears that David Rorer represented the defendants and 
moved the court to quash the indictment for reasons filed, and after argument 
on the motion the indictment was quashed. The costs amounted to $5-3i .' 4 ■ 

From the record of a civil suit begun on the 21st of April 1837, by William 
H. Dennison against William Fleming, we learn that both these parties were in 
Louisa county as early as July 12, 1836, for it is alleged that. on that date Flem- 
ing gave his note to Dennison in Louisa county for the sum of $87.50, payable on 
November 1st, 1836. James W. Woods was the attorney for the plaintiff. The 
name of the defendant's attorney does not appear in the record but the final 
entry shows that the case was dismissed at the plaintiff's costs, which were 

There is also the record of a suit by Henry Thompson against William Milli- 
gan and M. P. Mitchell. It is entitled "Trespass" and seems to have been com- 
menced by Henry Thompson, filing an affidavit, stating that on or about June 7, 
1837, in Louisa county, a certain William Milligan and M. P. Mitchell of said 
county "came to the dwelling house of him this deponent and then and there 
vi et armis forcibly and against the will of him this deponent and against the 
peace and dignity of the United States of America and this territory took from 
this deponent certain household property goods and chattels (belonging to him, this 
deponent to wit) : Beds and bedding, cooking utensils, certain articles of queens- 
ware, trunk, table and sundry other articles ; and the said property was taken 
from the said William Milligan and M. P. .Mitchell and carried away so that the 
said goods and chattels hath been and were greatly injured and damaged and 
the said deponent was deprived of the use and possession of the same, and the 
said William Milligan and M. P. Mitchell did him the said deponent then and 
there greatly abuse and ill treat and then and there drew and presented a cocked 
pistol at the said deponent and threatened him, the said deponent then and 
there to shoot, kill and murder," &c. This affidavit winds up by claiming damages 
to the amount of $3,000. 

Upon the filing of this affidavit in the district court Clerk Inghram issued the 
following capias : 

"Wisconsin Territory, Louisa County, ss. 
The United States of America To the Sheriff of said County, Greeting: 

"You are hereby commanded to take William Milligan and Milton P. Mitchell 


if to be found within your county and them safely keep so 'that you have their 
bodies before the District Court of said County on the first day of the next term 
thereof to be begun and holden in and for said county in the Town of Wapello, 
on the first Thursday after the third Monday in September we set to answer unto 
Henry Thompson in a plea of Trespass to his damage three thousand dollars. 
Hereof fail not at your peril and have you then there this writ. Witness the 
Honorable David Irvin Judge of the Second Judicial District of the Territory of 
Wisconsin and sealed with the temporary seal of the said court, tiiis third day 

of July in the year of our Lord one thousand Eight hundred and thirty- 
(ss) seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the 


An order was made by Judge Irvin, dated July 4, 1837, fixing bail in this 
case at the sum of $500. The return of the sheriff on the capias is as follows: 
"By virtue of the within capias I have took the bodys of William Milligan and 
Milton P. Mitchell and took R. H. Slaughter and James Clark as bail for said 
Milligan's appearance at the court, 20th July, 1837, and M. P. Mitchell, 22d 
July, 1837, and Jeremiah Smith and John II. Benson as bail for M. P. Mitchell's 
appearance at court. 

For serving, each $1.00 $2.00 

Travel fee 62 y 2 

For taking bond IOO 

(Signed) Samuel Smith, Sheriff, 

L. Co. W. T." 

The records show the bonds referred to by the sheriff as bail and show also 
that subsequently subpoenas were issued for a number of witnesses, among 
them Philip B. Harrison, Christopher Shuck, Isaac Ramsey, George Clark Reed, 
Abigail Ramsey, Elias Keever, A. H. Lee, William L. Toole, Daniel Brewer, 
John W. Ferguson and several of the Rinearsons. This case was settled by an 
agreement dated May 3, 1838, whereby Henry Thompson withdrew and dis- 
missed the suit, and William Milligan agreed to pay the costs. 

Another suit that was brought soon after this one and settled on the same 
day was the case of Milligan against Harless. We may infer from it that Martin 
Harless had some connection with the suit of Thompson against Milligan, or 
with the events that led up to it, for it seems that on July 22d, 1837, William 
Milligan made affidavit before the clerk of the district court in an action of 
trespass on the case for slander, against Martin Harless, stating that Harless 
had falsely accused Milligan of forging the names of P. B. Harrison and Chris- 
topher Shuck, justices of the peace, to a writ called a writ of restitution. In 
this suit Milligan claimed $1,000 damages from Harless. Harless was taken 
in custody upon capias and gave bond in the sum of $300 with John Bevins and 
Thomas England as security. 


The subpoenas show that William Milligan had the following witnesses 
summoned: Hiram Smith, Isaac Ramsey, E. Chapman, Henry Johnson, Noah 
Parrish, Henry Brendle, Henry Slaughter and Richard Slaughter, while the 
defendant Harles's seems to have caused summons to be issued for Philip B. 
Harrison, Henry Warnstaff, Charles D. Gilliam, and also for Christopher Shuck, 
with his docket entry and all the papers belonging in the case of William Milli- 
gan against Henry Thompson in an action of "forcible entry and detainer." 
This case was settled on May 4, 1838, by each party paying his own costs. 

We learn from a suit between William H. Creighton and William H. Shuck 
that about April 1st, 1837, Mr. Creighton and James Wilson went after some 
meal and took it to the "slew," and that when Creighton proposed to take the 
meal across in a canoe, Shuck said to him that he could go through with the 
wagon and that if the meal was lost he would pay for it; that Shuck went in 
the slough and got stalled and that, in spite of all efforts of all three of the 
parties to save the meal, about thirty-five bushels of it was lost. Mr. Creighton 
first brought his suit before William Milligan, justice of the peace, and recov- 
ered judgment against Shuck for $45, with $6.05 costs. Mr. Shuck appealed 
to the district court. This appeal was dismissed on motion of Chapman & 
Grimes, attorneys for Creighton, which motion was based upon the following 
reasons: (1st) because there was no issue made up in court daily appearing 
upon the record; (2d) because it does not appear from the transcript which of 
the parties took the appeal. 

There were a great many indictments for assault and battery at the first 
term of court held in this county. One was against John Kern for an assault 
upon Joseph Carter in February, 1837. Another was against Thomas D. Kil- 
lough for an assault upon James Criswell in April, 1837. Another was against 
Isaac Parsons for assaulting our first school teacher, J. W. Ferguson, on July 
15, 1836. Another was against John Westfall for assaulting William Dupont 
in April, 1837. Another was against Joseph Carter for assaulting Riley Driskel. 
Another was against William Kennedy for assaulting James Irwin, December 
6, 1836. 

There was an indictment against John W. Ferguson for assaulting Samuel 
S. Gourley on February 25, 1837, and another against Samuel S. Gourley for 
assaulting John W. Ferguson on the same date. 

The indictments for assault and battery were all much alike ; we give one of 
them : 

"The grand jurors selected, tried and sworn in and for the body of the 
county aforesaid upon their oaths presented for Isaac Parsons of the county 
aforesaid on the 15th day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and thirty-six, with force and arms at the county aforesaid in and 
upon one J. W. Ferguson in the peace of God and the United States then and 
there being, did make an assault, and him the said J. W. Ferguson then and 
there did beat, bruise, wound and ill treat so that his life was greatly despaired 
of and other wrongs to the said J. W. Ferguson then and there did to the great 
damage of the said J. W. Ferguson, and against the peace of dignity of the 
United States of America and contrary to the said statute in such case made 
and provided and so the grand jurors aforesaid do say." 


Another case is an indictment against Orin Briggs, Robert Briggs and |. \\ . 
Ferguson, charging that on July 28, 1837. the)' "with force and arms, being 
unlawfully assembled together in a warlike manner did make an affray to the 
terror and disturbance of divers of the citizens, etc." 

Another case is that of Samuel Smith against Rufus P. Burlingame, attach- 
ment for the sum of $750, issued June 17, 1837. At this time Samuel Smith 
was sheriff and it was necessary to place the writ in the hands of the coroner for 
service. Mr. Burlingame was then in the mercantile business at the town of 
Iowa and it appears from the papers that his store goods were levied on and 
that these goods were appraised by Charles B. Field and William Guthrie at 
$2,913.76. The coroner also levied on two yoke of oxen, one chain, one large 
<>\ wagon which were appraised at $175. one cow and calf appraised at $30 
and also 2,000 rails and ten acres of "broke prairie" immediately west of the, 
adjoining town of Iowa appraised at -$61.25. Mr. Burlingame gave a delivery 
bond to the coroner for these goods, the bond being signed by Francis Blake, 
Jeremiah Smith and William Dupont. In May, 1838, the case seems to have. 
been settled and dismissed, each party paying half the costs. 

It appears that our first postmaster, C. A. Ballard, also was in litigation. 
On July 19, 1837. Ridgely & Billou, by Browning & Perrin. their attorneys, 
brought an action of assumpsit against him for $280. I. W. Woods represented 
Mr. Ballard and moved to quash the writ, (1st) because it was not made return- 
able to the district court but to the judge; (2d) because the writ was not in the 
name of the parties, but of a firm, and because it was not properly endorsed. 
This motion after "mature consideration," as the record shows, was sustained. 

We must not omit to mention a suit in which our first settler. Christopher 
Shuck was interested; it was the case of Christopher Shuck vs. Orin Briggs. 
This was a slander suit and was dismissed at the cost of defendant June 11. 
1839, as the records of the District Court show. A little paper filed in the County 
Recorder's office dated June 8. 1830. explains why the case was dismissed; it 
is as follows : 

"To the Public. Some time in March last through the influence of passion 
I, — in the presence of Several individuals made Several statements derogatory 
of the character of Christopher Shuck. Esqr., only for the purpose of irritating 
him — I stated he was a sheep thief, a horse thief &c &c which charge may do 
Mr. Shuck some injury abroad. To prevent which and to repair the injury done 
Mr. Shuck. I take this method of making it known that I do not know of any 
act of his that would warrant me in making the above charges — and as I before 
Mated I made them only for the purpose of irritating him." 

June 8. 1839. Orix Briggs. 

In the presence of 

Wm. Fleming. 
Albert Cadwf.ll. 

Another item in the Court records which will give us an insight into the 
habits of the pioneers is found in the probate record of the estate of S. S. Gourlev, 
one of the early settlers of the county. Tt shows that William Milligan filed a 


note for $25.00 against Mr. Gourley's estate, and that Edward II. Thomas was 
appointed by the Court to defend on behalf of the estate. The note was duly 
proven, and the consideration therefor was also duly proven, and the Court's 
finding, after stating the foregoing facts, is as follows: "It is adjudged by the 
Court that said consideration is a bad one." 

Enough interesting items could be found in the probate records alone to fill this 
volume, but we will content ourselves with giving the final entry made by our 
last probate Judge, .Merit Jamison, on August 5, 1851, it is as follows: "Court 
"Signed I." Intended, of course, for sine die. 

The District Court records show numberless reports made by the Grand Jury, 
most of which are strictly formal. For the past few years the Grand Jury have 
condemned our Count)- jail at least once a year and sometimes oftener. We think 
it worth while to give the report made at the October. 1865, term of the District 
Court, which is as follows: 

"Grand Jury Room. Wapello, Iowa, Oct. 26, 1865. 

To Hon. Francis Springer, Judge of the District Court of Louisa County, 
Iowa : 

The Grand Jury in the discharge of their duties have visited and examined 
the County Jail. The Jurors were gratified to find it tenantless, no persons being 
confined therein, which they consider a good argument in favor of the morals and 
law-abiding qualities of the citizens of the County. 

The Grand Jury after much patient investigation into the cases of liquor sell- 
ing have come to the conclusion, either that this pernicious traffic has nearly ceased 
(except for medical purposes) or else that there is a great deal of hard swearing 
done to shield the perpetrators. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

A. Gamble, 



Lest those who read this book should forget, we again refer to the fact that 
this publication consists of two volumes, one a Biographical and the other a 
Historical volume, and that the author of this Historical volume has had no con- 
nection with the Biographical volume. It is to be presumed that all the residents 
of the county at the present time who desired their biographies or the biographies 
of any of their friends or relatives in this work have made arrangements therefor 
with the publishers. The author has. however, in this Historical volume, inserted 
brief biographical notices of a few of our departed pioneers, because they are 
considered as representatives of the early pioneers, and because their sketches will 
not likely appear in the biographical volume 

As is well known, the first resident lawyers in the county were Francis 
Springer and Edward H. Thomas, who came here December 21, 1838. 

The next resident lawyer to settle here was Colonel John Bird, who came in 


Next came James Noffsinger, who was not much of a practitioner, but devoted 
his attention more to the newspaper business, having started the Louisa County 
Times in 1850. 

B. F. Wright came in 1853, from Indianapolis, Indiana. 

James S. Hurley came to the County in 1840. but came to Wapello as an at- 
torney in 1854. 

D. N. Sprague came in 1855, and Levi Chase came about the same time as 
Sprague, or perhaps a little earlier; we have not the exact date of his arrival. 

These five men. Bird, Wright, Hurley. Sprague and Chase gave Wapello 
a strong bar during the years of their activity. Sketches of Mr. Hurley and 
Mr. Sprague will be found in the chapter on Personal Mention ; we have not 
adequate material for writing sketches of the other three. 

Colonel Bird was not only an active man in the practice of law, but was a 
man of great public spirit, and took great interest in the promotion of any 
enterprise which promised well for Wapello. Both he and Mr. Hurley were 
instrumental in getting the B. C. R. & M. Railroad to Wapello. 

B. F. Wright was active at the bar for a great many years, and was nearly 
always in demand during his palmy days to assist in the defense of noted 
criminal cases, as well as to make public addresses. Mr. Wright was a member 
of Company G of the 19th Iowa, and came out of the war as second lieutenant. 

Colonel Bird organized Company F of the 19th Iowa and was its captain. 

Another prominent member of the Wapello liar who now lives in Utah, was 
E. W. Tatlock, who came here in 1869. 

In October. 1874, J. B. Wilson was admitted to practice, and for a long 
time (he firm of Tatlock & Wilson was well known in the legal circles of the 
county. Mr. Wilson is now practicing in Fredonia, Kansas. 

After John Hale retired from the Clerk's office he became a partner with 
James S. Hurley; a sketch of Mr. Hale will be found elsewhere. 

The present members of the Louisa County bar. are as follows: 

Columbus Junction: C. A. Carpenter; D. N. Johnson; F. M. Molsberry 
and E. B. Tucker. 

Morning Sun: Fred Courts and Guy J. Tomlinson. 

Wapello: Oscar Hale: W. H. Hurley; L. A. Reiley ; Arthur Springer; 
H. O. Weaver and C. M. Wright. 

We append herewith an alphabetical list of all the lawyers who have ever 
been resident practitioners in this county: Charles H. Abbott, John Bird, W. 

E. Blake. J. B. Brigham, R. C. Burchell. Charles Baldwin, C. A. Carpenter. 
Robert Caldwell, Levi Chase, Fred Courts, H. E. Curran, James M. Edwards, 
P. W. Forbes, F. E. Goble, W. H. Gray, W. P. Gregory, John Hale, Oscar Hale,- 
G. B. Haddock, James S. Hurley, W. H. Hurley, R. H. Hanna, K. O. Holmes, 
John Huff, A. W. Jarvis, D. N. Johnson, Jerry M. Limbocker, A. P. Limbocker, 

F. M. Molsberry, Perry McVey, James Noffsinger, Joseph L. Paschall, Royal 
Prentis, H. W. Perkins, L. A. Reiley, Francis Springer, D. N. Sprague, Frank 
Springer, Arthur Springer, E. W. Tatlock, E. H. Thomas, Guy J. Tomlinson, 
E. M. Timony, E. B. Tucker, James M. Virgin, H. O. Weaver, J. B. Wilson, 
G W. Watters, G. T. Whisler, B. F. Wright, A. M. Williams, C. M. Wright. 

We have included in this list the names of Hon. W. E. Blake of Burlington, 
and Hon. Frank Springer of Las Vegas, New Mexico, both of whom have 


attained great distinction in their profession, and both of whom were residents 
of the county at the time they were admitted to the bar, and both of them first 
began practice at Burlington, Mr. Blake as the partner of Judge Newman, and 
Mr. Springer as the partner of Hon. Henry Strong. 

For a short time there was a lawyer by the name of Dunlap at Burris City ; 
there was also a lawyer-editor by the name of Stafford connected with the 
"Burris Commercial," but his residence was New Boston most, if not all the 



Many of our early doctors have left no data from which to make adequate 
biographical sketches of them. One of the early doctors in the county was 
Reuben S. Searl. He lived at Harrison for a time. His wife was a sister of 
Levi Stephen. 

Another early doctor was John W. Brookbank, who, besides being a doctor, 
was something of a politician and represented this county in the first constitu- 
tional convention. He was a splendid man, and a fine doctor. 

Dr. Howey came to the county about this time and first settled in Harrison, 
and while he was there formed a partnership with Dr. Brookbank, the firm 
having offices both in Wapello and Harrison. Dr. Howey's first wife was a 
Delabar, who was buried in the Harrison cemetery. Dr. Howey next married 
a daughter of Joshua Marshall. His third wife was Miss McMahill. In his 
early years Dr. Howey was rather an active practitioner but later he abandoned 
the practice of medicine for the drug business. 

Another early doctor was Enoch K. Maxson, of Fredonia, who came here 
probably as early as 1840. He is said to have had quite an extensive practice 
in the forks of the river and east of there, and to have been quite popular in 
that section. He died early in the '40s. Dr. Samuel R. Isett of Cairo, was also 
an early doctor. 

The first doctor at Columbus City was James M. Robertson, who came there 
from Burlington and had been a wholesale and retail druggist at Burlington 
for a few years. Dr. Robertson's name figures extensively in the history of 
Columbus City. 

Other Columbus City doctors in those early years were: Dr. Skillman, B. G. 
Neal, W. M. Clark, W. A. Colton, John Overholt, and it is said that Dr. John 
Bell, Jr., was a resident of Columbus City for a very short time. In 1856 Colum- 
bus City boasted of seven doctors, whose names will be found in the history of 
that place. At a somewhat later date Dr. John Overholt came to Columbus 
City. One of the noted doctors of that place was Dr. W. S. Robertson, who was 
at one time captain of the Union Guards, was a major in the Union army, but 
resigned early in the war, because, as it is said, he was not appointed colonel 
of the Thirtieth Iowa, when Charles H. Abbott of this county received that 
position. Dr. Robertson became one of. the foremost doctors of the state, and 
was one of the organizers of the medical department of the State University 
and for a long time a member of its faculty. 

Drs. Clark and Colton kept a drug store at Columbus City. Dr. Colton was 
an active practitioner for some time. In 1858 he was elected county treasurer, 



being one of the few democrats elected in this count}- that year. He moved to 
Des Moines in 18(17. "here he continued in the drug business until 1876, when 
he came to Columbus Junction and was elected cashier of the Louisa County 
National Hank soon afterward, which position he held for a great many years. 
During his residence at Columbus Junction, he was elected a member of the 
eighteenth general assembly. lie was also one of the leading Masons of the 
county. Few men in the county have enjoyed to a greater degree the confidence 
and respect of the whole people than did Dr. Colton. 

Another of the doctors in the north end of the county before the war was 
Solomon Dill, who in 1859 was located at Altoona. which was the postoffice 
name for Hillsboro and Lafayette; Dr. Dill afterward lived at Fredonia for 
many vears. Dr. A. L. Baird lived at Ononwa in 1859. 

Manv of the Louisa county doctors are referred to in an excellent paper 
prepared by Dr. \Y. S. Grimes, of Wapello, and read at a recent meeting of the 
Louisa County Medical Society. "With Dr. Grimes' permission, we copy the 
article in full : 

"The Louisa 'County Medical Society was organized April 24, 1852. at 
Wapello, Iowa. It evidently is one of the pioneer county societies of the state, 
the State Medical Society having been organized and incorporated in 1861. At 
the first meeting of the society. Dr. J. M. Robertson, of Columbus City, was 
elected president ; Dr. T. G. Taylor, of Wapello, secretary ; Dr. J. B. Latta, of 
Grandview, treasurer. Drs. H. T. Cleaver, John Bell, Jr. of Wapello, and J. 
H. Graham, of Morning Sun, were appointed censors. At that meeting a con- 
stitution, by-laws and code of ethics were adopted. 

"It seems that the above named physicians were all that were in attendance 
at the time of organization. At the next meeting, January 19, 1853, Drs. H. 
Belknap, John Cleaves of Columbus City, and A. S. Condon were admitted to 
membership. Where the latter was located in the county I have been unable 
to learn. Dr. John Bell, Sr.. of Wapello, was admitted as an honorary member 
of the society. April 16, 1853. Dr. W. M. Clark, of Columbus City, was admitted 
at the same time. In January, 1854, Dr. B. G. Neal, of Columbus City, was 
admitted to membership. On January 3- 1855, the operation of removing a 
bar of lead from the stomach of L. W. Bates, was performed by Dr. John 
Bell. Jr.. assisted by Drs. J. M. Robertson. H. T. Cleaver, J. H. Graham and 
T. G. Taylor. This operation was performed at the home of the patient, a 
small cabin, six miles northwest of Wapello. A full report of the case was 
made by Dr. John Bell to the 'Boston Medical and Surgical Journal,' January 
19., i860, a reprint of which will be attached to this report. (This bar of lead 
is now in my possession). 

"May 2^,, 1855, Dr. W. A. Colton, of Columbus City, was admitted to 
membership, and on April 19, 1856, Dr. W. S. Robertson, of Columbus City was 
admitted to membership. Some years after this he was elected professor in the 
medical department of the Iowa State University, which position he held until 
the time of his death, which occurred in Muscatine, Iowa. 

"May 28, 1856, Dr. D. McCaughn, of Morning Sun, was admitted to mem- 
bership. There were no other accessions to the society until April 18. 1857. 
when Dr. John Muldoon, of Wapello, was admitted. July 17. 1858. Dr. C. H. 


Curtis (location unknown to me) was admitted to membership. April 20, 1861, 
Dr. S. E. Jones, of Grandview, was made a member. [Dr. Curtis died at Colum- 
bus City in 1859. — Editor.]. 

"November 16, 1864, Dr. I. C. Brown, of Columbus City, was admitted. 
November 15, 1865, Dr. J. F. Grimes, of Wapello (a brother of the writer), 
was admitted to membership. July 12, 1866, Dr. D. W. Overholt, then at 
Grandview, but later of Columbus Junction, was admitted. April 17, 1867, 
Drs. J. W. Holliday. then at Morning Sun, now located at Burlington, and 
O. E. Deeds, of Wapello, were made members. 

"April 18, 1 87 1, Drs. A. B. McCandless, of Columbus City, Frank Tustison, 
of Wapello, and B. G. Kimmel. of Winfield, were admitted. May 30, 1872, 
J. A. Thompson, of Cairo, and later of Letts, was admitted. April 19, 1873, 
W. S. Grimes, of Wapello, was made a member, and on May 15, 1873, Drs. 
H. Ochiltree and S. R. Spaulding, of Morning Sun, were admitted. 

"July 10, 1873, Drs. Thomas Blackstone, of Cairo, S. Dill, of Fredonia, and 
George P. Neal, of Columbus Junction, were admitted to membership. Novem- 
ber 13, 1873, Dr. N. W. Mountain, of Lettsville. was admitted. In April, 1874, 
Dr. J. A. Scroggs, of Grandview, was admitted to membership. Soon after he 
located in Muscatine and later in Keokuk, Iowa, where he accepted the chair 
of obstetrics in the Keokuk Medical College in 1882. He held this position 
until 1908, when the college was merged with Drake University. He died in 
Keokuk, August 2^, 1910. Dr. M. W. Lilly, of Grandview, now of Chicago, 
was admitted in 1875. 

"Dr. H. S. Rogers, of Grandview, joined the society in 1878, which mem- 
bership he held until his removal to Red Oak in 1885. Drs. D. J. Higley, of 
Grandview, and J. L. Overholt, of Columbus Junction, were admitted prior to 
1890, the exact date of which I have been unable to learn. 

"From 1887 to 1890 no meetings of the society were held. On April 26, 
1900, a meeting was held in Columbus Junction, when the following named 
physicians were admitted to membership : D. Y. Graham, W. R. Smyth. W. S. 
McClellan, of Morning Sun : J. H. Chittum, of Wapello ; J. W. and C. S. Clegg, 
of Columbus Junction ; and J. W. Morgan and S. J. Lewis, of Columbus City. 

"May 9. 1901, H. C. Brown, of Columbus Junction, J. H. Wallahan and E. 
A. Sailor, of Wapello, were admitted to membership. October 24. 1901, Dr. 
G. W. Armentrout, of Letts, was made a member, and on June 14, 1902, A. M. 
Cowden, of Grandview, was admitted. September 10, 1903, Drs. A. M. Rogers, 
O. G. Messenger, of Wapello, and R. C. Ditto, of Oakville, were admitted to 
membership. October 13, 1904. Drs. F. A. Hubbard and E. C. Rogers, of 
Columbus Junction, were admitted. The latter is now a resident of Wapello. 

"It is my belief that the following named physicians were at one time mem- 
bers of the society, but the records of the earlier meetings having been destroyed 
by fire, so I am unable to be definite. They were: Frank Graham, now of 
Atlantic, Iowa ; E. I. Hall, at one time a resident of Columbus Junction, after- 
ward moved south to Louisiana ; E. F. Latta, a son of J. B. Latta, of Grand- 
view, and formerly a partner with his father, later located at Unadilla, Nebraska, 
wdiere he died January 29, 1894. 

"So far as I have been able to ascertain, this included all who are or have 
been members of the society from its organization to the present time. For- 


merly the meetings were held quarterly and one day's program covered a broad 
field. To illustrate : At a meeting held April 19, 1856, the following members 
were appointed to give 'dissertations' at the next meeting, viz : Dr. J. M. Robert- 
son, 'On General Practice ;' Dr. T. G. Taylor, 'Obstetrics and Diseases of 
Women and Children ;' Dr. H. T. Cleaver, 'On Surgery ;' Dr. John Cleaves, 
'Pathological Anatomy ;' Dr. W. A. Colton, 'Materia Medica and Therapeutics.' 

"In those days the only means of transportation was private conveyance 
(there being no railroads in this part of the state). Hotel accommodations 
not being good, all were entertained at the home of a member, where the meet- 
ing was held. One pleasant feature was customary, for the wives to accompany 
their husbands and enjoy the hospitality of the host, which, I assure you, added 
interest as well as pleasure to the occasion. 

"All the original organizers of the society were living when I became a 
member. It was not only my privilege, but my pleasure, to become intimately 
acquainted with some of them, and some of whom I considered very dear 
friends. Joining the society one year before graduating from medical college, 
I was required to write a thesis on a subject selected by the society and pass 
examination before the board of censors. 

"Remembering my association with these medical pioneers, I wish to speak 
particularly of some of them, Dr. J. H. Graham being the oldest. He was born 
in Kentucky, April 22, 1823, and graduated from Ohio Medical College, March 
2, 1847. He practiced in Ohio for two years, when he came to Iowa, locating 
at Morning Sun, where he remained until 1869, when he moved to Grandview. 
After a few years he returned to Morning Sun and continued in practice until 
the time of his death, which occurred June 12, 1897. Thus, you see, for fifty 
years he remained in active practice of his chosen profession. Diagnosis was 
one of his strong points. He often said to me, 'When you have made a correct 
diagnosis, it will be very easy to apply the remedy.' He was also a severe critic, 
and for a time, until I became thoroughly acquainted with him, I thought him 
to be not only severe, but sarcastic. After I learned to know him, I found this 
was only outward, for beneath it all, his feelings were of the warmest, kindliest 
and most sympathetic. At the time of my admission to the society, he was one 
of the board of censors, and I assure you no question was left unasked ; no 
criticism unsaid, until I thought he surely 'had it in for me.' This feeling after- 
ward gave way to one of admiration, and I always am glad of an opportunity 
to meet him in consultation and ask his advice in difficult cases. I knew I 
would get an honest opinion, based upon his many years of experience. 

"Dr. T. G. Taylor, one of the original organizers of the society, was in 
active practice in Wapello for many years. He was a native of one of the 
Carolinas. I have no reliable information from which I can give his biography. 
It has been reported to me he was not a graduate of any medical college. His 
manner was very pleasant and affable, winning the confidence of his patients. 
He moved to Muscatine, where he continued in active practice until his death, 
which occurred in 1887 or 1888. 

"Dr. J. B. Latta, another of the organizers, and» a pioneer physician of Louisa 
•county, was born in Ohio, November 26, 1823. He graduated from Ohio Medi- 
cal College in 1849 and located at Grandview, Iowa. I was not as intimately 
acquainted with him as with some of the other old members, but knew him to 


be a very competent and successful physician and to have had an extensive 
practice for many years. He later moved to San Diego, California, where he 
died November 26, 1896. 

"Dr. Hiram T. Cleaver was born in Pennsylvania, February 17, 1822. While 
knowing him, I was never closely associated with him but obtained the follow- 
ing information from his daughter, Mrs. Dr. Scroggs: 'He graduated at New 
Lisbon, Ohio, in 1841. While in that institution his tutor in Greek and Latin 
was the famous Clement C. Vallandinghara, who became so prominent in the 
history of that section during the Civil war. He read medicine with Dr. T. 
Green at New Lisbon, with whom he remained for three years. He then formed 
a partnership with him and practiced there until 1848. He then moved to 
Wapello, Iowa, and practiced here until 1862. While here he served as state 
senator from 1854 to 1858. In 1862 he moved to Keokuk and assumed charge 
of the Estes House Government Hospital. In the same year he was granted 
a diploma from the College of Physicians & Surgeons, of Keokuk. While 
there be accepted the chair of obstetrics and gynecology in the college, which 
position he held until 1881. In 1878 he was one of five delegates from the 
American Medical Association sent to the British and Foreign Medical Asso- 
ciation held in Parte, England. He died in Las Yegas, New Mexico, January 
11, 1888.' 

"Dr. J. M. Robertson, of Columbus City, while a pioneer practitioner, was 
not a graduate of any medical college, so far as I can ascertain. He was still 
in active practice in the county when I joined the society, but it was never my 
pleasure to meet him. He was reported to have had a good practice and was a 
very successful physician. 

"Dr. John Bell, Jr., was one of the original members of the society. He prac- 
ticed medicine at Wapello for some years, when he removed to Davenport, where 
he remained several years, then moved to Dallas, Texas. He was a very suc- 
cessful practitioner. The operation which he performed — removing a bar of lead 
from Bates' stomach — showed him to be a daring and successful surgeon. This 
operation was performed before the days of antiseptics, and when very little 
abdominal surgery had been performed. I had the pleasure of meeting him but 
once during his life. He died in Dallas, Texas, some twenty-five years ago. 

"It would afford me pleasure to go down the line and speak of other pioneer 
members of the society with whom it was my pleasure to be acquainted. I 
feel I must make mention of Dr. B. G. Neal, who was located at Columbus 
City in 1848 or 1849. At that time he was not a graduate in medicine but in 
1856 received a diploma from Rush Medical College of Chicago. I have been 
reliablv informed he performed a "Caesarean Section" in the early '60s near 
Columbus City, the only time that operation was ever performed in the county, 
so far as I can learn. He died a few years ago at his home in Columbus Junc- 
tion, Iowa." 

Dr. Grimes might have claimed for the Louisa County Medical Society that it 
was the first county medical organization in Iowa, as this is undoubtedly the fact. 

Dr. B. G. Neal was a printer by trade, also, and, in the printing office of 
George Paul, at Iowa City set a great part of the type for the publication of 
the Code of 1851. 



The operation performed by Dr. John Bell. Jr.. of extracting a bar of lead 
from the stomach of L. W. Bates, which is referred to by Dr. Grimes in his 
paper, made Dr. Bell quite famous among the medical fraternity of the country. 
Dr. Bell wrote an account of this operation, which was originally published in 
the Iowa Medical & Surgical Journal, of April. 1855. and was republished in 
the Boston Medical & Surgical Journal, in January, i860. \Ye make the fol- 
lowing extracts from the article: "On Christmas clay. 1854, I was summoned to 
see L. W. Bates, aet. 32, who it was said, while performing the feat of running 
a bar of lead down his throat, had accidentally let it slip, so that it descended 
into his stomach; but before I left my office, he came in, followed by a crowd. 
I asked him if he bad swallowed a bar of lead. He said that he had and that it 
was nothing wonderful for him to do, as he had swallowed a number at previous 
times. This was said in a half waggish manner, and being to all appearances 
partially intoxicated and having withal a reputation of being an expert at juggling 
and sleight of hand. I supposed it to be one of his tricks, anil this opinion was 
strengthened from the fact that he seemed to be suffering no inconvenience. I 
believed it to be a hoax; but to satisfy myself further, I passed a sound down 
the aesophagus into the stomach but could discover nothing." 

Dr. Bell then relates in his article that Mr. Bates returned again in a little 
while, accompanied by Dr. Cleaver, and that after a brief consultation, he and Dr. 
Cleaver examined him but found no satisfactory evidence of the bar of lead 
being there. They told Bates to go about his business and if it troubled him 
any to let them know. It seems that Bates went to work and worked for about 
four davs, and becoming unwell, sent for Dr. Robertson, of Columbus City, 
and the latter sent for a number of outside physicians to meet him at the patient's 
home, which was about six miles from Wapello. Drs. Bell, Taylor and Cleaver, 
from Wapello, Drs. Robertson and Xeal from Columbus City were there, as well 
as Dr. Graham, and Dr. Crawford. This was on January 1st. These doctors 
were unable to convince themselves that there was any bar of lead in Bates' 
stomach, but they prescribed treatment for him and awaited results. Dr. Bell 
was called again the next day and found the patient in great suffering, and vomit- 
ing a dark watery fluid. An examination then convinced the doctors that he had 
in fact swallowed the bar of lead. On January 3d. Dr. Bell performed the oper- 
ation in the presence of Drs. Robertson, Cleaver, Graham and Taylor. The 
operation is thus described by Dr. Bell in the paper referred to: 

"The patient having been properly placed and secured, chloroform was ad- 
ministered. It produced, at first, some nausea, and he threw up a quantity of 
black, foetid, waterv fluid. As soon as insensibility ensued. I made an incision 
from the point of the second false rib to the umbilicus, dividing the skin and the 
cellular membrane ; thence through the abdominal muscles to the peritoneum, 
which 1 laid hare the whole length of the incision. 1 then made a minute opening 
at the lower end of the section, through the peritoneum, passed in the director, 
and with a probe-pointed bistoury divided it through the entire length of the 
incision. The division of the peritoneum produced a spasmodic contraction of 
the muscles of the abdomen, and a large quantity of the omentum and bowels 
was ejected from the orifice. Increasing the chloroform controlled the spasm. 


and I replaced the bowels as speedily as possible, and passed my hand inward 
and upward through the incision, grasped the stomach and immediately discov- 
ered the bar of lead and its position. It lay in a direction from right to left, 
the upper end resting against the wall of the stomach to the right of the cardiac 
orifice; the lower end in the greater curvature of the stomach, to the left of and 
below the pylorus. As it was impracticable to reach the upper end. I seized the 
bar between my thumb and middle finger, and with the fore finger on the lower 
end of it, I retracted it upward and backward for the purpose of making the 
incision in the stomach as high up as possible. I then passed a scalpel in, along 
the sides of the fore finger as a director, and divided the coats of the stomach 
immediately at the end of the bar, making the incision parallel with the muscular 
fibres, and not larger than to admit of the removal of the lead. I then introduced 
a pair of long forceps, seized and drew out the lead, and placed the stomach in 
its natural position. The external orifice was closed with the ordinary interrupted 
suture and adhesive straps, a compress applied, and a roller around the body. The 
time occupied in operating was twenty minutes." 

Dr. Bell's article then gives a medical history of the case subsequent to the 
operation, from which it seems that the patient was discharged as cured on 
Wednesday, Tanuary 17th. This operation is considered one of the most re- 
markable ever performed. The editor of the Boston Medical & Surgical Journal 
says of it : "We believe this extraordinary case to be wholly unique in the an- 
nals of medicine." 

The original bar of lead is now in possession of Dr. W. S. Grimes, and at 
a recent meting of the railway surgeons held in Denver, Dr. Grimes, in response 
to numerous requests, took the bar of lead there and exhibited it, and read Dr. 
Bell's report of the case. 

Not long after the operation. Bates went to Kansas and soon got into some 
sort of trouble there. We have no authentic history of him but in the Columbus 
City Enterprise it was stated in 1859 that a report had come from Kansas that 
Bates had been hung there for horse stealing. This is certainly a mistake, as 
Bates was seen by N. W. ("B") McKay in the Missouri Penitentiary in 1861. At 
that time Mr. McKay was on guard duty, and recognized Bates. 

We may add to Dr. Grimes' notice of Dr. Bell that he taught school in Des 
Moines county in the winter of 1854-5; that he was one of the original mem- 
bers of the Iowa State Medical Society ; that he was one of the leading demo- 
crats of the county in his clay, having been at one time their candidate for State 
Senator. Tradition says that at the time Dr. Bell performed his famous opera- 
tion, the other doctors present were quite certain that even if the bar of lead could 
be located and extracted, the patient could not recover ; and some of them were a 
little nervous at the thought of possible criminal prosecution. Dr. Bell graduated 
from the Missouri Medical College at St. Louis, first practiced at Palmyra, Ohio; 
then, in 1837, located at Mt. Pleasant. Iowa, and a little later at Columbus City, 
and settled in Wapello about 1844. 

Dr. William H. Darrow deserves special mention. He was an early settler, 
having come to Columbus City with his father and other members of the family 
some years prior to 1850. He was born in Summit County, Ohio, August 17, 
1838, his father being George Darrow, who, after settling at Columbus City, en- 


gaged in the timber business and at one time had a saw mill on the Iowa river 
about twelve miles north of Columbus City. 

In 1 85 1, when only thirteen, William entered the drug store of Clark & Coi- 
ton, at Columbus City, where he earned and saved enough to take him through 
the Keokuk Medical College, at which he graduated in February, 1859. lie at 
once hung out his shingle at Columbus City. At that time there was probably a 
surplus of medical talent there, for we find our young doctor, a little later, en- 
gaged in the grocery business. When Captain John L. Grubb. of Columbus City, 
got up Company "C" of the 5th Iowa, Dr. Darrow enlisted as a private in that 
company. This was on July 1st, 1861. He was mustered into service Julv 16th, 
1861, and was, about this time, appointed Hospital Steward. On April 30, 1862, 
he was promoted "Additional Assistant Surgeon," and on September 16, 1862, 
he was made Assistant Surgeon, which position he held until he was mustered 
out, at Chattanooga, Tenn., July 30, 1864. his term of service having expired. 
After his return from the army he practiced medicine at Cairo, in this county, 
until 1872, when he moved to Columbus Junction, becoming not merely one of 
its pioneer business men, but also one of its most useful and successful citizens, 
In 1875, in addition to his medical practice, he engaged in the drug business,, 
forming a partnership with Mr. G. A. Salmon, which continued for a great 

many years. Dr. Darrow first married Miss Clark, a sister of Dr. 

William M. Clark, one of his first employers. This was net a happy marriage. 

In 1872, he married Miss Emily Frances Weaver, of Marshall Township, 
and she, with their son. John Donald Darrow, still reside at Columbus Junction, 
at which place Dr. Darrow died, Sunday, July 15th, 1894. 

The sterling qualities of manhood possessed by Dr. Darrow are well at- 
tested by the affection which the soldiers of the 5th Iowa always had for him, 
and which led them, on one occasion, to present him with a case of surgical 
instruments "as a small token of esteem and regard for the unwearied care and 
great skill with which he treated them when sick and wounded at New Madrid, 
Tiptonville, Fort Pillow, Corinth, Iuka, Yazoo Pass, Raymond, Jackson, Cham- 
pion Hill, Yicksburg, and Missionary Ridge." And so long as he continued in 
practice, he exercised the same "unwearied care and great skill," and his patients 
had much the same regard for him as did his army comrades. 

Ignatius C. Brown, M. D., of Columbus Junction, la, was born in Roane 
County, Tenn., May 10, 1835, and was a son of the Rev. Thomas and Jane (Mc- 
Dowell Patton ) Brown. His parents were born in Virginia, and were of Scotcli- 
Irish descent. Ignatius was educated at Maryville College, at Maryville, Tenn.. 
and pursued his medical course at the Jefferson Medical College of Philadelphia, 
Pa., being graduated in the class of '61. He began practice in Eastern Tennessee, 
at a place called Philadelphia, and in the spring of 1863 removed to Danville, 
Ind., where he remained one year, after which he became a resident of Columbus 
( ity, la., where he pursued the practice of his profession for a term of two 
years. He next established himself at Clifton, then a thriving station on the 
Chicago Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, in Louisa County, since abandoned. Dr. 
Brown was the first established physician at that point, where he remained in 
practice until 1876, and then removed to Columbus Junction, where he was in 
successful practice up t<> the time of his death. At Danville. Ind., in the month 


of January, 18(14, the Doctor was united in marriage with Miss Ruth A. Ham- 
let, who was born at Danville, and was the daughter of William Hamlet, Esq. 
Dr. Brown died March 21st, 1900, and Mrs. Brown died October 18th, 1909. 

Dr. Brown was one of the best educated physicians we ever had, and was 
often called in consultation by the other doctors of the county. He was well 
informed on general subjects, and, because of his modesty and genial disposi- 
tion, was a general favorite. He never "dissected" the characters of his profes- 
sional brethren. 

Another Louisa County doctor who deserves special mention was Frank 
Tustison. He was born January 25, 1837, in Crawford County, Ohio. His 
father's name was Charles Tustison and was a native of Pennsylvania. The Tus- 
tison family lived for a while in Defiance County, Ohio, and later in Edgar 
County, 111. Dr. Tustison studied medicine under the direction of Dr. Hull, a 
prominent physician of Newville, Ind., where Dr. Tustison had attended school. 
Dr. Tustison graduated at the Keokuk Medical College in 1864. He practised 
medicine at Ainsworth in Washington county, Iowa, until 1871, when he moved 
to Wapello, and later in 1874, formed a partnership with Dr. W. S. Grimes 
under the firm name of Tustison & Grimes. Dr. Tustison was married three 
times, his last marriage being August, 1880, when he married Miss Sophia Hook, 
daughter of George W. Hook, a prominent settler in Jefferson township. Dr. 
Tustison died in Wapello in the fall of 1900. He was one of the ablest and 
most successful physicians who ever practised in Louisa County, and had the 
respect and good will of all who knew him. 

The doctors in Louisa County at present are: W. S. Grimes, Wapello; J. II. 
Chittum, Wapello; E. C. Rogers, Wapello; F. L. Darrow, Columbus Junction; 
J. L. Overholt, Columbus Junction; F. A. Hubbard, Columbus Junction; M. 11. 
Summers, Columbus Junction ; J. W. Pence, Columbus Junction ; D. Y. Graham, 
Morning Sun; W. R. Smyth, Morning Sun; W. S. McClellan, Morning Sun; 
S. J. Lewis, Columbus City; R. C. Ditto, Oakville; C. B. Childs, Oakville; D. J. 
Higlev. Grandview; J. C. Armentrout. Lettsville ; T. L. Eland. Lettsville. 




8. K. HELM UK 


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One of the pioneers who deserves more than a passing notice in this history 
is Wright Williams, the first county judge of the county, whose picture we have 
been fortunate enough to get. Mr. Williams was born in Crawford county, 
Indiana. He came to this county in 1836 and took high rank from the very 
first among those who were entrusted with its important public affairs. He was 
elected county commissioner soon a-fter the formation of Iowa territory and held 
the office from 1839 to September 30. 1844. When the first convention for the 
purpose of a state constitution was elected, Louisa county had three members. 
This was in 1844 and Wright Williams was chosen as one of the delegates from 
this county to that body. Again, after the territory of Iowa was admitted as a 
state in 1846, Wright Williams was chosen to represent the county in the first 
legislative assembly and again to represent it in the second legislative assembly. 
Later, when the governing body of county affairs was changed from a board of 
commissioners to a county judge in 185 1, Wright Williams was by common con- 
sent regarded as the best and safest man in the county with which to inaugurate 
that system, although there were several other aspirants for the place. He held 
this office until his death, November 21, 1854. 

The respect in which Air. Williams was held at that day may be better gath- 
ered from the following article taken from the newspaper of that time than in 
any other way. In the Wapello Intelligencer of November 12, 1854, are found 
the proceedings of the merchants of Columbus City, held November 22d, at the 
counting room of Wesley W. Garner, for the purpose of testifying their respect 
for the memory of Hon. Wright Williams. At this meeting the following res- 
olutions were adopted : 

''Resolved, That our places of business be closed this day at two o'clock, and 
we attend the funeral. 

"Resolved, That we condole in the most heartfelt sincerity with his afflicted 
family, and that Messrs. E. S. Bert. H. R. Moore and Thomas Simpson be ap- 
pointed a committee to transmit the resolutions to them. 

"Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be published in the Wapello 
Intelligencer at Wapello, Iowa, and the Telegraph at Burlington, Iowa." 

The following obituary notice of Mr. Williams appeared in the same paper, 
December 19, 1854: 

"Died at his residence in Wapello, on the 21st inst.. of congestion of the 
bowels, Wright Williams, in the fiftieth year of his age. The death of such a 



man as Mr. Williams deserves more than passing notice. He had been a resident 
of this county for some sixteen years. During that period it was the good for- 
tune of the writer of this to share his acquaintance and friendship. Few have 
lived among us in that time to whom his name and fame have not been familiar. 
Few men have enjoyed more largely the confidence of the people — always 
agreeable in his intercourse with his fellowmen, he had the happy gift of a dis- 
criminating mind, a sound and intelligent judgment and an honest heart. His 
excellent business qualifications enabled him to perform the duties of the various 
offices he held in such a manner as to justify their choice. His first appearance 
in the county seems to have pointed him out as a fit recipient of public trust. 
Accordingly we find him as early as 1839 elected a member of the board of 
county commissioners in company with William Milligan and Israel L. Clark. 
Serving with credit in that capacity, we find him next, in 1854, after an animated 
canvass against strong competition, returned with W. L. Toole and the lamented 
Dr. Brookbank. a member of the first convention, for the formation of a con- 
stitution and state government. We next find him, in 1846, elected a member 
of the house of representatives, to which place, after serving two sessions, he 
is re-elected in 1848. Lastly, upon the going into operation of the new code, by 
the provisions of which the old board of county commissioners was abolished, 
its powers vested in a single person, we find him in 1851, elected to the re- 
sponsible post of county judge, which office he held up to the time of his de- 
cease. The difficult and arduous duties of this office he discharged with ability 
and to the general satisfaction of his constituents. When this can be said with 
truth of a man who has had to pass upon for two years and a half the various, 
difficult and delicate questions which belong to the county court, it will be con- 
sidered as praise enough." 

William Kennedy took an important part in the early public affairs of the 
county. He was one among the very earliest permanent settlers, having come 
here probably in April, 1836. He was born in Butler county, Ohio, December 
23, 1809. His early education was rather limited, his time being passed mostly 
among the frontier settlements. In 1837, at a time when Louisa county, under 
the law, constituted but one township, Mr. Kennedy was elected township clerk, 
an office which at that time was nearly as important as if it had been called 
county clerk. Mr. Kennedy settled in Port Louisa township, where he con- 
tinued to reside up to the time of his death. While he w^as always a farmer, he 
started, in 1838. what is said to have been the first mill established in the county, 
and he continued to conduct this enterprise for several years. Mr. Kennedy was 
a strong whig and later a strong republican, and was a member of the United 
Presbyterian church. 

\\ illiam L. Toole was born in Yirginia. April 6, 1803, his ancestors having 
come originally from England, and having been among the earliest settlers of 
Virginia. The father and Mr. Toole, with all the family, moved from Yirginia 
to Indiana in 1822 and settled near Lafayette in that state. In 1836 William L. 
Toole came to this county and located near the mouth of The Iowa river. He 


was one of the most prominent figures in the early history of the county, having 
served in many important public positions. He was elected a member of the 
first board of county commissioners in 1838 while this county was still in the 
territory of Wisconsin. He was also elected to the first territorial house of rep- 
resentatives for the territory of Iowa in 1838 and also to the house of the third 
territorial assembly in 1840, and to the fourth in 1841. He was likewise one of 
the Louisa county delegates to the constitutional convention in 1844. It is 
greatly to be regretted that no adequate biography of Mr. Toole has ever been 
published and that the material therefor is not now obtainable. One of the most 
signal and important services which Mr. Toole did for the county was to write 
a series of articles for the Iowa Historical Record, in which he gave the best 
account we have been able to find of the early history and early settlement of 
the county. 

Andrew Gamble was born in Belmont county, Ohio, August 1, 1816. His 
father died when Andrew was but eight years of age and in consequence he 
was thrown upon his own resources at a very early age. After getting what 
education he could, as best he could, he taught school for a few years and then 
moved to Union county, Indiana, where he was elected sheriff in 1845. Soon after 
this he came to Louisa county, where he engaged in farming in what is now 
Union township. Mr. Gamble was a man who quickly impressed himself upon 
those associated with him as being a man of keen discernment and rugged hon- 
esty. He soon became quite well known in the county, and in 1850 was elected 
a member of the third legislative assembly of the state. In 1854 he moved 
from Louisa county to Illinois but after a short stay there, returned to Col- 
umbus City, where he went into the grocery business and also served occa- 
sionallv as justice of the peace. During his residence in Columbus City, Mr. 
Gamble edited the Columbus City Courier for a short time. This was in 1856. 
In our article on Columbus City we have copied the salutatory editorial written 
by Mr. Gamble and would commend the perusal of it to all who would under- 
stand* the frankness and sincerity of this worthy pioneer. Mr. Gamble spent 
his remaining days in Columbus City, although from 1872 until his death, he was 
closely identified with the business interests of Columbus Junction. When the 
Louisa County National Bank was organized at Columbus Junction, Mr. Gamble 
was made its first president and held that position up to the time of his death. 
Mr. Gamble had much to do both as a private citizen and as a member of the 
board of supervisors with the settlement of the Air Line railroad bond troubles 
and it is quite certain that if the people had given more heed to his advice at 
the time the controversy first arose, the county would have saved many thou- 
sands of dollars, and the payment of what was paid, would have been much easier 
by being extended over a longer period of time. 

George F. Thomas was born in Chester county, Pennsylvania, in 1816, and 
came to this county in 1838, settling in Wapello. His grandfather, Michael Fink, 
served with General Washington in many of the battles of the Revolutionary 


war. Mr. Thomas began his life work as a merchant tailor at the age of nine- 
teen, and continued that occupation for a number of years after he came to this 
county. In 1839 he was elected treasurer of the county and held that office 
under repeated re-elections until 184(1. He also held the office of justice of the 
peace in Wapello township for five or six years. In 1862 President Lincoln 
appointed him postmaster at Wapello and he served the people in that capacity 
so faithfully that he continued to hold the office until 1885. In 1837 Mr. 
Thomas married Elizabeth K. M'intun, who was a native of Ohio, and a daughter 
of Jacob Mintun, one of the early settlers of this county. Airs. Thomas died in 
1805. Mr. Thomas was a whig for a great many years and became a member 
of the republican party on its first organization. He became a member of the 
Methodist church at a very early age and always took a great interest in the work 
of the church and the Sabbath school. 

Edward H. Thomas. The first resident lawyers in this county settled in 
Wapello in December, 1838. They were Edward H. Thomas and Francis 
Springer, who came here together from Portland, Maine, where Mr. Thomas was 
born in 1813. He studied law in the office of Stephen Longfellow, father of the 
poet Longfellow, and was admitted to the bar in 1835. He resided in Louisa 
county, in Wapello, for something like twenty vears and afterward lived in Des 
Moines county for seven or eight years. Later he returned to Portland, where he 
spent the remainder of his days. .Mr. Thomas was a man of wide reading and 
fine education, and was an accomplished lawyer. In 1854 he was appointed by 
Governor Chambers district attorney for the judicial district in which Louisa 
county belonged, and held that position for two vears. He was married in 1855 
to Miss Charlotte A. Dubois. They had two sons. Edward and Charles. Mrs. 
Thomas died in Burlington, December 28, 1861, and soon afterward Mr. Thomas 
removed to Portland, Maine. Mr. Thomas was honored and respected by all the 
early settlers. They called him "Lawyer Tom." For many vears before hi-- death 
Mr. Thomas was doubly afflicted by the entire loss of his eyesight and the partial 
loss of his hearing, but he bore his misfortune like a philosopher and nearly al- 
ways appeared to be in good spirits. He never forgot his early days and early 
friends in this county and frequently sent a letter or a poem to be read at the old 
settlers' meetings. 

John Deihl came to Louisa county from Franklin county. Pennsylvania, in 
1836. At the same time, another pioneer, Philip IS. Harrison, came to the county 
from Pennsylvania and these two men became partners in a number of enter- 
prises. They bought or entered considerable land in and about the old town of 
Florence. Mr. Deihl was a storekeeper at Florence for six or seven years. 
I Ie was the first and only postmaster at Florence, having been appointed to that 
office. July 5, 1839. and served until February n. 1846 when the postoffice there 
was discontinued. Mr. Deihl was also a member of the board of county com- 
missioners in 1841, 1842 and 1843. He was also a member of the board of super- 
visors in 1867 and 1868. This was the board that was taken to Des Moines by 


the United States marshal for failing to levy an Air Line bond tax. Air. Deihl 
made no pretenses to learning but was a man of more than ordinary ability, and 
of most excellent judgment in regard to business affairs. He was thoroughly 
honest, frank and outspoken and had no patience with pretenses or shams of 
any kind. In his early manhood he was a strong supporter of the whig party 
and naturally became one of the leading members of the republican partv from 
the time of its organization. 

One of the pioneers who had much to do with the early history of the county 
and the territory was John Ronalds, who was born in Caledonia county, Vermont, 
July 12, 1799, and died in this county, March 23, 1873. Before coming to Iowa, 
Mr. Ronalds lived in Indiana and Illinois, settling in the latter state in 1830, at a 
place then called White's Landing, but afterward called Commerce, and later 
named Nauvoo. While living in Illinois, Mr. Ronalds was appointed a lieutenant 
and saw some service at the time of the Black Hawk war, but his command was 
engaged in guarding some of the settlements and did not participate in any of 
the battles. Mr. Ronalds with his family came to Louisa county in 1836, crossing 
from New Boston. Mr. Ronalds was a member of the first county board, called 
the board of supervisors, which was elected in 1837. He was also a member of 
the constitutional convention, which framed the constitution of 1846. He was 
also appointed by Governor Lucas as a colonel in the territorial militia. We give 
in connection with this sketch facsimile copies of both Mr. Ronalds' military 
commissions. It will be noticed that the Illinois commission has made a mistake 
in giving the name "Reynolds" instead of "Ronalds." 

Mr. Ronalds was also for many years justice of the peace, having been first 
appointed in 1838. Mr. Ronalds was a public-spirited man of exemplarv charac- 
ter and took an active interest in public affairs and the public welfare up to the 
time of his death. He was elected by the Iowa territorial legislature in 1839, as 
one of the commissioners to locate the capital of the territory, and for that reason 
a brief history of the location of the capital will be of especial interest to Louisa 
county people. The first act on this subject was entitled "An act to locate the 
seat of government of the territory of Iowa, and for other purposes," approved 
January 21, 1839, and provided that the legislative assembly should meet at Bur- 
lington until by proclamation of the governor the public buildings at the perma- 
nent seat of government should be declared ready for its reception ; and that three 
commissioners, consisting of one person from each judicial district of the terri- 
tory should be appointed by joint ballot of the council and house of representa- 
tives to locate and establish a permanent seat of government. The act also pro- 
vided that such commissioners, or a majority of them, should, on the first day of 
May meet at Napoleon and proceed to locate the seat of government at the most 
eligible point in Johnson county; that they should agree upon a plan and issue 
proposals for the erection of the necessary public buildings ; and that they should 
agree upon one of their board to be acting commissioner, whose duty should be 
to superintend in person the rearing and finishing of the buildings. 

Provision was also made for the employment of competent surveyors and other 
necessary labor, and the laying out of six hundred and forty acres in lots, streets, 


A supplementary act provided that so soon as the place should be selected and 
the consent of the United States obtained, the commissioners should proceed to 
lay out a town to be called Iowa City. This act also provided for the sale of lots 
and named the three commissioners, Chauncey Swan, John Ronalds and Robert 
Ralston, who were to locate the seat of government and superintend the erection 
of the buildings. 

On March 3, 1839, an act of congress was approved, making a donation of 
one section of land to the territory of Iowa for the purpose of erecting public 
buildings thereon. As we have already seen, the act of the territorial legislature 
provided that the commissioners to locate the seat of government should meet 
May 1st, 1839. When that day arrived, Chauncey Swan, of Dubuque county, 
was the only commissioner present. About noon he mounted a dry-goods box 
and made a short speech to the crowd present. He said that the act of the legis- 
lature directed the commissioners to meet at Napoleon on the 1st day of May, 
and that should a majority of them fail to meet there on that day, their actions 
would be null and void. Mr. Swan then called for a volunteer to undertake to 
bring another commissioner to Napoleon before midnight. A man named Philip 
Clark volunteered this service and started for John Ronalds, of Louisa county, 
the nearest commissioner, who resided thirty-five miles from Napoleon. We 
quote the conclusions of this matter from Dr. Shambaugh's "Iowa City," from 
which we have abbreviated what proceeds in reference to the same subject : 

"Henry Felkner, who was among the anxious crowd at Napoleon on that 
memorable May day, continues the narrative as follows: 'Of course there was 
much anxiety lest the effort should prove a failure. Fears were entertained that 
( John) Ronalds might not be at home, or not disposed to come, or that he could 
not reach the place in time. But these were all idle fears, for as soon as (Philip) 
Clark told him the situation he got ready at once and they started with the deter- 
mination to reach their destination in time. While they were going at their best 
speed the watchers at Napoleon had their doubts and their fears, and as it began 
to draw on towards midnight, and no tidings, their fears began to give way to 
despair. (Chauncey) Swan often consulted his watch and then would send some 
one out to listen. But no sound could be heard. This was repeated frequently, 
until at last the sound of horses' hoofs were heard in the distance, approaching 
rapidly. They did not slack up until they had arrived at the place of meeting. 
And when the riders dismounted and went in (Chauncey) Swan again consulted 
his watch and found that it was just five minutes to twelve o'clock.' Robert 
Walker, a justice of the peace, was on hand to administer the oath, which was 
signed by the commissioners and the date 'May 1st, 1839,' thereunto affixed. It 
has, however, been shrewdly intimated by one present that perhaps the hands of 
Mr. Swan's watch were turned back that night; 'for it was noticed that from 
midnight to sunrise were the shortest six hours on record.' It is not improbable 
that Mr. Swan did either stop his watch or turn back its hands ; for it is difficult 
to understand how a man on horseback could travel seventy miles in twelve hours 
over such roads as existed in the territory at that time. 

"On the morning of May 2d the two commissioners, Chauncey Swan and 
John Ronalds, 'proceeded to examine the county of Johnson with a view to select 
the most eligible point for said location.' They did some preliminary surveying. 
The location was finally made on Section Ten, Township Seventy-nine North, 


Range Six West of the Fifth Principal Meridian, on the 4th day of May, one 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-nine. The site was indicated by a post or slab, 
driven in the ground about where the old capitol building now stands, bearing 
the following inscription : 


City of Iowa. 

May 4th. 1839. 
C. Swan, 
John Ronalds, 
Robt. Ralston, 


Geo. W. Kelly. 

J. H. McKenny, Des Moines. 

J. W. Isett, Louisa. 

J. Dillon, Dubuque. 

sec. 10, t. 79, r. C\ w. 5TII MER. 

"Robert Ralston, of Des Moines county, the commissioner, who did not appear 
at the meeting on the 1st of May, arrived at Napoleon on the 6th of May and 
agreed to the proceedings of the majority of the commissioners. On the "th day 
of May, Chauncey Swan was appointed by the board 'Acting Commissioner' to 
superintend in person the affairs in connection with the seat of government." 

On June 27, 1839, the board of locating commissioners ordered that Thomas 
Cox and John Frierson should be employed to survey Iowa City, and L. Judson 
to draw the necessary plans, and these men, under the supervision of Acting 
Commissioner Swan, commenced their work on the 1st of July. The second sur- 
vey, however, was suspended for a Fourth of July celebration. A tall young 
oak tree, standing on the spot now occupied by the capitol building, was stripped 
of its branches and made a flagpole and the American flag was placed at the top 
of it. There was an old-fashioned picnic dinner, after which toasts were offered 
and responded to and the Declaration of Independence was read. The oration 
of the day was by John Frierson, and he is said to have delivered his oration 
standing in a wagon, with one foot elevated upon a barrel of Cincinnati whiskey, 
and while history makes no mention of the quality of the whiskey, it does say 
that the oration was a good one. After the celebration, the work of surveying 
the town was pushed forward rapidly. At the southeast corner of the section a 
monument of rough gray limestone was erected as a permanent lankmark. This 
monument is still to be seen on Summit street in Iowa City. There are two in- 
scriptions upon it. The inscription on the side facing the east reads : 

"M. Vanburen 


R. Lucas 



The inscription on the side facing the west reads : 

"Iowa City 

The Capital of 

Iowa Territory 

as situated on 

Section N° 10. 

Township 79 X. R. 

6 W of the 5th I" M 


May 4th 1S39 

By Mess rs 

Chauncey Swan 

John Ronalds 


Robert Ralston 

Comm rs & Surveyed 

B Mess rs 

Cox Frierson & Judson 

under the direction of 

C. Swan, Act R Com." 

One of the streets of Iowa City running east and west was named after Mr. 

It is proper to say that this name is sometimes written Ronald, but we prefer 
to use the spelling that was common at the time Mr. Ronalds was in active public 

John Hale was born in Greene county, Ohio. August 8. 1825. and died on 
Thanksgiving day, November 25, 1909. His parents were John and Asenath 
(Searl) Hale. His father was a native of Bedford county, Yirginia, and a car- 
penter by trade. In 1835 the family moved to Putnam county, Illinois, and after- 
ward lived in the counties now known as Bureau and Marshall. John Hale came 
to this county September 29. 1839, when he was but fourteen years of age, and 
his father's family followed in about three months. The only school in the town- 
ship was at Toolesboro, and it was some years. before any other existed there. 
During his first four years of life in Jefferson township, Mr. Hale managed to 
attend school at Toolesboro about two weeks. The rest of the time he worked 
at whatever he could get to do in the way of carpenter work. His teacher while 
at Toolesboro was Rev. Fisk, a Presbyterian preacher, who taught, worked in 
the garden, helped the farmers on week days and preached on Sundays. John 
Hale soon became an expert with the carpenter's tools and as his father was 
rather a sickly man. John had the greater share in the support of the family. 
even when he was but fourteen or fifteen years of age. A little later he attended 
a six weeks' term of school at Harrison. He boarded with Albert O. Stickney, 
the father of Mrs. Calista E. Carpenter, and he paid his board in work, but the 
work was done for Dr. Austin at Toolesboro in the following summer. At that 


time Austin was operating a distillery at Toolesboro and John Hale was doing 
some work there, when Air. Stickney came from Harrison with an empty barrel 
in his wagon. Mr. Stickney had a big held of wheat to cut and in those days 
people thought they could not harvest without plenty of whiskey. The barrel 
was filled and John Hale paid for his board by paying for the whiskey. This 
seems strange now, but was nothing unusual at the time. Mr. Hale's father 
died in 1845, leaving him the head of the family. On July 2, 1848, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Esther Palmer, a daughter of Nathaniel D. Palmer. This Mrs. Hale 
died in 1863, leaving four children: Lydia, now Mrs. C. P. Lacey, of Wapello; 
Izola, who died December 25. 1905 ; Rush, who died at Yillisca, Iowa, about 
1902; and Lauren, whose home is in Kansas. On March 1st. 1866, Mr. Hale 
was again married to Miss Clara Rhodes, of Kossuth, who was a daughter of 
Grafton Rhodes, an early pioneer of Des Moines county. Six children were 
born to this union, two of whom died in infancy. Jay, a son, who was a soldier 
in the Philippine war, died about nine years ago in Kansas. Hal, another son, 
who married Miss Franc MacFarland, died in Fredonia, Kansas, about seven 
years ago. Oscar, a son, and Nellie, a daughter, still live in Wapello. 

John Hale enjoyed to a remarkable extent the respect and confidence of neigh- 
bors and acquaintances. He was a school teacher, township clerk, justice of the 
peace, assessor, school director and secretary of the school board. In 1856 he was 
elected clerk of the district court and held that office for fourteen consecutive 
years. He was admitted to the bar while he was still clerk and soon after became 
a member of the firm of Hurley & Hale, long known as one of the leading firms 
of the county. Later he became a member of the firm of Hale & Hale, having 
taken his worthy son Oscar into partnership with him, and he was a member of 
that firm at the time of his death. 

In early life Mr. Hale was a whig in politics and was an active member of 
the republican party from the time of its organization. It is safe to say that no 
man who ever lived in the county was ever better informed than Mr. Flale in 
regard to its early history, and that no one has ever done more to preserve that 
history and to keep alive the old settlers' organizations than Mr. Hale. He was 
also a man possessing a keen sense of humor, a good story teller and a good 
writer of machine poetry on any occasion or any subject. He was also a sincere 
lover of nature and knew all the wild and tame flowers and shrubs that grow in 
this vicinity, and always had plenty of flowers about his own premises. 

It was the melancholy pleasure of the writer to deliver the address at the 
funeral of this worthy pioneer, and to pay him the following tribute of respect: 

"Friends : We are here to mourn. We are here also to rejoice. We mourn 
the loss of John Hale, the husband, the father, the brother, the friend, the com- 
panion, the lawyer, the citizen, the man. But we rejoice that his long 
and useful life was spent among us, and that we were permitted to know him, 
and to love him, and to be known and loved by him. We rejoice that 
in commemorating him, his virtues and character permit us to give full 
rein to the promptings of our hearts, knowing that we can say nothing true 
of him that is not good, and nothing good that is not also true. When asked to 
take part in this service I turned instinctively to the precious paper, now in my 
possession, written by Mr. Hale concerning my own father. Its first sentences 


are so expressive and appropriate, and tell so plainly why he would not have us 
unduly mourn for him, that I cannot help applying them to him: 'In the fullness 
of years he has laid down the burdens of life, and while we cannot but have a 
natural feeling of regret that we will no more meet him in his accustomed place, 
yet our better reason tells us that we should feel glad that we have been favored 
so long by his presence. A life spent as his has been, and spared so long, and 
ended only when his labors seemed complete, leaves no cause for rational sorrow 
at its close.' 

"And so, in the presence of death, let us think of his life. Let us remember, 
as he would have us, that life and death are equally certain, and equally common 
to us all. It is not my purpose at this time to attempt to review the life of our 
beloved friend. His history is familiar to practically all who are here. And why 
should it not be? He was the oldest Mason in the county. He was the oldest 
Odd Fellow in the county. He was the oldest lawyer in the county. He was the 
oldest man in the county who ever held an important county office, and he held 
that office as long, I think, as any other man. The universal testimony of those 
who knew him, is that, in every walk of life, his walk was upright. In every 
relation of life he was honest, sincere, kind and true. In a time when most people 
have gone money mad, he neither worshiped the 'almighty dollar.' nor the things 
for which it stands. But he has left to his family, and to us, a heritage far above 
wealth or riches. He has left the memory of a man faithful to every trust, and 
true to every friend, and has exemplified, in a life of over eighty years, the defini- 
tion of pure religion which we find in the good book: 'Pure religion and unde- 
filed, before God and the Father, is this, to visit the widow and the fatherless in 
their affliction, and to keep himself unspotted from the world.' 

"As a lawyer. Air. Hale worked for his clients rather than for himself. He 
believed in the peaceful settlement, rather than in the strife and war of litiga- 
tion. He applied to the work of his noble profession the sentiment of the great 
orator who said: 'As the cedars of Lebanon are higher than the grass of the 
valley ; as the heavens are higher than the earth ; as man is higher than the beasts ; 
as he that ruleth his spirit is greater than he that taketh a city ; so are the virtues 
and victories of peace greater than the virtues and victories of war.' 

"His activities in the profession have long since been taken over by his worthy 
son and partner, but to the old settlers of the county, and to all who take an 
interest in their history, his death is a los> which cannot be repaired. His was 
the life, more than any other one, which linked the present of the county with its 
past. Thus another pioneer has gone. Another of our state builders has ceased 
his work. But what a work thev have left behind them! 

" 'They built the state more glorious than they thought. 
Those simple carvers of an earlier time. 
Though rude the tools, and few, with which they wrought. 
The passing vears have made their work sublime.' 

"But what of those pioneers who have gone before? Are the}' building an- 
other state?" Are they plowing in other fields, or practicing in other courts? The 


unanswered question of the centuries comes back to us, as it came to the patriarch 
of old, 'If a man die, shall he live again?' 

"Today we can at least make answer in the beautiful words of the poet: 

" 'To live in hearts we leave behind, 
Is not to die.' " 

The story of Louisa county would not be complete without a sketch of Francis 
Springer, and it might not be considered appropriate for the editor of this his- 
tory to write it. We take the following from Mr. George Frazee's pamphlet, en- 
titled "Our Judges," which was published at Burlington in 1895 : 

"Judge Springer was born in Maine, April 15, 181 1. His father. Nathaniel 
Springer, was a shipbuilder at Bath, of Swedish descent, ruined financially by 
the embargo. His mother, Mary Clark, was a daughter of Captain John Clark, 
said to have been a member of the 'Boston Tea Party' of December 18, 1773, 
subsequently engaged in navigation, and a sufferer from French spoilation prior 
to 1800, claims for part or all of which were at last allowed and paid to his heirs 
in 1891. 

"At the age of eleven years Francis became a member of a farmer's family 
in Strafford county, New Hampshire, where he made his home for the next ten 
years, working on the farm and getting such education as was attainable in dis- 
trict schools, where 'reading, 'riting and 'rithmetic' were taught during the win- 
ter, in the intervals some instruction from friends, and in his eighteenth year a 
full term at the Rochester Academy, at the close of which his preceptor certified 
that he was qualified to teach school. That winter he taught a country school 
for the enormous compensation of ten dollars a month and board among his 
family patrons, and the next year attended another term at the academy and 
taught another country school, and the two succeeding years he taught village 
schools — one at Rochester and the other at Farmington — pursuing his studies him- 
self. In 1833 he returned to Maine and the following year commenced the study 
of law in the office of William Goodenow, at Portland, at odd times acted as 
assistant editor of the Portland Courier — then owned and edited by Seba Smith, 
author of the celebrated 'Jack Downing Letters,' — and was admitted to the bar 
in 1838; and, being attacked by the western fever, in October of that year, in 
company with his friend, Edward H. Thomas, who had studied law in the office 
of Stephen Longfellow, father of Henry W., the poet, and was two years his 
senior at the bar, started for the unknown but attractive 'far west.' The two 
came by steamer to Boston, thence by rail and steamer to New York, by rail 
to Harrisburg, by canal boat to Pittsburg, crossing the mountains by the aid of 
a stationary engine, by steamer from Pittsburg to St. Louis, by stage to Jackson- 
ville and thence in open wagon to Burlington. The two pilgrims were seven 
weeks on the way, including their stoppages for a day or two at the several points 
mentioned, where they met and conversed with some of the most prominent pub- 
lic men of those clays, to whom they had letters of introduction. They had in- 
tended to locate in Illinois, but at Cincinnati, upon the advice of Judge Storer, 


they changed tiieir destination to Iowa, reaching Burlington on Sunday, the 21st 
day of December, and on that night had a jolly time with the members of the 
bar, who speedily discovered the musical and social talents of Mr. Thomas, the 
meeting being followed by an illumination, caused by the burning of a new build- 
ing in which it was held — ignited, as was supposed, by the accidental dropping of 
a cigar among the shavings. 

"The legislature was then sitting, and they remained in Burlington about a 
week, making acquaintances with many prominent men of the territory. As a 
result of their inquiries, they decided to locate in Louisa county. On December 
27th they started for Wapello on foot; passed the night in a two-roomed log 
cabin, ventilated by such openings between the logs as enabled them to watch 
the stars from their beds, and in the afternoon of Sunday reached Wapello and 
met there an 'old settlers' welcome.' 

'"Louisa county then contained about 1,200 inhabitants. The courts were 
held in a log cabin, and the grand jury deliberated in an adjacent ravine. Messrs. 
Springer and Thomas were the first lawyers located there, and at the first term 
of the court (April. 1839) were retained in forty cases, contested by such attor- 
neys as Alfred Rich, Hugh T. Reid and Philip Veile, of Lee ; David Rorer, M. D. 
Browning, W. W. Chapman, James W. Woods. James W. Grimes, and Henry 
W. Starr, of Des Moines ; Stephen Whicher, Ralph P. Lowe, William G. Wood- 
ward and Jacob Butler, of Muscatine — all of whom are now deceased. • 

"In 1840 Judge Springer was elected a member of the legislative council 
from the district composed of Louisa and Washington counties and the country 
west of them, for the third and fourth general assemblies — the third meeting at 
Burlington, November 2, 1840. and the fourth at Iowa City, convening Decem- 
ber 2. 1841, and adjourning February 18, 1842. At the general election, in 1842, 
he was elected from the same district a member of the fifth and sixth general 
assemblies, the last of which adjourned February 16, 1844. The first state elec- 
tion was held October 26, 1846, at which Judge Springer was chosen state sena- 
tor, and served as such in the first and second general assemblies, the last of 
which adjourned January 15, 1849. In the summer of 1849, and again in 1850, 
he was appointed special agent of the postoffice department to visit the postoffices 
in Wisconsin and collect government moneys and transfer them to St. Louis. 
In May, 185 1, he was appointed by President Fillmore, register of the land office 
at Fairfield, which office he held until May, 1853. Returning to Wapello, he re- 
mained there a few weeks and then removed to Columbus City for the purpose of 
improving his health and improve some farm lands he owned near that place. 
In 1854 he was elected prosecuting attorney for Louisa county, became ex-omcio 
county judge upon the death of the former occupant, and was elected to that 
position in 1855. In 1856 he was a delegate to the first national convention of 
the republican party, which convened at Philadelphia, June 17th of that year, 
and nominated Fremont for the presidency, and where he met Henry Wilson, of 
Massachusetts (afterwards senator and vice-president of the United States), 
who professed that he had been his pupil at Farmington. In the same year he 
was nominated and elected a member of the constitutional convention which was 
held at Iowa Citv in January, 1857, was unanimously nominated by the republican 
members as their candidate for the presidency of that body, and was duly elected 
over Judge Hall, the democratic choice. In 1858 he was elected judge of the dis- 


trict court for this judicial district, was re-elected in 1862, and again in 1866, and 
served until November, 1869, when he resigned to take the office of collector of 
internal revenue for the first Iowa collection district, made vacant by the resigna- 
tion of General Belknap, who became secretary of war under President Grant, 
and in this office he remained until 1876. 

"Judge Springer was married in December, 1842, to Miss Nancy R. Colman, 
daughter of Hon. John M. Colman, of Iowa City, a native of Kentucky. She 
was born in Terre Haute, Indiana, January 8, 1825, and died of pneumonia, at 
Cimarron, New Mexico, November 12, 1874, while visiting her son Frank. 
Six sons and two daughters were the fruits of their union. Two of the sons 
died in infancy and one of the daughters in her second year. Of the sons, 
Frank, the third, has acquired a high reputation in New Mexico, as a lawyer of 
great ability; Warren C. was drowned while bathing in the Iowa river, in 1872; 
Arthur, the fifth son, is an able lawyer residing at Wapello ; and Charles, the 
youngest son, has resided in New Mexico since 1881, engaged in the stock and 
ranch business. The only surviving daughter, Nellie, is the wife of Hilton M. 
Letts, and resides at Columbus Junction. 

"In person, Judge Springer is somewhat above medium height, rather slender 
than stout. In his manner invariably courteous and affable, and in temper and 
disposition agreeable and kind. As a judge he honored the bench by its occu- 
pancy ; able, conscientious, impartial, prompt, considerate ; his three successive 
elections sufficiently assure us that he was as popular with the public as he 
proved himself satisfactory to the bar. At this writing (May, 1895) he still 
lives, at the age of eighty-four years, to enjoy the blessing of a well spent life, 
the love and reverence of his numerous descendants and sincere affection and 
esteem of the community in which he has lived so long and served so faithfully." 

On Monday afternoon, April 11, 191 1, a committee of the Des Moines 
County Bar Association presented to the district court then in session, a portrait 
of Judge Springer, which had been donated by his son, Frank Springer, of Las 
Vegas, New Mexico, in response to a previous request of the bar association. 
A number of speeches were made on that occasion, and we take the following 
quotation from the remarks made by Judge J. C. Power: 

"Judge Springer's claim to honor does not depend upon anything that we 
may say here. Peculiar circumstances may for a moment bring those who are 
very unworthy of recognition into places of power and influence, but without 
worth they disappear as speedily as they came into view ; but Judge Springer's 
reputation is built upon a more enduring foundation. On that December day 
when he and his future associate in practice, Mr. Thomas, started to walk from 
Burlington to Wapello, with the view of finding a permanent location, he was 
practically unknown in Iowa ; and yet in a year from that time he had been 
called by the people of the community in which he had cast his lot, to represent 
them in an important capacity, and for nearly forty years thereafter, possibly 
without single interruption, and without at any time ever having met a sugges- 
tion that he was an office seeker or a mere politician, Judge Springer was called 
upon to fill positions of continually increasing importance, and discharged all 
of the duties incident to such responsibilities in such a way as to reflect great 


honor to himself, and to the satisfaction of the people at large. This fact is a 
more eloquent tribute to his worth and ability than can be expressed in words." 

We take the following extract from the remarks made by Judge W. S. 
Withrow : 

"Francis Springer, whose portrait, with others, we here today accept, was 
one of the men who gave freely of ability and strength in the constructive days 
of our statehood. ... As has been said by Mr. Blake, he was the president 
of the constitutional convention of 1857, which prepared and submitted to the 
people of the young state for their adoption, the constitution which is yet our 
fundamental law. So well was that work done by Judge Springer and his less 
than two score associates, that after more than half a century of growth and 
achievement under it. with but few amendments, that instrument meets in full 
measure the needs of this commonwealth. The men who did that work built 
for the future of a virile, hopeful and peaceloving people, safeguarding the 
rights of the living and of generations then unborn, as does the master engineer 
in a material way build for the needs and comforts of tomorrow. Judge 
Springer thus stands in history as the head of that pioneer body of lawmakers 
who constructed enduringly and well for his chosen state. It was fitting that 
upon the conclusion of that work he should assume the duties of the bench, and 
in the old first judicial district, of which Des Moines county was a part, en- 
force the laws which were based upon that constitution, and uphold the rights 
guaranteed under it. And this for ten years, as we are told, he did with dignity, 
ability and impartiality, at all times seeking to do exact justice under the law." 

Francis Springer died at Columbus Junction, October 2, t8q8. 

One of the pioneers of whom personal mention should be made was William 
P. Brown, who was born in Kentucky, October 25, 1793, and was married in 
Jefferson county, Indiana, to Miss Alice Craw ford, who was a native of Virginia. 
Air. Brown came to Louisa county in a very early day in 1837, or 1838, and 
entered a claim in Morning Sun township. It is said that his first trip out here 
was on horse back, and that he came again in 1838 and built his log cabin, the 
first one built in that part of the county. To raise this log cabin, it took the 
united efforts of all the settlers living within a radius of ten miles, and also two 
gallons of whiskey. Mr. Brown came here with his family in 1839. lie died 
January 28, 1865. He was one of the most active and influential men in his 
part of the county and was always ready to do his part toward the promotion 
of any public enterprise. He tried to have the Burlington and Louisa county 
plank road, which extended as far north as Dodgeville, continued as far as 
Morning Sun, and he built a bridge across Honey creek for this purpose. He 
was many times elected a justice of the peace. He was also the first postmaster 
in Morning Sun, having been appointed at the time that office was established, 
on June 19, 1851. 

Damon Xoble Sprague was born at Exeter, near Cooperstown. New York, 


March 21, 1832. Mr. Sprague's ancestors settled in Rhode Island early in the 
eighteenth century and many of them took part in the Colonial or Revolutionary 
war. Mr. Sprague's father, Jenks S. Sprague, was quite a noted physician in 
his day and was at one time president of the New York State Medical Society. 
Mr. Sprague received his education at the common schools and at the age of 
seventeen began teaching and boarding around among the scholars, and in this 
way he earned money to pay his way through college. He attended the Ilart- 
wick Seminary and the Delaware Collegiate Institute and a little later began 
studying law in the office of Spencer & Kernan, at Utica, New York. Roscoe 
Conkling was at the same time connected with this law office. Mr. Sprague 
was admitted to the bar in 1854, and in April of the following year located at 
Wapello. In 1856 he formed a law partnership with Colonel John Bird, which 
continued until i860. Mr. Sprague was elected representative from the "flotorial" 
district of Des Moines and Louisa counties in 1857, defeating General Fitz 
Henry Warren in the two counties by sixteen majority. Mr. Sprague was 
elected district attorney of the old first judicial district composed of the counties 
of Louisa, Lee, Des Moines and Henry, and was re-elected in 1874, defeated bv 
T. A. Bereman in 1878, and again elected in 1882. After his first election as 
district attorney, Mr. Sprague moved to Keokuk, where he made his home until 
1886, returning then to Wapello. Mr. Sprague was always a democrat in poli- 
tics, but was a strong supporter of the Union during the Civil war and made 
the first L T nion speech in Louisa county. He was an active member of the 
society known as the Sons of the American Revolution, and was president of 
the Iowa State Society in 1900. During his service as district attorney. Mr. 
Sprague tried a great many important criminal cases and was accounted one of 
the most successful prosecutors in the state. Mr. Sprague also took a great 
interest in the history of the county and was for a number of years president 
of the Old Settlers' Society. 

Mr. Sprague was married, June 25, 1863, to Miss Mary O. Isett, a daughter 
of E. B. Isett, and a most charming and lovable woman. Mrs. Sprague died in 
1899. Her death left Mr. Sprague practically alone in the world and his health 
and strength declined quite rapidly. He died August 12, 1902, at Richfield 
Springs, New York, while on a visit there, and was buried in the Wapello 
cemetery beside his wife and little daughter, Helen. 

Mark Davison was born near Hull, England, May 7, 1815, and came to this 
country when but three years old, the family settling in Washington county, 
Pennsylvania, on a farm. He was married there, in June, 1838, to Miss Eliza 
Linton, and the marriage ceremony was performed by Ephraim Blaine, justice 
of the peace, and the father of the late James G. Blaine. 

Mr. Davison removed to Iowa in 1840, accompanied by his brother-in-law, 
Nathan Linton, and both resided in the southern part of the county. Mr. 
Davison began business as a merchant in Wapello in 1847, ar, d for the remaining 
fifty years of his life he was closely identified with the business interests of 
the community and with the public affairs of the county, and deservedlv ranks 


as one of the most prominent and successful of our early settlers. He dealt in 
nearly all kinds of merchandise, bought and fed cattle and hogs, bought grain 
and had a large warehouse, or packing house, where he stored the grain and 
packed pork. His first warehouse or packing house was between Van Buren 
and Mechanic streets, fronting on the alley not far from the back part of D. C. 
Thomas' store. In the early days the most of the hog meat brought in was 
already dressed, as there was very little slaughtering then done in Wapello. 
Later, about 1859 or i860, Mr. Davison did some business in the old Isett 
packing house down near where Lou Bourn now lives. Probably few people 
know that in the early days before corn shellers came into use, the shelling of 
corn was done bv the corn being spread out on the floor of the warehouse and 
boys riding around over the corn on ponies. Our friend E. H. Thomas, of 
Ottumwa, says that he operated one of these pony corn shellers in Mr. Davison's 
warehouse years ago. 

About 1869 there seemed to be a good opening in Wapello for a banking 
institution, and Mark Davison and George Jamison decided to start one. In a 
week or two, however, Mr. Jamison decided that he did not care to go into it 
but Mr. Davison did, and he sold out his mercantile establishment to his son 
H. B., and opened a private bank. The bank thus started by Mr. Davison con- 
tinues to this day and is now known as the Commercial Bank and is one of the 
strong financial institutions of the county. It is owned and conducted by Mr. 
Davison's son Joiner, and his grandson, R. D. McCullough. Besides his mer- 
cantile business and banking business, Mr. Davison at one time operated a saw- 
mill over about Port Louisa. 

He also owned and operated several good farms. Mr. Davison died in 
1897, leaving surviving him three sons : H. B. Davison, who is now president 
of the Citizens Bank of Wapello ; John Austin Davison, who is a prominent 
banker in Wichita, Kansas ; and Joiner Davison, who is president of the Com- 
mercial Bank of Wapello. He left also one daughter, Mary, who was at the 
time the wife of J. B. McCullough, but who died in 1901. Mr. Davison's two 
older sons, Frank and H. B., were in the army, where Frank died. 


The following article is taken from Air. Jamison's historical articles in the 
Columbus Junction Gazette; it was written while Mrs. Mincher was alive, but 
it describes so well pioneer experiences, that we have made no change in it : 

"One of the interesting characters in the history of Louisa county is Mrs. 
Jane Mincher, who still lives in Wapello, at the age of a little over eighty years. 
Since a girl of twelve or thirteen she has been identified with the county ; dur- 
ing the most of that time in Wapello township, though the first several years in 
Marshall township. Her father, George Key, was an Indian trader some years 
before he moved his family to Iowa ; was in Burlington about two years. His 
home was in Crawfordsville, Indiana. He shipped his supplies by flatboat 
down the Wabash to the Ohio, down the Ohio to Cairo, thence up the Mississippi 
by steamer to Burlington. These goods were consigned to John S. David, long 


a prominent man in Burlington, who then had a little clapboarded warehouse 
down on the levee. 

"Mr. Key had been a visitor a time or two over Louisa county and was im- 
pressed with its rich soil and fine timber lands and streams, so, soon after the 
Black Hawk purchase, he laid his claim in what was afterwards called Virginia 
Grove. Think this must have been as early as 1834 or 1835, as the family came 
here across the country in 1837. 

"George Key's claim and first entry was a well known stopping place for years 
for people on their way to Burlington. 

"From Crawfordsville, Indiana, to Louisa county, is about 300 miles. They 
were nearly forty-five days making the trip, averaging about seven miles a day. 
That seems like slow moving to us, and it was slow progress even for those 
times, but it was in the spring of the year; there were few roads and no bridges. 
They were subject to floods and to oceans of mud. Hardly a day passed that 
they did not have at least one wagon mired down. 

"Theirs was quite a caravan, consisting of three wagons and a two-horse 
carriage. One of these wagons was an enormous old 'Pennsylvania' wagon 
as big as an ordinary room. There was an enormous box eighteen feet long, or 
more, stoutly framed together, the ends being nearly two feet higher than the 
center, the bottom of the center that much lower than the bottom of either end. 
To this wagon were attached four yoke of oxen. The other wagon had the old 
fashioned 'spike' team of three horses ; the carriage, two horses. Besides the 
wagons and their teams were a drove of young horses, cattle and nearly a hun- 
dred head of sheep. These necessitated several riding horses to carry the 
drivers. This live stock partly accounted for the slow progress made, as the 
live stock, especially the sheep, gave them great trouble in crossing the un- 
bridged streams. 

"Then, as we have already stated, mireing down of teams was of no unusual 
occurrence. Mrs. Mincher, who rode a horse all the way and assisted in driving 
the live stock, tells us that it was no uncommon sight to see the help waist deep 
in the mud and water unloading the wagons of their contents and carrying them 
out on high and dry ground so they could, by doubling up the teams, pull the 
vehicles out of the mud. 

"The party consisted of twenty-one persons. At the head was Mrs. Key, 
who, by the way, was a sister of Jacob Mintun who came a few years later, 
and her family, consisting of four sons and six daughters and ten others, a part 
of whom Mrs. Mincher has forgotten, but among them was Edward Mincher, 
whom she afterwards married and Jack Reed, who remained with them many 
years, but who finally made his home with Zaddock Jarvis, where he died. 
The others were mostly young men who took this opportunity to come west. 

"When they came to Iowa they found Mr. Key waiting for them with a 
genuine summer home. It consisted of a rail pen, three sides built up solid, 
the other entirely open, the corners held up by rails butting in from the outside. 
This was covered with elm bark, put on good and thick and weighted down to 
hold it in place. It, with the covered wagon, made them a comfortable home 
until fall by which time Mr. Key had raised a fine crop and built a very fair 
house, made of framed timbers that had been hewn. This was weatherboarded 
with clapboards, ceiled with clapboards and roofed with clapboards. This house 


looked pretty well, but it was terribly cold, and the huge fireplaces were worked 
to their limit to keep the noses and toes from getting frosted. 

"That winter mess pork, which in those days meant all the hog, nose, jowls. 
feet and tail, pickeled. was $21.00 a barrel, flour $12.00 a barrel. But by the 
next year or two, when they began to have pork to sell, they were forced to 
take a $1.25 a cwt. for dressed hogs and glad to get the cash at that. 

'"They ate little flour that winter, even the most aristocratic of the settlers, 
and corn meal was often a luxury. There were no power mills nearer than 
Lowell, on the Skunk river, and it was a journey of several days to patronize it. 
as teams were frequently kept waiting, day after day, for their turn. 

"Now, the present generation would probably resort to parched corn, but 
we are told, that becomes very monotonous. So the settlers resorted to the 
home made grater. This was made by punching nail holes through heavy plate 
tin which was fastened to a clapboard, the tin slightly curved to let the grit 
drop through. The Key family kept four of these machines in operation weeks 
at a time. They worked well when the corn was not too ripe, so it would shell 
off. When it got this ripe, it was necessary to soak the corn before grating it. 

"Along towards winter a whole wagon load of corn was shelled, and put in 
sacks and taken in the old Pennsylvania wagon behind two yoke of oxen to 
Lowell and ground into meal. This was a real improvement on the grated meal, 
especially for bread making purposes. The other did pretty well for mush. 

"Butter often sold for 5 cents a pound; eggs, 5 cents a dozen or less, and 
lid regular market for either at these prices. This condition extended over a 
great many years. An abundance of goods produced at home, a dearth of 
those shipped in. The Keys and doubtless their neighbors, made most of their 
clothing out of wool and flax. Mr-. Ley was an adept at this: she had learned 
it in Virginia, where it had been the custom to do such things from the first. 
Besides clothing she made the table linen ami all sorts of underwear for the 
household. The men and boys wore jeans; the women and girls 'linsey-woolsey.' 
The new made garments were worn on Sundays ; the last year's was used for 
every dav wear." 

Cvril Carpenter was born in Chenango county, Xew York, March 25, 1824. 
and is a son of Cyril and Amanda 1 .Mason) Carpenter. At the age of thirteen 
he went to Indiana where he remained for about three years, when he engaged 
to drive an ox team to Iowa, and arrived in Louisa county on the 17th of 
October, 1840. locating in Oakland township. He got his start by breaking 
prairie in various parts of the count), and subsequently entered considerable 
government land in Oakland township. His first wife was Mary A. Blake. 
daughter of Joseph Blake, one of the pioneers of Oakland township, for whom 
Mr. Carpenter drove an ox team from Indiana to Iowa. Sometime after the 
death of his first wife Mr. Carpenter married Calista E. Stickney, who was a 
daughter of Albert and Cornelia ( Trask) Stickney, born at Harrison, January 
14, 1840. In his early life Mr. Carpenter was a democrat, but about the time 
the war broke out, he, like Andrew Gamble and many other men of that class, 
joined the republican party. 


In 1874 he was elected a member of the Board of Supervisors and served 
in that capacity for six years. Mr. Carpenter was a firm believer in public 
improvements, and it was almost entirely due to his efforts that the two bridges 
across the Iowa river near Columbus Junction were built. The first of these 
bridges built was the one at Fredonia, and it cost something like $20,000, which 
was $5,000 more than the supervisors were authorized to appropriate without 
a vote of the people. At that particular time a vote of the people for a bridge 
in either end of the county was equivalent to a county seat fight. Through the 
efforts of Mr. Carpenter and leading citizens of Columbus Junction, that town 
contributed $5,000 toward the erection of the bridge. The bridge at Todd 
Town cost less than the amount to which the Board was limited, and was com- 
pleted and opened for traffic on the 4th of July. 1879, but it was not built with- 
out considerable opposition on the part of the people from the south end of the 
county. Mr. Carpenter was a firm friend of Columbus Junction and spent his 
time and money freely to make it the county seat, and to build and strengthen 
its educational and commercial concerns. This is especially true of its first 
bank: but he lived long enough to experience the injustice and ingratitude which 
sometimes control the actions of soulless men and soulless corporations. He 
died in March. 1900. 

Andrew M. Taylor was born at Woodstock, Shenandoah county, Virginia, De- 
cember 14, 1822, and came to Wapello from Springfield, Ohio, in the fall of 
1 85 1. While at Springfield he had invented a wool carding machine, and soon 
after he came to Wapello he and a man named Jerome Gibbs put up a building- 
near the old grist mill and did wool carding for a while. Mr. Taylor sold the 
building to Gibbs and afterwards it was used for a saw mill. 

Taylor was elected Sheriff in 1853, 1855, 1857 and 1859. He organized 
Company "G" of the 19th Iowa Infantry and was commissioned captain on Au- 
gust 21. 1862. He was wounded severely September 29, 1863, at Atchafalaya, 
Alabama, sometimes called Sterling Farm. He was taken from there to New 
Orleans to the old St. Louis Hotel, then being used for a hospital, and died there 
of his wounds November 4th. 1863. 

Captain Taylor was one of our most popular and competent sheriffs. At the 
time he raised his companv he was presented with a magnificent sword and belt. 
Some years after the war, his son Ed. tried to locate and secure this sword. 
Through the efforts of Major Merrick, an ex-confederate soldier, of San An- 
tonio, Texas, it was learned from the man who shot Captain Taylor at Atchafalaya. 
that the sword was given by him at the time into the possession of Captain Oaks 
of Columbus, Texas. This sword was in the possession of Captain Oak's widow 
for a time, and is now believed to be in possession of the Masonic Lodge at Col- 
umbus. Texas. Efforts are still being made to secure the return of the sword to 
Captain Taylor's family. 

Tt is in honor of Captain Taylor that the Wapello G. A. R. Post is named. 

One of the earlv settlers of this county who deserves special mention is 
George Gillaspv, though in the early county records the name is misspelled in var- 


ious ways. Of him, Hon. Edward Johnstone, writing in the Iowa State Register 
soon after his death, said: "Evidently reared amid surroundings of a somewhat 
rude life, without early or late privileges for education, a rail-splitter, wood- 
chopper and bull-whacker, he grew up to be one of the most noted men of the 
state. By constant contact and struggle with the world, and a keen observer 
of men * he made himself a fair scholar, a public speaker of unusual 

force, and one of the most attractive talkers I ever heard." From the foregoing 
it may be imagined what his life was in the early days in this county. He was 
frequently engaged in quarrels and fights, but usually came out of them with the 
respect of those who knew the circumstances. He occasionally served as bailiff 
of the Court. On one occasion he was indicted for an assault with intent to com- 
mit murder. He was found guilty by a jury, and his punishment fixed at a fine 
of $15.00 and imprisonment for one hour. He took a sudden notion to abandon 
his wild life and began work for a farmer. He persevered, and after accumulating 
a little means, went to Ottumwa, and was for many years the leading citizen of 
that city, and died there in the winter of 1881-82. He was a member of the 
Constitutional convention in 1857, and was at one time the Democratic candidate 
for Governor, and made an active campaign over the entire state. 

Samuel K. Helmick, one of the honored pioneers of the county, whose por- 
trait we present in this connection, came to Louisa county in 1840. At that time 
he was twenty years of age. He was a man of more than ordinary education, 
and this, combined with his high character and intelligence, soon won him a posi- 
tion of prominence and influence in the county. He was one of the clerks of 
the first constitutional convention held at Iowa City in 1844. He was sheriff of 
the county during the years 1850. 1851, 1852 and 1853. During part of his term 
as sheriff, the sheriff was ex-officio county assessor. In private life he was a 
genial, whole souled man and was always ready to give his time and use his in- 
fluence for the good of the community. He was a prominent Mason and was 
one of the leading members of the Methodist Episcopal church at Columbus City. 


It is not generally known that a Louisa county citizen became a Confederate 
general, but such is the fact. Daniel H. Reynolds, was born near Centerburg, 
Ohio, Dec. 14, 1832, of Virginia and Maryland parentage. Came to Louisa 
county in 1854. and while here read law. He went to Tennessee in 1857 and was 
admitted to practice law at Somerville, in that state, in 1858. Soon after he re- 
moved to Lake Village, Ark. In 1861 he entered the service of the Confederate 
states in Company "A" of the First Ark. Cavalry. He became Captain on June 
14, 1861, and was rapidly promoted, becoming major and lieutenant colonel in 
1862 and colonel in 1863; in 1864 he was made brigadier general and assigned 
to command Reynolds' brigade. 

He was in many notable battles of the war, in several of which Louisa county 
soldiers were engaged. One battle he was in was called by the Confederates the 


battle of Oak Hills, Mo., but we know it as "Wilson's Creek"; another was called 
Elkhorn, Ark., but we speak of it as "Pea Ridge." lie was also at Chickamauga, 
Resaca, Kenesaw Mountain, and through the Atlanta campaign in the summer of 
1864. He was in the battle of Bentonville, N. C. on March 19, 1865, and like our 
own Capt. W. G. Allen, lost a leg at that place. 

For the foregoing particulars in regard to Gen. Reynolds we are indebted to 
the Confederate Veteran of Nashville, Tenn., of date May 11, 191 1; that paper 
also stated that he was then living at Lake Village, Ark., but in response to a 
letter addressed to him, we learned from his widow that he died March 14, 1902. 
She also stated that he came to Louisa county in the fall of 1854, taught school 
for some months and read law, and removed to Tennessee in 1855. 


Louisa county has never lacked for towns or town sites, but many a once 
pretentious town or prospective city has long since given way to the corn field 
or the pasture. The county now has Wapello, Columbus Junction, Morning Sun, 
Columbus City, Oakville, Grandview, Lettsville, Cotter or Cotterville, Wyman, 
Cairo, Fredonia, Elrick Junction, Toolsboro, Marsh, Gladwin, Newport and 
Bard, being seventeen in all. A few of these places are little more than railway 
stations, and can hardly be said' to have any special history distinct from that of 
the neighborhood in which they are situated ; others doubtless have some inter- 
esting matter connected with their growth which has escaped us. In addition to 
existing towns, there are those which are past and gone. The list of these is 
as follows : Cuba City, Tecumseh, Sterling, Yellow Banks, Iowa Town, Florence, 
Harrison, Pittsburg. Cateese and Port Allen, all on the Iowa River ; Burris 
City, Port Washington and Port Louisa on the Mississippi ; the list also in- 
cludes Hillsboro, Lafayette, Altoona, Odessa. Virginia Grove, Hope Farm, Can- 
nonsburg, Clifton, Spring Run, Oakland, Palo Alto and Forest Hill. Perhaps 
we should also include Walling's Landing, as this existed before Port Louisa 
was started and was quite a well known shipping point in the early days. There 
was also the old town site of Columbus City. There were two Port Louisas, one of 
them sometimes called West Port. We should also include Lower Wapello, as 
that was probably entirely distinct from the present city. 

Of some of these ancient villages we know even less than we do of the works 
of the Mound Builders, for in regard to the latter, we at least know their loca- 
tion, and this is more than we know about a few of our early towns. 

Mr. Toole in the Annals of Iowa for 1870 says: "In its early days it (Louisa 
county) had a full share of speculative or prospective cities, in the eyes of the 
proprietors, that are now dead or extinct towns and embraced in boundaries of 
corn fields, viz : Beginning at the mouth of the Iowa river it had first, Cuba City, 
next Sterling, Tecumseh. Yellow Banks, Iowa Town, Florence, Harrison, Pitts- 
burg and Cateese all on the Iowa river." 

We may assume that Cuba City was quite near the mouth of the Iowa river, 
and it was probably at this place where Lieutenant Lea was refused shelter in 
February, 1836. "in the only house there, occupied by a drinking crowd of 
men and women." Sterling, sometimes called Mt. Sterling, was afterwards 
added to Toolesboro as Frank's addition. 

We have no information as to the exact location of Tecumseh, nor of Yellow 
Banks, but it is probable that Yellow Banks was situated on the north side of 
the Iowa river near the Oakville bridge, as that place has always been known as 



Yellow Banks. The early settlers claimed that there was a French trading house 
at Yellow Banks long before the Black Hawk war, and that the remains of the 
buildings were to be seen there when the county was first settled. 


Iowa Town was one of the very earliest trading points in the county, and 
was probably situated in section 27-73-3 J ust west of Iowa slough on the bank of 
the Iowa river. At the first term of Court in April, 1837, Rufus P. Burlingame 
procured a ferry license to run a ferry across the Iowa river at Iowa Town. 

The first tavern license issued in the county was granted to William Dupont 
July 11. 1837, and was for Iowa Town for one year from that date. This tavern 
license was granted by the Board of Supervisors, our first county board, and at 
the meeting at which it was granted, the tavern rates for Louisa county were 
established. The price for a night's lodging was \2.y 2 cents; for a meal 37^ cents, 
and for board by the day, $1.00. At that time a tavern license included 
also the right to sell liquor, and the board fixed the price for every drink of 
liquor at I2J4 cents. 

An election was held at "Towatown," on March 5th. 1838, and, from the names 
of the voters it is likely that this was then the voting place for all of the present 
township of Eliot, the lower part of Wapello township, and probably a part of 
Jefferson, because Christopher Shuck was one of the judges of the election. Iowa 
Town was in Florence precinct, beyond a doubt, but the precinct boundaries were 
not defined at that time, so far as we can find. 

From the records of one of the early lawsuits we can obtain a fair idea of the 
kind and quality of goods kept in a "town" store at the first settlement of the 
County. It appears that Rufus P. Burlingame. who owned the Ferry at Iowa 
Town, also had a store there, and that in June, 1837, while this county was in 
Wisconsin territory, Samuel Smith, our first sheriff brought an attachment suit 
against Burlingame for $750.00. The writ was served by Isaac Parsons, cor- 
oner, and the return shows that he levied on a stock of goods, and that this 
stock was inventoried by Charles B. Field and William Guthrie. The total 
inventory, including a $25.00 ferry boat amounted to $2,913.76. We take the fol- 
lowing items from the inventory: 

Palm Leaf Hats $ 8.20 Coffe 25.00 

Fur Coats 20.00 1 Box Prunes 2.00 

Razors & Straps S^.-yj Mackeral 8.00 

Tobacco 62.00 Seal Caps 37.50 

Calico 199.00 Silk Hats 88.00 

Silks & Crapes 18.75 Cutlery &c 45.00 

Ready-made clothing 334-75 I-ace and Muslin 312.04 

Satinetts 57.00 Circassian 11.30 

Satinetts 32.24 Shell & Horn combs 78.25 

Bombazetts 4.78 Beaverteens 10.56 

Cambrick 20.88 Blankets 80.00 

Vesting 4545 Cloaks 12.00 

Cassamere 23.00 Mereno cloth and Bombazetts. . 41.77 


Broad cloth 85.20 Handkerchiefs !7-SO 

Camlet 33.75 Ribbons 10.00 

37-5 Brown Holland Cotton Flannel 

Bar soap 2.00 ., ,- ,, ,, 

1 (.V hncev 84.85 

Sugar 96.00 

Shirts & Stockings 63.56' Flred °g s J - 2 5 

Shirts &c 49.92 Nails ^-oo 

Socks & Stockings 2 5-72 Shawls & Hdkfs 42.21 

Crockery 70.87 Gloves 21.75 

About this same time William Dupont was granted permission to build a 
bridge across Iowa Slough on the road to New Boston, and the rates of toll were 
fixed at one half of the ferry rates on the Iowa river, but whether the bridge 
was ever built, or not, it is certain that Iowa Town soon disappeared. If it was 
ever "laid out" or platted, the record can not now be found. 


John B. Newhall, of Burlington, in his "Sketches of Iowa" says that he was at 
one time a part owner of the town site of Florence, and that it was at one time 
the home of Black Hawk and Keokuk. According to Mr. Newhall, it was the 
rallying point for the followers of Black Hawk before they crossed over into 
Illinois to begin the war of 1832. It was also the place known in the Indian 
treaty of 1832 as "Keokuk's Principal Village." 

The town of Florence was not laid out, of course, until after September, 
1836, but if it was ever platted there is no record of it now. It was a place of 
some importance from about 1838 until 1846. 

William Phinney began keeping tavern there in April, 1838. Philip B. Har- 
rison was granted a ferry license by the District Court in April, 1837 "at the 
town of Florence." 

John Deihl was appointed postmaster July 5th, 1839, and continued in that 
office, until it was discontinued on Feb. nth. 1846. During most if not all of 
this time Mr. Deihl kept a store there. Silas Foster also kept store there in 
1839, an d Calvin Donaldson began mercantile business there in January, 1841. 


Toolesborough was laid out by William L. Toole on the northwest quarter 
of section 11, township -jt,, range 2. It appears from the certificates on this plat 
that the original was filed for record with J. S. Rinearson, recorder for Louisa 
county, Wisconsin Territory, on July 23, 1837, and was re-entered for record on 
May 7, 1840. There is a certificate of John Gilliland, county surveyor, dated 
May 2, 1840, stating that he had examined by actual survey and admeasure- 
ment the plat and plan of the town of Toolesborough heretofore laid out by 
William L. Toole, situate in the northwest quarter of section n, 75-2, and that 
it corresponded "with the plan to which these marginal notes are annexed." 

Frank's addition to Toolesborough was laid out by Franklin Bras, May 10, 
1856, on lot No. 6 of section n, 73-2. 


Toolesboro was the first place settled in the county and at that time was 
called Black Hawk. It was for man)- years the manufacturing and commercial 
center of the county. When it was first settled the Iowa river ran close under 
the bluff and near the town, and there was good river communication for seven 
or eight months in the year. It was the pioneer port of entry for Louisa county. 
It also had the first postoffice in the county, having been established May 27, 1837, 
with William L. Toole as the first postmaster. Flisha Hook was appointed post- 
master May 5, 1838, and William L. Toole was again appointed May 3, 1842. 
Charles N. Cleveland was appointed June 26, 1845. Jared H. Trask was ap- 
pointed February 2, 1846. Nathaniel G. Fitch was appointed January 21, 1847. 
William L. Toole was again appointed April 20th. 1848. Tared H. Trask was 
appointed a second time on February 28. 1851. William L. Toole was appointed 
for the fourth time on August 4, 1852. Robinson C. Palmer was appointed 
June 10, 1856. Albert W. Parsons was appointed July 17, 1856. George W. 
Graves June 25, 1858. Geoige II. Mosier September 18, 1861. 

Toolesboro is one of the most beautiful locations to lie found anywhere. 
There is probably no more sightly place anywhere on the Mississippi river. 
Standing on one of the mounds that fringes the brow of the bluff, the eye can 
sweep across tree tops and river fully ten miles to the bluff on the opposite 
side, and up and down the Mississippi for twenty or thirty miles. 

In its palmy days Toolesboro had two distilleries, three mills, for grinding 
corn, one fur wheat, as well as some good stores and a fair sized warehouse. 

John Hale said that when he came to Toolesboro in 1839 the following 
houses were to be seen, viz : On the hill were W. D. Palmer's, then Cadwell's, 
who kept a little store and a big barrel of whiskey, and afterwards had a dis- 
tillery under the hill; William L. Toole's store and postofHce; then Elisha Hook's 
and a log schoolhouse opposite. This was the first school building built in 
Louisa county; a cabin near Hook's, occupied by some family forgotten. Nearby 
was a double log cabin occupied by Maximilian Eastwood, and in flaming red 
letters the sign: "M. E. Inn." This was probably the first tavern in Louisa 
county. Close to this was another cabin occupied by Simeon Bartemas and wife. 

Under the hill were the following buildings : One occupied by a family by 
the name of Mitchell; next George W. Fleming's, then Henry Sheets, his wife 
and sister, Mrs. Ruth Guest ; Jonas Ruffner's house, and nearby his grist mill. 
He ground both corn and wheat but couldn't bolt the flour ; this was sifted by 
the housewives at home. William Medler's and another cabin, and a sort of 
tenement house completed the list. 

C. H. Fisk was the first permanent preacher located here, but the noted 
circuit rider of the .Methodist church, Peter Cartwright, is believed to have 
preached here at a very early day. At one time the Rev. G. N. Power, a brother 
of Judge J. C. Power of Burlington was the regular Methodist minister sta- 
tioned at Toolesboro, and spent a winter there. 

For a description of the "Old Fort" at Toolesboro, see the chapter on the 
"Mound Builders." 

Ezra F. Dennison who was perhaps the leading merchant of Toolesboro in 
his time, and also a pork packer, is said to have had the biggest wedding ever 
"pulled off" in this part of the country. It took place on July 12th. 1842, under a 
big oak tree, at the foot of the bluff almost on the line between Louisa and Des 


Moines counties. The bride was Miss Mary L. Staige, daughter of Richard 
Staige, a prominent settler and land owner in what is now Eliot township, lie 
owned the Edwards farm. The marriage ceremony was performed by Justice 
Bras, while the bride, groom, and about ioo guests were all on horseback. After 
the ceremony the entire company went to the home of the groom at Toolesboro. 
The ferry boat and a dozen or more skiffs put them across the Iowa river in 
time for a big dinner, at which there were something like 500 guests. John Male 
built the big oven, in which the pigs, turkeys, chickens and ducks were roasted. 

Geo. H. Mosier was for a long time the merchant of Toolesboro, and ranked 
among the best merchants, and among the leading public men of the county. 

John Dennison about 1846 made crocks in Toolesboro for several months. 

At one time Toolesboro had an incorporated manufacturing concern. In 
February, 1844, the Legislature incorporated the "Toolesboro Manufacturing 
Company" with William Shepherd, Daniel West, H. D. Smith, Ezra F. Dennison, 
Jonathan Parsons and William L. Toole as incorporators. The capital stock 
was limited to $40,000.00 in shares of $100.00 each, and the company was author- 
ized to take from the Iowa river sufficient water for their purposes at a point 
on said river nearly opposite Iowa Town, and convey the same over or through 
any suitable grounds by means of a canal, race or water-way to a point at or 
near Toolesboro. 


There is no record of. the original plan or plat of the town. The earliest 
record we have is in the old plat book and this appears to have been a re-survey. 
We quote from the record as follows : "Plat or plan of the town of Harrison. 
This town re-surveyed and laid out by William Kennedy is situate on the east side 
or left bank of the Iowa river in the county of Louisa. The lots are 60 feet 
front by 142 back, with the exception of those fronting said river which are 
50 feet front by 132 back. Main street is 84 feet wide, all others 66. The alleys 
are 15 feet wide. The bearings of the street are north 40 degrees east, by south 
50 degrees east, etc.'" This re-survey is certified to by John Gilliland, county 
surveyor, on May 11, 1841, and was acknowledged by William Kenned)' before 
J. J. Rinearson, justice of the peace, July 2, 1841. 

Harrison was laid out by William Kennedy with the intention and expectation 
of making it the county seat. It was at one time quite a lively place for that 
early day. 

J. R. Rockafellar had a license to sell merchandise there in 1830,; we are not 
certain whether or not he was the first merchant there. There was a mill, a 
schoolhouse, and a number of other stores. 

Harrison was a candidate for the county seat at the election in 1839 along 
with Fredonia and Wapello, but the returns of that election cannot be found. 

The town of Flarrison was started as early as 1837, for we find in the records 
of the first Board of Supervisors an account of holding a meeting at Harrison 
during that year. 

One of the first doctors in the county was Reuben S. Searl, who lived at Har- 
rison, and later, about 1840, Dr. Harris Howey resided there. 

For a number of years there was a ferry across the Iowa near Harrison. 


In addition to Harrison, four other towns have been platted in Port Louisa 
township, as follows: Port Washington in 1848, Port Louisa in 1849, Port 
Louisa again in 1854, and Odessa in 1861. 

The earliest place in Port Louisa of any business importance was called Wall- 
ing's Landing, which, as we understand it, was about the same place as was 
platted for the town of Port Louisa as afterward laid out by John C. Lockwood 
in 1854. This was the shipping point for a large part of the county prior to the 
advent of the railroads, and at one time there was a great deal of business done 

There was, as noted above, a Port Louisa laid out by Henry Rockafellar in 
1849, considerably west of the place we understand to have been Wallings Land- 

No postoffice seems to have been established at any of these Port Louisa 
towns except Harrison. 

We notice from the early road records that Walling's Landing was a well 
recognized point as early as 1842-43 and continued to be so probably until 1849, 
as notices were circulated for public meetings there as late as 1847. 

In 1 85 1 Lockwood & Fleming advertised in the Louisa County Times as hav- 
ing a store at Port Louisa. This was probably at the town platted by Henry 
Rockafellar. In February of the same year there was an advertisement contain- 
ing a notice of the proposed incorporation of the Port Louisa, Wapello & Vir- 
ginia Grove Plank Road & Bridge Company, of which J. W. Isett was president; 
J. C. Lockwood, secretary, and H. Rockafellar, treasurer. A little later in the 
year this company advertised for sealed proposals for throwing up and grading 
about 2,000 feet of the road between the bluff and the town of Port Louisa. 

In the Wapello Intelligencer of May 24, 1853, there is a lengthy communica- 
tion from J. C. Lockwood, concerning the affairs of the Port Louisa, Wapello 
and Virginia Grove plank road, in which, among other things, he states that the 
original stock subscribed west of the Iowa river was $840, and east of the Iowa 
river was $1,620, on which there had been collected up to date $1,095, and the 
company had paid for bridge timbers, etc.. $577.70, and had paid Henry Thomp- 
son on contract for building the embankment, $517.92, and that there yet re- 
mained to be done work between the highlands and Muscatine slough amounting 
to about $1,600. 

Tn the Intelligencer of March 6, 1854, is the first notice of the sale of town 
lots in Port Louisa : 

"Here's a Chance for Business Men. 

We will offer at public auction on Tuesday, the 2d day of Mav, 1854, the 
following Real Estate : 

75 Building Lots 

(being the first sale) 

In the Town of Port Louisa. 


Embracing the most desirable sites for Stores, Warehouses, Shops and Dwell- 


ing S — on a part of which such buildings are already erected and if desired will 
be sold with the Lots. Also a 


With rotary and Lath Saws attached, now doing a good business. Also a 


in the vicinity in good running order, with a good run of Country Custom. 

Sale to be made on the premises commencing at 12 o'clock m., when terms 
will be made known. For particulars apply to the subscribers on the premises, 
or by mail through this office. 

Lockwood & Williamson." 

The Port Louisa plank road from Port Louisa to the bluff west of that village 
was finished late in the winter of 1853-4. The stockholders of the company had 
a meeting at Port Louisa, on Saturday, February 11, 1854, for the purpose of 
establishing the rates of toll. These rates were established as follows: For a 
wagon with two horses, mules or oxen, 15 cents per trip; for wagon with one 
horse, mule, or ox, 10 cents ; for wagon once passing, 10 cents ; for every addi- 
tional horse, etc., in a team, 5 cents : for horseman on horseback, 10 cents ; for 
footman, 5 cents : for loose cattle, 2 cents ; hogs, 1 cent ; sheep, 1 and 2 cents : 
persons going to and from church and funerals, and children going to and from 
school, free. 

At this time Port Louisa was thought to be destined to be quite an important 
place. It had the only good landing on the Mississippi river in this county. It 
also had a most complete sawing establishment ; and there was a good steam grist 
mill but a short distance from there. There was usually a large amount of 
pine lumber on hand at the sawmill, being brought down by rafts on the Missis- 

In the Wapello Intelligencer of March 4, 1856, George Hutchinson, "for- 
warding and general merchant" at Port Louisa, gives the "exports" from that 
point during the previous year as follows : 22,052 sacks of wheat, 9,690 sacks of 
oats, 1,231 sacks of rye, 13,660 sacks of corn, 205 sacks of potatoes, 144 sacks of 
flaxseed, 26 sacks of mustard, 326 pounds of pork, 8,022 pes. bulk meat, 85 
sacks of hams, 956 bbls. of lard. (A sack is about two bushels.) 

The paper claims that there was more than that shipped from Wapello & 
Toole's Landing and via Burlington & Muscatine. 

In the Wapello Republican of January 3rd, 1861, Hutchinson & Berner of 
Port Louisa have a large advertisement of their dry goods, clothing, grocery and 
notions store and state that they have "unsurpassed facilities for storing grain," 
and "pay the highest prices for wheat, corn and pork" and "press and bale hay 
on short notice." Notwithstanding the fact that Port Louisa township has been, 
most of the time, without any town, its citizenship has always ranked with the 
very best in the county. In the early days, as well as later, a strong religious 
sentiment prevailed there, and there have been a great many United Presbyterian 
families among its settlers. For the names of the prominent early settlers the 
reader is referred to the chapter on townships. The following are the particu- 
lars as to the laying out of the four towns referred to, as shown on the town 
plat book in the Recorder's office : 



laid out by William Hardin and William Johnson on lot No. 2, section 8, town- 
ship 74 north, range 2 west, on the bank of the Mississippi river. This would 
be in the northeast quarter of section 8, surveyed by A. D. Hurley, county sur- 
veyor, September 26, 1848. 


laid out by Henry Rockafellar, proprietor, October 20, 184'), on the north end 
of the northwest quarter of the northeast quarter of section 7 and the southwest 
quarter of the southeast quarter of section 6, township 74 north, range 2 west, 
surveyed by A. D. Hurley, county surveyor. This was west of Port Louisa and 
sometimes called West Port Louisa. 


laid out by John C. Lockwood, surveyed by John R. Sisson, county surveyor, 
March 20, 1854, and acknowledged by John C. Lockwood, April 4, 1854. It was 
laid out on the bank of the Mississippi river, immediately south of what is known 
as the cut-off of Muscatine slough on lot No. 4, in section 5, township 74 north, 
range 2 west. 


laid out by M. P. Yanloon, May 15, 1861, on lots 1 and 2 in section 18, township 
74 north, range 2. The east end of block 1 extends to the main channel of the 
lake. The west edge of the alley passes through the quarter section corner, being 
sections 7 and 18. 


was laid out by Alvin Clark in July. 1840, and the plat is surveyed by John Gilli- 
land, county surveyor, under date February 12, 1846. The town was situate on 
the east bank of the Iowa river, immediately below the junction of the Towa and 
Cedar rivers in section 20. township 75 north, range 4 west. 


a part of Fredonia. was laid out by James Waterbury, July 28, 1859, in the south- 
west corner of the northeast quarter of section 20, 75-4. 

It is often said that Fredonia came near being the capital of Iowa ; that it 
only lost it by one vote. Sometimes the number of votes lacking is given at 
three, etc. There is really no foundation for the story, in the way in which it is 
usually told. Neither Fredonia, nor any other place in this county, ever had any 
chance to be the capital. It is true, however, that Fredonia, Black Hawk, Wapello 
and many other places were proposed and voted for in the House of Representa- 
tives, while there was a contest going on between Mt. Pleasant and Iowa City, 
and that they only lacked from one to three votes of a majority in the House. 
This was in the winter of 1838-9; but there was never any serious intention of 

Southwest from Bund Stand 

Northwest from Band Stand 

n 8 n 

1 I 

Cherry Street Looking South 

,,.-.— '. 


sniiiliS n t itiiii 

Northeast from Band Stand Southeast from Band Stand 


LBNM an'O 


locating the capital here, and the name of Fredonia was never even voted upon 
in the Council. 

Enoch K. Maxson was the first doctor in Fredonia ; he had a "grocer's license" 
in 1840, as did also Mrs. Lucinda Bliven, who afterward married William Todd. 

In July, 1839, Marvel Wheelock was licensed to keep a tavern at Fredonia, 
and also to run a ferry across the Iowa river "below the forks." 

Lotrip Darling, an early settler in Concord township, or rather, Fredonia 
township, as it was first called, was the first blacksmith in Fredonia. 

The railroad reached Fredonia in 1857, and ran its first train east from there 
on July 4th of that year. George Haywood was the first agent. 

John Bryson sold lumber there after the railroad came, then went to Colum- 
bus City, and later to Clifton. Fredonia was something of a "seaport" in the 
days of traffic on the Iowa river, but what little we have learned about that is to 
be found in the chapter on transportation. 

A series of meetings were held at Fredonia in 1842 by Rev. James L. Scott, 
who made a missionary tour from Rhode Island to the great west that year, and 
published a journal which contains some interesting items about Fredonia, Hills- 
boro and that vicinity. Mr. Scott's journal says that he traveled from Burling- 
ton to Fredonia May 25, 1842, and gives the distance as forty-four miles. Aside 
from a few newly commenced settlements and an occasional grove he found the 
scene along the way practically the same, being "an unbounded sea of prairie." 
At twilight he reached the Towa river, his patience being sorely taxed by the 
indolence of the lads who tended the ferryboat at Clark's ferry. 

He describes Fredonia as "A small village, situated on the bank of the Iowa 
river, just at the junction of the Iowa and north fork of the Cedar rivers. I 
have often thought while here that' they had as commodious a location for a large 
town as I ever saw in the interior of a country." He noted the fine timber all 
around, which seemed to him to be much taller than that in Illinois, and noted 
also that they were then erecting a steam sawmill opposite Fredonia. 

Referring to Hillsboro. which is better known now by the name of Toddtown 
he says : "Hillsboro is conveniently located for a harbor and town, and had 
already begun to erect its edifices. It lies on the opposite side of the river from 
Fredonia, and about one mile above on the Iowa branch. Through it a terri- 
torial road passes from Burlington to Iowa City. Here Captain Wheelock keeps 
a commodious ferryboat." He also refers to several "neat buildings" that had 
just been commenced. 

He has this to say of Columbus City, although he gets the name slightly wrong. 
"About three miles back on the route to Burlington is Columbia City, a small 
village, but I cannot now see what will keep it alive, as it is situated on a dry 
prairie. It has. however, a very pleasant location." 

In the latter part of May, Rev. Scott began a series of meetings at Fredonia. 
Of the first one he says : "At eleven o'clock the people began to flock to Fre- 
donia and we listened to a discourse from a Methodist brother. At two p. 111. 
I addressed the congregation and commenced a series of meetings which were 
kept up as much as consistent until my health completely failed, and I was obliged 
to leave a weeping and anxious people. . . . Four o'clock p. m. I addressed 
a congregation of anxious hearers. Many came from distance. Had a meeting 
again in. the evening. Sinners began to inquire the way to heaven." 


Under date of May 27th is the following report in his journal : "Took a 
circuitous route back of Fredonia (probably east) through the prairies, inter- 
spersed with groves. We traveled on a ridge of land which led us through one 
plantation where was about 800 acres under cultivation. On either side of the 
road were large fields of wheat, corn, oats and potatoes. . . . We kept the 
ridge for some distance and were able to survey much of the surrounding country, 
which for picturesque scenery and agricultural conveniences surpasses every- 
thing I ever saw before, or expect to see again." 

On the 28th. which was Sabbath, the reverend gentleman held services and 
then went to Osceola, or Hillsboro, and spent the night. On the next day he 
passed down the river from Hillsboro to Fredonia in a canoe in company with 
Captain Wheelock and lady. On this day the people gathered from far and near 
and the good man was almost persuaded to settle down in Fredonia. 

From that time Sabbath meetings continued until the 8th of June, when he 
was obliged by ill health to close in the middle of a sermon. He was pained at 
heart to leave this field and expressed the fervent wish that "Zion did but know 
the deep wretchedness and anxieties of many of the people scattered through the 
great western valley," and the belief that, if so, they would "fly to their relief and 
help exterminate the heresies, infidelity, popery and Mormonism." 

One of the most interesting things in Mr. Scott's little book is what he says 
about Osceola. This is the name given by Mr. Scott to the high hill or bluff at 
Toddtown on the bank of the Iowa river, just west of the Rock Island track. 
He says : "West of the territorial road at Hillsboro is the rising bank of Osceola, 
or the mound upon which the Indians came to trade, as this was the converging 
point of the nations general resort. We ascended to its conical head. This is 
about 100 feet above the river, which flows directly beneath, and about one mile 
from Fredonia. ... A prospect from the summit must present a still more 
tempting scene than that from the towering mound which overhung the beloved 
city in the eastern world, fust before us between the two rivers was Port 

He, of course, meant Port Allen. Farther on he says: "Northwest of us 
we saw a tree which from its distance resembled an umbrella. I was informed 
that it was a large oak eighteen miles distant and stood on the great territorial 
road which leads from Burlington to Iowa City. About two miles south of us 
was Columbus City. Thus in every direction we could survey the 'garden of the 

"I the night while standing there that this mound might yet sustain an acad- 
emy, and from it the student might survey the geographic features of both river 
and sky." 

Further on he says of this general locality: "The Iowa river is one of the 
largest tributaries of the Mississippi, affording steamboat navigation the principal 
part of the year to Fredonia and Hillsboro. From thence to Iowa City it is 
susceptible of keelboat navigation. With this view of the subject it is readily 
inferred that the towns at the confluence of the Iowa and Cedar rivers will 
eventually take the lead in commerce, notwithstanding the capital is above them 
in point of location, and its population far superior." Concerning the wild fruits 
and wild animals in the Iowa country he says: "Wild plums almost of unnum- 
bered varieties grow in profusion, and the deep recesses of the forests abound 


in wild grapes," etc. He mentions also crab apples and various kinds of berries, 
and foxes, raccoons, opossum, gophers, porcupines, squirrels, otter and deer, and 
says that the rivers, lakes and creeks abound in speckled trout, white perch, black 
and rock bass, catfish, shad, eels, sturgeon and buffalo. 

He describes with much feeling his departure from Fredonia and the "bursts 
of sorrow" with which the people received the intelligence that he was about 
to leave them. In conclusion he says that a church was constituted and founded 
in Fredonia in which Dr. Enoch Maxson was clerk. He refers to Fredonia as 
a very convenient location for a large town, being on the bank of the Iowa river 
"up and down which the proud steamer frequently plays, laden with almost every- 
thing necessary for domestic use in this newly settled country." 

As noted elsewhere, when the townships were first established, what is now 
Concord was a part of Fredonia township, which embraced all, or practically 
all, of the present townships of Oakland and Concord. In those days Fredonia 
was a place of considerable importance. It was incorporated in 1874, the vote 
on the question being taken on May 30th, and resulting 25 for incorporation 
and none against. The population is given as follows: 1870 — 150; 1875 — 
123; 1880 — 157; the population of Fredonia seems to have been included with 
that of the township, and not given separately, in the subsequent enumerations. 
Cram's Atlas for 191 1 gives the population for 1910 at 250, but this may be 
only an estimate. 



was laid out by Jacob Schmeltzer, Elizabeth Wheelock, William Edwards, James 
M. Edwards and Augustus Dubreuil, and surveyed by John R. Sisson, county- 
surveyor, May 14, 1856, and acknowledged by the various proprietors before 
Wesley W. Garner, notary public, August 1, 1856. It appears to have been 
laid out just south of the town of Hillsborough and the greater part of it was 
in the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section 19, although the 
east part of it was about 142 feet extended over into the southwest quarter of 
the northeast quarter of section 19. This plat was also about 600 feet wide 
east and west and about 1,200 or 1,300 feet long north and south. 


was laid out by William Todd on the south bank of the Iowa river immediately 
adjoining the fern' landing, known as Todd's ferry. It was surveyed by John 
Gilliland, county surveyor, April 28, 1842, and acknowledged by William Todd 
before J. S. Rinearson, notary public, June 17, 1842. The part laid out seems 
to have been about 60 feet wide east and west by about 1,500 feet north and 
south . 

The place where these two towns were is now included in the limits of 
Columbus Junction. Hillsboro, as it has usually been called, was once quite a 
business point for shipping on the Iowa river. For a few years, about 1858 
to 1 861, there was a postoffice here, called Altoona. The census of i860 gives 
the population of Hillsboro at 63, while that of 1870 places it at 46. 


Fitch & Luckett packed pork at Hillsboro and Marvel Wheelock and Allan 
Pease had stores there. Philander Bouton had a store at Lafayette. 


is described on the plat book as the second station west of Muscatine on the 
Mississippi & Missouri railroad, situated on the southwest quarter of the north- 
east quarter and the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section 23, 
township 75 north, range 5 west, and was laid out by Joseph A. Green and 
George C. Stone, October 16, 1S58. The railroad extends east and west with 
a bend to the north through the south half of the plat, the greater part of the 
town as platted being on the north side of the railroad. 

Haywood's addition to Clifton was laid out by George Haywood, September 
4. 1865. The location is described as follows on the plat book: "Such addition 
is laid upon the east side and will not vary far from 589 feet wide of the north- 
east quarter of the northwest quarter of section 23 of township j$ north, of range 
5 west, and adjoins the original town plat of Clifton on the north and is an 
extension north the entire length of said northeast quarter of the northwest 
quarter of section 2^." 

Clifton is now but a memory, and yet the census of i860 gives it 46 people 
and that of 1870 gives it 200. In 1867 the Methodists and Catholics each built 
churches there. It had two lumber yards, two hotels and several stores. Geo. 
Haywood was the first agent there, as he had been at Fredonia : he was also 
the first postmaster. Wm. Klotz kept hotel there, and Geo. \V. Merrill. I. L. & 
P. H. Collins, and Russell & Gallup had stores. Clifton was at one time the 
shipping point for Columbus City, Union and part of Wapello townships. 


rile first official name given to the territory comprising Oakland township 
after it became a part of Louisa county, which was not until January, 1839, 
was Catteese. The designation of this district was intended both for a road 
district and a voting precinct, and it was provided that the voting place should 
be at Hugh Coland's. This name is given at other times as "Calm" or "Callan." 
Whatever the proper spelling was, it is quite certain he was an early settler in 
Oakland township, and probably lived near the bank of the Iowa river almost 
due west from Levi 1 Hake's residence. 

Among the other early settlers were Joseph Blake, Peter Blake, Curtis 
Knight and Absalom Dollarhide. William Blake. M. Seydell, and John Brown. 

Joseph Blake was for a time the leading man in Oakland township. 

Absalom Dollarhide had a grist mill on Prairie creek, not far from tile 
bridge in the southwest quarter of section 22. 

The first town established or attempted to be established in Oakland town- 
ship was called Catteese. William L. Toole refers to this in his writings in 
the "Annals of Iowa." He says, that in a very early day there was great rivalry 
between Catteese and Fredonia. and at one time there was a lot sale in Catteese. 

Catteese was undoubtedly the forerunner of the original town of Port Allen, 


which was located on high ground just across the river north from old "Todd 

In July, 1839, Mr. Samuel Davis, editor of a Whig paper called the "Peoria 
Register," was making a tour through Wisconsin, and was writing letters, one 
of which was published in the Iowa News of Dubuque. It is dated Catteese, 
July 4, 1837, and while it is quite an interesting letter, it does not say anything 
about Catteese or the immediate country around it, but the fact that it is dated 
at Catteese shows that it was then on the map. 

We have an interesting little book which once belonged to Curtis Knight, 
which he called his "bill book." It begins in 1831 and extends over to about 
1853. There are but few items in it. The first entry covers about four pages, 
and seems to be an inventory or invoice of goods bought by Curtis Knight in 
1831, but the name of the vendor is not decipherable now. 

We gather from some of the entries in this book that Mr. Knight settled in 
Oakland township in the spring of 1838. 

If Mr. Knight had recorded all the happenings in the "forks of the river," 
in those early days, his book would possess very great interest. He might have 
enlightened us as to the Saturday gatherings for the promotion of horseracing 
and the manly art of fisticuffing. These were favorite sports with the people of 
the southern half of Oakland township until long after the war. 

The custom in early days of borrowing and lending is well illustrated by 
some of the entries in this book. We give some sample entries : • 

"Iowa & Seeder Forks, Louisa County 

June 4, 1838. Peter Blake debtor to Curtis Knight: 

To 8 lbs. of bacon .• .$1.00 

To l A bushel of seed corn 5° 

To One half day sawing plank 50 

To one bushel of corn i-OO 

To Y\ y ar d linen 37 

August 3, 1838. To breakage of wagon tongue 2.50 

Lent to Peter Blake. 4 small pans of corn meal at one time and 2 at another. 

Lent four large pans of flour. 

Lent 2 bowls of salt. 

Lent one tea cup of pepper. 

Lent 1 tea cup of shugar. 

Lent 1 bowl of salt. 


From a few entries in the book it seems that Mr. Knight was a store keeper, 
and charged Jayhue Bedwell with an Ox yoke, staple, ring and post $3.00, and 
with different sums for different kinds of cloth, one item of 7 1/3 yards of 
"cassamer" at $13.75. He sells bacon, corn, skein silk, pickeled pork, potatoes, 
coffee, onions, saddles, honey and various other items. The price for coffee 
seems to have been 20 cents a pound, and corn meal 50 cts. a bushel. 


Hugh Callin's name is found in one entry under date of December 4, 1840. 


Port Allen was the next town in Oakland township and was laid out by 
George W. Allen, Joseph Blake, William Blake and Peter Blake, March 19, 
1841, and was located in the forks of the Cedar and Iowa rivers. It was sur- 
veyed by John Gilliland, County Surveyor, and the plat was acknowledged by 
the above named proprietors on March 20, 1841, before Enoch K. Maxson, 
Justice of the Peace. 

This was quite a pretentious place for a little while, there being a ferry 
across the Iowa river on the road to Fredonia and across the Iowa to the south. 
At one time the ferry license was in the name of a man named lohn Brown, 
and it is said that he and also Mr. Allen kept store in Port Allen. 

The government records show that Port Allen had the following postmasters : 

Curtis Knight, appointed June 15, 1848. 

Jesse Graves, appointed March 30, 1854. 

William H. Hayward, appointed February 19, 1856. 

Hiram Hall, appointed May 21, 1857. 

David M. Inghram, appointed June 18, 1861. 

We do not think that any of these men kept the postoffice at the Port Allen 
which was located by George W. Allen. 

At the time that Curtis Knight was postmaster, he kept the postoffice at his 
house, which was on the bank of the Iowa river about three-quarters of a mile 
north of the platted town, and at that time it had probably been abandoned. 
The other postmasters given for Port Allen were located at the town platted 
as Oakland, which was situated some three miles north and west of there in 
sections 36 and 25. 

A little later than the time we speak of, came Cyril Carpenter, Charles H. 
Abbott. Shakespeare McKee, Milton Carpenter, W. B. Davis, Alvah Morse, 
Delatus Graves, H. A. Keyes and William Nelson. A brief sketch of Cvril 
Carpenter will be found in the chapter on personal mention. 

An interesting story is told of how Oakland township came to be established : 
it was originally a part of Fredonia township, with the township headquarters 
and voting place at Fredonia. which necessitated the people living in Oakland 
township crossing the river when they wanted to vote or transact township 
business. Practically all the township officers were elected from the Fredonia 
side. At one election Colonel Abbott organized the Oakland township voters, 
and made up a ticket of township officers all of whom belonged in Oakland 
township. To prevent undue excitement on the Fredonia side, the Oakland 
township voters went over in skiffs one and two at a time, and their plan was 
not discovered until the polls were about to close, but too late to prevent the 
success of Abbott's plan. The result was, that when nearly all the township 
officers belonged in Oakland township the people on the Fredonia side were 
willing for a division. 


was laid out by James McKee, Erastus Graves, W. H. Crocker and Charles H. 
Abbott on sections 25 and 36, township 76 north, range 5 west, the quarter sec- 


tion corner of the north boundary of section 36 being the geographical center 
of the town plat. It was surveyed by John R. Sisson, county surveyor, October 

5- i854- 


The history of Hope Farm and Cairo properly belong together. Hope Farm 
was located on the land now owned by John Bretz, east of Cairo. It was started 
by the Isetts, Dr. Samuel R. Isett and J. Wilson Isett ; they settled in that 
neighborhood probably as early as 1837. J. Wilson Isett had a store at Hope 
Farm as early as 1839. It is said that the first school in this vicinity was located 
about a quarter of a mile east of Hope Farm. The early school teachers were 
Elijah Lathrop and Veazy P. Bunnell, and they probably taught there in 1838 
and 1839, although the exact date cannot be stated. Frank Griswold, now a 
resident of Wapello went to school there, as did also the late Mrs. Weaver, 
mother of Hon. H. O. Weaver, of Wapello. 

The postmasters at Hope Farm were as follows : 

Samuel Isett, appointed February 22, 1840 ; James W. Isett, appointed Decem- 
ber 29, 1840; Franklin Griswold, appointed August 18, 1843; John Marshall, 
appointed March 25, 1844; Joseph B. Nichols, appointed January 14, 1850; 
Thomas J. R. Ellis, appointed October 4, 1850. The postoffice at Hope Farm 
was discontinued March 23, 1856. 

The postmasters at Cairo down to war times were as follows : 

John Marshall, appointed July 1, 1856; Jefferson W. Davis, appointed April 
18, 1857; David McKinley, appointed March 13, 1858; Alonzo D. Hickok. 
February 20, 1865. It can be safely assumed that practically all of these post- 
masters were store keepers at the time they held the postoffice. 

There was a hotel in Cairo called the Louisa House, kept by Mrs. Lucy 
Hummeston, afterward Forbes. Mrs. Hummeston first kept hotel and called 
it the Louisa House, on the farm where Leslie Nichols now lives ; the old sign 
of the hotel was taken to Cairo and used there. Mrs. Hummeston was a daughter 
of Franklin Griswold, who with his brother were among the very earliest 
settlers in Marshall township ; the brother, Ira Griswold, framed the Wapello 
Mill when it was first erected. 

Aside from the early store keepers and those already mentioned, the pioneer 
settlers of Marshall township were Richard Slaughter, George Key, Nixon 
Scott, Richard Restine, John Sellers, Annanias Simpkins. H. M. Ochiltree, 
whose name is connected with the history of Morning Sun, first settled on a 
piece of land in Marshall township. A little later came Robert Niccolls, John 
N. Baldrige and Oliver Benton ; also Abraham Hill, who built what was known 
as Hill's Mill on Long creek near the Dan McKay farm. Another early settler 
was Christopher Fox, the grandfather of Mrs. Ralph Butler, who was quite a 
character in his day and had seen active service in the Black Hawk war. In 
the early '60s Jesse Vanhorn was prominent in Cairo, and had much to do 
with building the Cairo church. He also erected a grist mill on Long creek 
about three miles down the creek from the Derbin mill. 

About this same time M. M. Carson was running a pump factory at Cairo. 

This was also the home of Rev. F. F. Kiner, who will be remembered as 
one of the supervisors who were taken to Des Moines by the United States 


marshal. Mr. Kiner came here from Jefferson county shortly after the war 
was over; he was a soldier and wrote a book describing his life in prison. 

Following is what the records show as to the laying out of Cairo and its 
additions : 


was laid out by James H. Marshall on the northwest quarter of the southwest 
quarter of the northwest quarter of section 28, township 74 north, range 4 west, 
surveyed by W. S. Kroner, June 15, 1865. 

Vanhorn & Kiner's addition to Cairo surveyed by William C. Blackstone, 
county surveyor, April 23, 1869. The plat does not state where the addition is 

Marshall's addition to Cairo, laid out by John S. Marshall, October 4, 1866, 
and surveyed by William C. Blackstone. said to be laid out on the north side of 
Cairo proper. 

Vanhorn's addition to Cairo, laid out by Jesse Vanhorn, April 12, 1875, in 
the south half of the southwest quarter of the northwest quarter of section 28, 74-4. 

The population of Cairo has usually been included in Marshall township, 
but it was given separately in the census of 1880. At that time it was 123. 


was laid out by Margaret E. Cotter. January 23, 1878, situated on the north 
side of the north half of the northwest quarter of section 20, 75-5, and on the 
north side of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific railroad. 

An addition was made to Cotterville by R. T. Jones, May 3, 1899, by making 
a subdivision of outlot 2 in the west part of the town. 

Jenkins' addition to Cotterville, laid out December 30, 1904, by Catherine 
Ann Jenkins, Richard Jenkins and John Jenkins, in the southwest part of the 
west "half of the southwest quarter of section 17, 75-5, adjoining the town on 
the north. 

The place is now called Cotter; it is well located on the Chicago, Rock Island 
& Pacific railroad about five miles west of Columbus Junction. It had several 
good stores, and is the trading point for a great many of the Welsh. It also 
has a strong bank, of which Robert T. Jones is president and R. L. Richards is 


was laid out by Alvin Clark and Robert Childers on the southwest quarter of 
section 22, township 75 north, range 3 west, surveyed by John Gilliland, county 
surveyor, July 3, 1841. 

Springer's addition to Grandview. laid out by Francis Springer, surveyed by 
lohn Gilliland. Tune 7, 1843. It was laid out on land immediately south of the 
original town of Grandview. The part north of Monroe street which consists 
of six blocks containing six lots each, is said to be a part of the original plat as 
laid out by Clark and Childers. 

Jackson's addition to Grandview. laid out by John Jackson, in the southwest 
quarter of the southeast quarter of section 22, township 75 north, range 3 west. 



being immediately east of the original town of Grandview, surveyed by W. S. 
Kremer, surveyor, July 11, 1857. 

January 24, 1843, the legislature of Iowa passed an act incorporating a 
seminary of learning in Grandview, to be called the Grandview Seminary, and 
named as the incorporators, Henry Rockafellow, William Thompson, John 
Ronalds, Spencer Wilson, Robert Childres, Gabriel Walling, George Humphreys, 
Alexander Ross, Martin Gray and Clark Alexander. And in February. 1844, 
an act was passed incorporating the Grandview Literary & Philosophical Society, 
and naming as incorporators, Alexander McCall. Lewis Kinsey, Robert Childres, 
Spencer Wilson, Abraham McCleary. 

The postomce was established in Grandview May 2nd, 1838, and the following 
is a list of the postmasters up to war times, with the dates of their appoint- 
ments: Alvin Clark, May 2, 1838; Gabriel Walling, October 13. 1839: Benj. 
Gibboney, July 8, 1847: J. B. Latta, December 10, 1849; David Winder. April 
10, 1850; Robert Gillis, April 16, 1851 ; George Hutchinson, April 14, 1853: 
Nathan M. Stone, March 8, 1855 ; James H. Sprague, September 6, 1855 : David 
Winder, March 2, 1865. It is safe to say -that all these postmasters were store 
keepers at the time they held the postomce. 

It is said that the first house in Grandview was built by Gabriel Walling in 


Grandview has always been noted for the high moral sentiment which pre- 

vades most of its citizens and also for its devotion to the cause of education. 

It is said that the first school taught in Grandview township was in 1839 in a 

cabin in the village of Grandview, and that it was taught by Miss Rachel Gray. 

Grandview Institute — A. B. Hartzell, principal, advertises in Wapello Repub- 
lican of March 28. 1 861 "that the 7th term of this well-known institute will 
commence April 15, 1861." 

The Republican of November 10. 1866, says that "The Grandview Academy, 
under the direction of Prof. McClanahan, seems to be doing quite as well as 
its founders anticipated. The building itself is a spacious two story brick, and 
having been just completed, it wears a clean, nice, pleasant appearance through- 
out. Some forty scholars are already in attendance, &c." 

Later, Lewis Kinsey, who was at one time Justice of the Peace in Grand- 
view township, taught school there. In 1844 a seminary building was erected, 
and a good school was taught there for a number of years. We think another 
educational institution, called the Grandview Seminary was incorporated under 
the general incorporation law in 1869, or about that time, and that in 1874, 
Professor E. R. Eldrige became principal of it. Professor Eldrige was one of 
the leaders in the movement to re-organize normal schools in Iowa, and through 
his efforts the Grandview Seminary was converted into the Eastern Iowa Normal 
School which began its first session in the fall of 1874, with Professor Eldrige 
as president, James A. Kennedy, vice president, W. F. Davis, secretary and 
Tohn A. Thompson principal of the Commercial department. Mr. Kennedy 
and Mr. Davis were both experienced teachers, and the Eastern Iowa Normal 
School as conducted at Grandview for a number of years was of untold benefit 
to the community and the county. An arrangement was made by which the 
Grandview public schools were made "Model schools" for the normal school 
and were taught by the seniors and juniors under the supervision of the normal 


school faculty. Joseph Sypheit and Miss Hutchinson were teaching in the 
public schools of Grandview, and were added to the normal school faculty. 

At that time Grandview was thought to have a prospect for a railroad, but 
as soon as the hope of a railroad vanished, it was felt the institution would be 
more prosperous if located where it could have the advantages of railroad trans- 
portation, and so, about 1881, through the influence of N. M. Letts, the Eastern 
Iowa Normal School was moved to Columbus Junction. It was re-organized 
with a new charter and a new board of trustees and received title to Block 5 
in Columbus Junction, on which was a $25,000 building which had been erected 
by the people of Columbus Junction for the courthouse in case they could suc- 
ceed in getting the county seat removed to that place. The normal school pros- 
pered at Columbus Junction for several years, but soon after Professor Eldrige 
accepted the presidency of the State Normal School of Alabama, the normal 
school died and the building subsequently became the property of the Columbus 
Junction school district. 

We copy the following item from the Wapello Intelligencer of January 31, 
1854, which shows what outsiders thought of Grandview at that time: "In 
conversation with a gentleman near Grandview, we learn that that pleasant 
village is improving finely. Several good buildings have been erected there the 
past season, among which is quite an extensive dwelling, of brick, by Dr. I. B. 
Latta, which adds to the appearance of the town. Our informant states that 
there is quite a stirring business in the way of trade carried on there. Three 
business establishments are flourishing. Messrs. Fleming & Giles have nearly 
sold out their very large stock of fall and winter goods and are making prepara- 
tions to bring on a heavier stock the coming spring, than ever before. Mr. 
Hutchinson is said to have sold out quite an extensive stock of goods besides 
doing a good business in the way of accommodating the traveling public at his 
commodious hotel. 

To those who merely pass through Grandview, it may seem strange that so 
much business would be done there. But were they to pass over the township 
and see the many rich farms that are pouring their products into market, and 
taking in exchange the requisite supplies for farm and fireside — they will at 
once see the whys and wherefores of this trade. Many wealthy farmers reside 
in Grandview township, and the beauty of it all is that the material is there in 
abundance for multitudes more, if good soil is any criterion. From its beauti- 
ful and elevated position, one would naturally enough be led to the conclusion 
that it is a healthful location. This we are authentically informed is the fact." 

Grandview has always been a stronghold of prohibition and many meetings 
in furtherance of the cause have been held there. We find the proceedings of 
a meeting held June 10, 1862, in the Wapello Republican, and the fourth resolu- 
tion passed by that meeting might well be heeded by our officers at the present 

Prohibition meeting at Grandview. June 10. 1862. Following Preamble and 
Resolution unanimously adopted. 

Whereas, the evil of intemperance prevails in this community to an alarm- 
ing extent and seems to be increasing daily, therefore Resolved : 

1st. That the time has come when it becomes an imperative necessity for 
all persons to take a decided position on the question. 


2d. Resolved, that persons engaged in the nefarious traffic of intoxicating 
liquors (including lager beer) are engaged in an unholy business, and are the 
common enemies of our race. 

3d. Resolved, that the order loving citizens of this place lend a helping 
hand to arrest the progress of intemperance in our midst. 

4th. Resolved, that as it is the province of law to preserve order as well 
as to prevent crime, we believe it to be the duty of any, and all of our civil 
officers to bring to justice any person or persons found guilty of violating the 
law, in vending liquors or becoming intoxicated. 

5th. Resolved, that those engaged in selling lager beer, and other intoxi- 
cating liquors, are requested to desist immediately. 

John A. Hartzell, 
S. E. Jones, 
J. Frisbee, 

Com. on Resolution. 

Grandview has always been a church center. It is a very difficult matter 
to get detailed church history, but in the case of one of the churches of Grand- 
view, the Congregational, we have been favored by Reverend T. O. Douglas 
of Grinnell, with its history, which is as follows : 

"The Grandview church was organized June 19, 1857. The list of pastors 
is as follows : 

"Adam Blumer, '5/- - 59 ; Henry Langpaap. '59-'6o : Frederick W. Judeisch, 
'6o-'7S; Henry Hetzleiv '75-78; Andrew Kern, '78- '86 ; Henry Vogler, '86- '88 : 
Gustav L. Brackemeyer, '88-92 ; E. F. Kluckhohn, '92-94 ; William Berg, '95- 
'97; C. W. Anthony, '97-98; P. J. Theil, 1900-1902; Henry W. Stein. '02-03; H. 
S. Everet, '04-06 ; W. L. Childress, '07-08 ; Samuel E. Eells, '09. Originally, as 
you will see by the names of the pastors, this church was German. A number 
of years ago the English was introduced into some of the services. More and 
more, as the years went by, the congregation became English, and in 1903 the 
German was dropped entirely, and in 1906 the church transferred its member- 
ship from the German to the Davenport Association. Only a short time ago 
three of the charter members were still alive, and in constant attendance upon 
the services of the church. The church building was dedicated June 27, 1858. 
The building is now being remodeled and refurnished. The present pastor, Mr. 
Eells, is the son of one of our early missionaries, who was pastor at Farmington. 
Webster, Cincinnati, Lucas Grove and Sabula, 1866 to 1876. He is still alive, 
residing at Payson, Illinois. I am not able to say very much about the different 
pastors. Henry Langpaap was in the state from '59 to '68, preaching at Grand- 
view, Pine Creek, Davenport, Garnavillo, Lansing Ridge, etc. You will notice 
that Mr. Judeisch was pastor of the Grandview church for fifteen years. He 
was born in Prussia, November 11, 1820. He came to America in 1850, coming 
first to Muscatine. He moved to Pine Creek in 1853, and began preaching in 
1859. From 1875 to 1892 he was pastor of the church at Davenport. He died 
May 5, 1900. At our meetings of Association he always spoke in English but 


prayed in German. Some of us who had no knowledge of die German language 
learned the opening sentence of his prayer: 'Wir danken. Dir, lieher Vater." 
One of the many contributions of Germany to Iowa was this good man. Fred- 
erick \Y. Judeisch. He gave us forty years of service. 

"Andrew Kern gave us twenty-three years of service, preaching at Grand- 
view. Minden, Lansing Ridge. New Hampton, etc. 

"The other men had short pastorates, and were not in the state for a great 
while, and perhaps need no special mention here." 

It is said that the first church built in Grandview was by the Methodists, and 
that they erected a new building about 1871. 

The United Presbyterians also have a congregation in Grandview, and they 
erected a church building about [854. 

Grandview got her first railroad in 189S, when the Muscatine, North & 
South Railroad was constructed, and since that time it has grown quite a little 
and taken on some city airs. 

Grandview was first incorporated in 1878. August 8. 187,8, E. IS. Lacey and 
thirty-three others filed a petition for incorporation. The commissioners appointed 
to hold the election were E. B. Lacey, J. H. Benson. A. Brown, D. W. Walker 
and Geo. Hummell. and on Oct. 11. 1878, the vote on the question of incorpora- 
tion was 29 for to 21 against. Some years afterward the corporation was aban- 
doned, and Grandview remained a village until 1901. when it was again incor- 
porated. The petition was filed March 5, 1901, and D. J. Higiey. D. M. Bridges, 
John Schafer. A. M. Cowden and W. B. Robison were appointed commissioners. 
An election was held and the vote was 56 for incorporation to 36 against. Feb- 
ruarv 13, 1901, the following officers were elected: A. M. Cowden. mayor; G. F. 
Schafer, clerk; D. M. Bridges, treasurer; Peter Muller, James Thorp, W. E. 
Schweitzer, William Guthrie, I- din F. Robison and T. B. Christy, councilmen. 

The present officers are: Mayor, Win. Dickerson ; recorder. Ed. Haas; coun- 
cilmen. C. W. Graham. O. W. McGrew, J. M. P.uster. Peter Muller and John 
J. Beik. 

The population of Grandview is given differently in some of the official 
publications. The following we believe to be nearly correct: 1854 — <;i ; i860 — 
138; 1870 — 160: 1880—105: 1885 — 22<i: 1905—278; inio— 374. 

Through the courtesy of Rev. E. C. Brooks, of Wapello, we have had access 
to the early conference reports of the M. E. church. 111 which we find the fol- 
lowing interesting items pertaining to the early history of that denomination in 

Grandview was in the Rock river conference in 1842, and Joseph L. Kirk- 
patrick is named as pastor; Luther McVoy was pastor in 1843, and the member- 
ship is given as 166. This must have included quite a scope of country. 

Grandview was in the Iowa conference in 1844 and Laban Case was pastor, 
with a membership stated at 233. 

In 1845 Sidney Wood was pastor, anil the membership is given at 134. 

In 1846 John H. Dennis was pastor, with 130 members; in 1847 Joseph W. 
Maxon was pastor with 138 members; in 1848 Wm. Burris was pastor with 
155 white and 3 colored members; in 184(1 Joseph Jamison was pastor with 120 
members; in 1850 H. N. Wilbur was pastor with 143 members; in 1851 Lucas 


C. Woodford was pastor with 222 members; in 1852 J. T. Coleman was pastor 
with 183 members. W. R. IUake was pastor in 1853, E. Lathrop in 1854 and J. 
T. Manderville in 1855. 


was laid out by Cicero Hamilton, September 13, 1851, on the northeast corner 
of the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 25, township 73 north, 
range 4 west. 

Brown's addition to Morning Sun, laid out by William I'. Brown, surveyed by 
John R. Sisson, April 17, 1855, situated on the southeast corner of the south- 
east quarter of the northeast quarter of section 25, township "7, north, range 4 

Wilson Griffin's addition to Morning Sun, surveyed by John R. Sisson, De- 
cember 19, 1855, and laid out on the northwest quarter of section 30, township 73 
north, range 3 west. 

Brown's second addition to Morning Sun laid out by William P. Brown, sur- 
veyed by W. S. Kremer, March 27, 1859, laid out in the southeast corner of 
the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 25. 73-4. 

Cicero Hamilton's addition to Morning Sun laid out on the northeast quarter 
of the southeast quarter of section 25, township jt, north, range 4 west. This is a 
small addition, containing four blocks and it seems that the original plat was lost. 
In the dedication Mr. Hamilton states that "Having heretofore on certain lots 
laid out a town described and known as Hamilton's addition to Morning Sun, the 
records having been lost, the same having been surveyed by J. R. Sisson, at that 
time county surveyor of Louisa county, and state of Iowa, and filed for record 
by him and to my knowledge was recorded and I hereby certify that the plat 
hereto attached is a complete copy for all practical purposes and is substantially 
the same as heretofore laid out for me and for my benefit. The lots all hav- 
ing been sold and deeded by me in good faith, I therefore make this second plat 
with my full consent that the same can be put on the county records, etc." 

April 30, 1870, Josiah Y T ertrees laid out what is commonly called Vertrees' 
addition to Morning Sun, but the plat does not purport to be anything more than 
a subdivision, and was laid out on the south side of the southwest quarter of 
the northwest quarter of section 30, township 73 north, range 3 west, and sur- 
veyed by Thomas W. Bailey, county surveyor. 

Marshall's addition to Morning Sun laid out by Elias .Marshall, April 21. 
1873, and surveyed by W. S. Kremer, surveyor, situated in the southeast corner 
of the northwest quarter of the southwest quarter of section 30, jy^i- 

Marshall's second addition to Morning Sun laid out by Elias Marshall, Febru- 
ary 22, 1875, in southeast corner of northwest quarter of southwest quarter of 
section 30-73-3. 

Harriet Nixon's addition to Morning Sun laid out on the east half of the 
east half of the west half of section 30, 73-3. 

Morning Sun station laid out by James Sterrett on the west half of the south- 
east quarter of section 30, 73-3, August 24, 1870, surveyed by Peter Houtz. 
deputy county surveyor. 


East Morning Sun laid out by Josiah Nicol on September 4, 1870, beginning 
at the southwest corner of the west half of the northeast quarter of section 30, 


Samuel Reid's addition to Morning Sun, consisting of four lots, surveyed by 
Peter Houtz, county surveyor, March 13, 1873, and appears to be situated in 
the northeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 25, 73-4. 

Samuel Hamilton's addition to Morning Sun, surveyed by W. S. Kremer, 
September, 1873, and laid out on the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter 
of the southwest quarter of section 30, y^-T,. 

Wilmering's addition to Morning Sun, laid out by Herman Wilmering, better 
known as "Dutch Jake," in April, 1874, surveyed by Peter Houtz, county sur- 
veyor, and laid out on the south half of the northwest quarter of section 30, 


There are a number of subdivisions of lots and out lots which cannot be 
properly classed as additions but are found on the plat book. There is also a 
plat of the railway depot grounds at Morning Sun. 

W. T. Vertrees' addition to Morning Sun, surveyed by VV. S. Kremer, April 

22, 1895, and situated on the northwest part of the southwest quarter of the 
northwest quarter of section 30, 72,~3- 

Nancy Wilson's addition to Morning Sun. surveyed by W. S. Kremer, April 

23, 1892, and situated on the northeast corner of the southwest quarter of the 
southwest quarter of section 30, 7^-^ and adjoins Gifford's addition on the east. 

Hayes' addition to Morning Sun, surveyed by W. S. Kremer, for A. D. Hayes, 
August 15, 1899, an d ' a id out on tne east s ' x acres of lot 1 in the southeast quarter 
of the northwest quarter of section 30, 73-3. 

In the records of the county court is found the account of the filing of a peti- 
tion of H. C. Blake and twenty others asking Judge Derbin to order an election 
to be held in the village of Morning Sun to decide on the question "Shall the 
addition to Morning Sun laid oft" by Wilson Giffin, and generally known as 
Giffin's addition to Morning Sun, be added to and become a part of said vil- 
lage"? This election appears to have been ordered, and held on Nov. 7, 1857, 
resulting in a majority in favor of the proposition. 

The first settlement in the vicinity of the present town of Morning Sun is 
thought to have been made by Jonathan Harkeman, from Ohio. He came in 
1836. He was a blacksmith by trade, and was the inventor and maker of the 
first diamond plow. The first school in this vicinity was probably taught by T. 
P. Brown, a little north of the town. 

The first postmaster in Morning Sun was W. P. Brown, but the first post- 
office in Morning Sun township was at "Virginia Grove," and the office was 
called by that name. Mr. Brown had the postoffice before the town was laid out, 
and it is believed that he gave Morning Sun its name. H. C. Blake was the 
second postmaster at Morning Sun. 

W. P. Brown also built the first house in the present limits of Morning Sun, 
and his son, J. C. Brown, opened the first store in this building. Other early 
merchants were Wright, Blake, llunl, Stormont and Jamison. 

Cicero Hamilton had a saw mill in the early days of the town. The town of 
.Morning Sun was incorporated in 1867: on June 3rd of that year Henry 
McClurkin, J. C. Brown and Henry C. Blake presented to County Judge Wm. 



G. Allen the petition of 44 residents, asking for incorporation, and on same day 
the order was made for the organization of the town. J. C. Brown was the first 
mayor, and was elected in August, 1807. 

In September, 1874. W. E. Smith, M. M. Carson, James Higbee, Elliot 
Frazer, J. W. Cavan and others petitioned the circuit court for an election upon 
the question of annexing the additions known as Wilmering's addition, Morning 
Sun Station, East Morning Sun and eight acres adjoining East Morning Sun. The 
court appointed M. M. Carson, James Higbee, W.. E. Smith, J. C. Shirk and |. 
W. Cavan commissioners to hold an election in the territory proposed to be 
annexed, and they held an election on Oct. 31, 1874. at which a majority of the 
people voting were favorable to the proposition; and on Nov. 12, 1874, the 
council, by resolution approved the annexation. 

Present officers are : P. A. Yohe, mayor ; W. B. Garvin, clerk ; J. W. Smith, 
treasurer. Councilmen : J. F. Holiday, W. R. Smyth, J. L. Vertrees, E. L. Mc- 
Clurkin and T. E. Skinner. 

Morning Sun has always given good support to its schools. 

In 1867 it built the finest schoolhouse in the county at that time. A few 
years ago the building was destroyed by fire, and Morning Sun immediately 
replaced it with a modern edifice which is also the best in the county. 

The population of Morning Sun at the various census enumerations has been 
as follows: 1869—279; 1870—314; 1873—445; 1875—785; 1880—812; 1885— 
880; 1890 — 881; 1895 — 987; 1900 — 948; 1905 — 981; 19 10 — 897. 

Morning Sun is a thriving, up-to-date place, with two railroads, two good 
banks, a newspaper which has one of the best job-printing offices in this part of 
the state, and a number of good stores and strong church organizations. One of 
the churches was the Associate Reform congregation of Virginia Grove, and is 
said to have been organized by Rev. Samuel Finley in 1840. It is now known as 
the United Presbyterian church of Morning Sun. John Wilson, John Hamilton, 
Henry M. Ochiltree and Wilson Giffin were elders, and Rev. Jackson Duff pastor 
in its early years. Rev. William M. Graham, Rev. Thomas Samson, and Rev. 
T. C. McKilday have been pastors, Rev. Fred Elliott is the pastor at this time. 


No authentic record of the earliest Methodist services in the vicinity of what 
is now Morning Sun can be found. It is believed that the pioneer itinerants ■ 
preached in various residences and neighboring schoolhouses as early as the 
forties. It is well known that Methodist preachers by the names of Wilson. 
Prather and Wayman held revival meetings near Morning Sun before the Civil 
war. The first regularly organized class in Morning Sun was formed by a Rev. 
Mr. Paschal of Columbus City, soon after the war, and the charter members were 
Samuel Hamilton and wife, R. Delzell and wife, M. Jarvis and wife, Dr. O. 
Reynolds and wife and Mrs. Cramer. We find that this class was supplied with 
preaching by local preachers by the names of Pell and Bird, and pastors of 
neighboring charges. The services were first held in the home of William P. 
Brown, afterwards in the Presbyterian church and still later in Schenk's hall. 

Morning Sun was officially organized as a charge of the Iowa Conference in 
1871 and Bishop Ames appointed as its first pastor Rev. Morris Bamford. Con- 


cord. Otter Creek and Virginia Grove were parts of the Morning Sun circuit 
until 1890 when these appointments were discontinued and in place of Virginia 
Grove a class was organized at Marsh. The Marsh appointment belonged to 
Morning Sun until 1901 when it was made a part of the .Mt. Union circuit and 
Morning Sun became a station. The first Methodist church building was erected 
in Morning Sun in 1873; this was improved and enlarged in 1884. The beauti- 
ful church building as it now stands was constructed in 1896 during the pastor- 
ates of W. T. Henness and A. S. Loveall. It was dedicated by the Rev. Dr. B. 
I. Ives, Dec. 20, 1896. It now represents a value approximately of $10,000. 

The Methodist Episcopal communion and community of Morning Sun has 
enjoyed a wholesome and quite regular growth during the thirty-nine years of 
its history. From the small beginnings herein mentioned, the membership has 
increased until it now numbers approximately three hundred. The present out- 
look for Methodism in Morning Sun is very encouraging. Following is a list 
of pastors, men of strength and character. 

Early itinerants and supplies: Joseph Paschal, Rev. Mr. Bell, Rev. Mr. Bird, 
Rev. Mr. 1'rather, Rev. Mr. Wilson, Rev. Mr. Wayman. 

Regular pastors: Morris Banford, J. R. Noble, G. M. Tuttle, J. E. Corley, 
S. S. Martin, Geo. Nulton, J. W. Lewis, J. II. Armaeost, P. J. Henness (two 
terms), J. M. Hoober, A. S. Loveall, A. E. Buriff, D. C. Bevan, J. A. Boatman, 
F. W. Adams. C. R. Zimmerman. George Blagg. 


The First Presbyterian Church of Morning Sun, Iowa, was organized by order 
of the Presbytery of Iowa, May 28, [849, as a result of the pioneer missionary 
lain us of Rev. Launcelot Graham Bell. "Father Bell,*' as he was commonly 
called, was at this time pastor of the Presbyterian Church of Fairfield, Iowa. 
There were eighteen charter members, namely: John N. Baldrige. .Mrs. Eliza 
Baldrige, Mrs. Margaret E. Benton. Mrs. Ally Brown, Hamilton Brown, Mrs. 
Sarah Brown, Thomas P. Brown, James Coulter. Mrs. Jane Coulter. Hamilton 
Hewitt. Mrs. Priscilla Hewitt, W. J. Hewitt, Mrs. Fliza Joy, Anna Nichols, 
Mrs. Ellen Nichols. Mrs. Rebecca Nichols, J. M. Swan, and .Mrs. Nancy Swan 

After a sermon by Father Bell the church was formally organized in the Asso- 
ciate Reformed Church, under the name of "The Presbyterian Church of Vir- 
ginia Grove." and as such the infant organization was reported to the Presbytery 
of Iowa, and the church continued to be known by this name until the early six- 
ties, when the name was changed to "The First Presbyterian Church of Morning 
Sun. Iowa." 

On the date of organization the following elders were duly elected: Hamil- 
ton Brown, James Coulter and J. McConnell Swan. The first session meeting 
was held September 2, 1849, and was moderated by Rev. Salmon Cowles. Hamil- 
ton Brown was elected clerk of session, which office he retained until June, 1800. 

In 1849 a call was extended to Rev. Salmon Cowles, which he accepted, and 
he was duly installed September 30, 1850, and continued as pastor until September, 
1853. The names and dates of those succeeding to the pastorate of the church 
areas follows: Rev. F. B. Dinsmore, 1854-1860; temporary supplies. Rev. J. B. 
McBride and Mr. B. Wall in [861 ; Rev. D. T. Campbell. 1861-1877; Rev. A. W. 


1 / 

~> i 




Colver, nine months, 1878; Rev. J. E. Karnes, 1879-1886; Rev. M. M. Cooper. 
1887-1889; Rev. H. C. Keeley, six months; Rev. J. K. Alexander, 1891-1899; 
Rev. S. H. Parvin, 1899-1903; Rev. William MacKay, 1903-1909; Rev. A. E. 
Cameron, 1909 — . 

The succession of elders is as follows: James Coulter, 1849-1857; James M. 
Swan, 1S49-1867; Hamilton Brown, 1849-1873; Joseph Benton, 1855-1857; J. \\ . 
Taylor, 1857-1862; Adam Hill, 1857-1898; Joseph Swan, 1860-1900; R. II. 
Stewart, 1866-1877; William -McClure, 1866-1872; W. J. Hewitt, 1874-1894; 
William Shirk,' 1874- 1882 ; Columbus Delong, 1878-1897; D. H. Morrison, 1878- 
1908; J. B. Wright, 1879-1897; J. A. Swan, 1896-1899; J. M. Morrison, 1896- 
1910; E. M. Swan, 1896 — ; C. F. Hewitt, 1900 — ; T. J. Achiltree, 1901-1904; 
J. C. E. Yohe, 1901 — . 

The first building owned by the congregation stood just east of Elm wood 
cemetery. The present beautiful edifice was built during the pastorate of Rev. 
J. K. Alexander, and was dedicated to the worship of God, November 19, 1893. 
The old church building and site were sold to the trustees of the Christian Church 
of Morning Sun. 

The church is at present (1911) in a flourishing condition along all lines. 
The present membership is 230. Rev. A. E. Cameron, pastor. Elders : Henry 
Beck, C. F. Hewitt, E. M. Swan, W. C. Swan, W. A. Thompson, and J. C. E. 
Yohe. Trustees: J. E. Boltz, Oren S. Gibbs, Tohn Green, f. A. Hull, Levi Wolf. 
P. A. Yohe. 


The Reformed Presbyterian — commonly called Covenanter — congregation of 
Morning Sun was organized July 9, 1873. with forty-six members. At that time 
A. W. Cavin and James McCaughan were chosen ruling elders, and James Mont- 
gomery, W. J. Cubit and W. F. Cook, deacons. 

The congregation took steps immediately to erect a house of worship. A sub- 
stantial frame building, 46x32 feet, with a vestibule 18x10, was ready for occu- 
pancy by the end of the year. Early the following year the Rev. C. D. Trum- 
bull, at that time serving a congregation in Des Moines county, was called to the 
pastorate. The call was accepted and he was installed in the office early in April 
and still ministers to the people. Four hundred and thirty-five names have been 
added to the roll of members since the organization. Many of the members have 
died or have removed from the bounds. The report this year shows the present 
membership to be one hundred and fifty — of whom only three, Mr. and Mrs. J. 
W. Cavan and W. J. Cubit, were charter members. The register shows sixty- 
six marriages and two hundred and thirty-five baptisms, mostly infants, in the 

In 1895 the church building was remodeled, additions built, refrescoed, re- 
furnished and generally improved. Extensive repairs have been ordered and are 
already in progress this year. 

The present officers are C. D. Trumbull, pastor: R. Elliott, S. E. McElhinney, 
J. W. Cavan. Thos. McClement and W. J. Marshall, ruling elders, and W. 
T. Cubit. J. T. Hensleigh and J. D. Boal, deacons. 



was laid out by Joseph A. Green, October 6, 1855, in sections 5 and 6, township 
75 north, range 3 west. 

Denegre's addition to Ononwa seems to have been laid out immediately east 
of the original town on December 2. 1857, by James D. Denegre. 

Linn's addition to the town of Letts, formerly the town of Ononwa, was laid 
out by O. H. P. Linn, January 18. 1893. 

The greater part of the history of Lettsville embraces a period which is within 
the memory of most of those now living there, and which it has not been our 
intention to include in this work, except in a very general way. It was laid out 
about the time of the advent of the Mississippi and Missouri River Railroad 
Company, now the Rock Island, and has ever since been a place of considerable 
local importance, and a shipping point for a number of the leading cattle raisers 
and cattle feeders of the county. The name of the town originally was, as shown 
by the plat, Ononwa. In April, 1868, S. C. Curtis presented to the board of 
supervisors a numerously signed petition asking that the name be changed from 
Ononwa to Lettsville because its similarity to Onawa in the western part of the 
state caused a large per cent of its mail to be missent, and often caused delays 
in freight and express matter. The board of supervisors ordered the necessary 
steps to be taken to change the name, and on April 23, John Hale, clerk of the 
board of supervisors, issued a notice stating that such a petition had been pre- 
sented, and that the matter would be heard at the June session of the board; at 
that session the petition was granted and the name changed to Lettsville, although 
the postoffice was given, and still retains the name of Letts. 

The railroad was finished as far as Lettsville some time in 1856. Among the 
first hotelkeepers was Seth C. Curtis. The first doctor in Lettsville was A. L. 

W. K. Trabue was the first railroad agent, and also the first postmaster. 
The following communication by the then Ononwa correspondent to the 
Muscatine Journal will be interesting to the people of Lettsville. It was written 
May 10, 1859. and will give some idea of the conditions existing then: "As 
news is not very plenty in this goodly city of Ononwa, I will make known the 
wants of the people through your valuable paper. Wanted, in Ononwa school 
district, one or more school teachers, who can come well recommended — one who 
is willing to furnish a schoolhouse, and whose influence will pay his board, as 
he will have to board around. There is also a good opening for a saloon, as 
there are only two in the place, and nary church. Any person wishing a good 
situation will find steady employment and good wages. Pay after the next crop. 
"P. S. — It is expected that whoever gets the job will attend some one of the 
churches in Ononwa. Application made in person to the director." 

Lettsville now has good schools, good churches, and is a thrifty and law-abid- 
ing community, with a good bank, a good opera house, and a live newspaper. It 
also has a good button factory. 

It was incorporated in by the Circuit Court in 1877. A petition for that pur- 
pose was filed May 26, 1877. stating that there were 226 persons then residing 


there. Watters & Goble, a law firm of Columbus Junction, represented the peti- 
tioners, and W. H. Moles, A. Megrew, Dr. X. W. Mountain, T. M. Curtis and 
J. L. Small were appointed commissioners. An election was held on July 28th, 
1877, an d the vote was forty-five for incorporation to seventeen against. Isaac 
Shellabarger was the first mayor. 

In this same year (1867) James N. Schofield built a large flouring mill, cost- 
ing about $10,000, and the Methodists built a church. 

The present town officers are: Mayor, V. G. Shellabarger; recorder, C. C. 
Snyder; councilmen, Hon. A. M. Garrett, Ulric Garrett, H. M. Rasley, W. K. 
Ross, Bert Coder. 

The Masons have a good lodge — Triangular Lodge No. 245 — which was 
chartered in 1867. Its present officers are: J. H. Collins, W. M. ; M. J. Mc- 
Cormick, J. W. ; L. U. Gipple, S. W. ; Ulric Garrett, secretary; E. R. McCormick. 

The statistics of population of Lettsville are as follows: 1870, 88; 1880. 
300; 1885, 307; 1890. 325; 1895, 348; 1900, 387; 1905. 410; 1910, 433. 


laid out by J. W. Garner, March 1, 1870, on the east half of the southeast quar- 
ter of the southwest quarter of section 19, 75-4; afterward in 1876, Mr. Garner 
laid out on the same plat Garner's addition to Columbus Junction, being a part 
next the railroad which had not been laid out in lots before that. 

"The addition to Columbus Junction" laid out by B. W. Magee, Henry C. 
Wortham and Simeon W. True, July 17, 1872, on the west half of the southeast 
quarter of the southwest quarter of section 19, and the east half of the northwest 
quarter of section 30, 75-4. 

H. C. Wortham & Company's second addition to Columbus Junction laid out 
by Henry C. Wortham, Simeon W. True, B. W. Magee, Alfred Cosgrove and 
Benjamin Britt, May 1, 1874, in the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter of 
section 30, 75-4. 

True's addition to Columbus Junction laid out by Wortham, True & Magee, 
August 10, 1877. This addition is situated chiefly in the south half of the north 
half of the southwest quarter of section 19. 

Crim's addition to Columbus Junction laid out by Charles M. Crim, October 
19, 1892, situated on lots 1, 5 and 6, and the east 63 feet of lot 2 of F. J. Moore's 
subdivision of the south half of the southwest quarter of section 19, 75-4. 

Todd & Baker's addition to Columbus Junction laid out by William Todd and 
W. L. Baker, January 31, 1871, situated in the southwest corner of the north- 
west quarter of the southeast quarter of section 19, 75-4. 

Wilcox & Carpenter's addition to Columbus Junction, laid out by O. P. Wil- 
cox and C. A. Carpenter, May 18, 1899, situated on the south and west parts of 
the south half of the northwest quarter of the southwest quarter of section 

19. 75-4- 

Pence's addition, laid out by J. W. Pence, October 21st, 1897, on the south- 
west quarter of the southwest quarter of section 19, 75-4. 

Britt's addition to Columbus Junction, surveyed by Peter Houtz, in December, 
1876, and laid out by B. F. Britt, Harriet J. Darrow and A. Darrow on the east 
half of the northwest quarter of section 30, 75-4. 


McGee's addition to Columbus Junction, surveyed by Peter Houtz, April 13, 
[878, laid out by B. W. McGee, Henry C. Wortham, Herman Wilmering and 
Francis Springer, on the southeast part of the west half of the northwest quar- 
ter, and the northwest quarter of the southwest quarter of section 30, 75-4. 

Columbus Junction was originally known as the Sand Bank. The first train 
of cars on the Mississippi & Missouri River railroad ran to this town on Novem- 
ber 17, 1857, and this was the end of the road for nearly a year. Some time prior 
to this tbe people of Wapello held meetings to organize a company to build a road 
from Wapello to the Sand Bank, but this project fell through. Some time in 
1858 the station at the Sand Bank was discontinued and a station was established 
at Clifton; but before the Clifton station was established there was considerable 
business clone at Sand Bank. Grain and stock were bought there and the people 
of the north part of the county west of the Iowa river got the most of their goods 
at that p< lint. After the Clifton station was established there was nothing doing 
al the Sand Bank until tbe Burlington, Cedar Rapids & Minnesota railroad was 
located. It crossed the M. & M.. now the Rock Island, at this point, and it was 
then that Mr. J. W. Garner, the owner of the land, determined to establish the 
new town of Columbus Junction. The first lot was sold to George Jamison, 
of Wapello, and Mr. Garner made other sales occasionally until, in 1871, he sold 
ninety-six lots, and five acres adjoining them to H. C. Wortham & Company, of 
Mattoon, Illinois. The company of this firm consisted of S. W. True and B. W. 
Magee. On February 7th the first train of cars on the Burlington, Cedar 
Rapids & Minnesota railroad came to Columbus Junction, and it is said that on 
that day Colonel W. W. Garner bought the first ticket sold there. 

One of the first men to engage in business in Columbus Junction was August 
Gilbert, who came from Muscatine. He had a house framed, loaded upon the 
cars of the M. & M. railroad, and shipped to Clifton Station, and from there had 
it transported to the Sand Bank and put up, and in February, 1870, commenced 
business, running a restaurant and keeping boarder*-,. When Wortham & Com- 
pany purchased the town site from Mr. Garner they intended to push the town. 
In 1872 they built the Wortham House, which was opened to the traveling public 
in October of that year. It covered four lots beginning with the one where 
Carr's clothing store. now is. and including the three lots south of it, and these 
were used as business houses, and the hotel part was upstairs. 

The Louisa County National Bank was opened in one of the store reom^ of 
this building in July, 1872. Andrew Gamble was its first president and John W. 
True its first cashier. General James M. True also occupied one of the store 
rooms in this block ami Sargent & Carter had a stock of general merchandise in 
another of the rooms. 

The postoffice at Columbus Junction was opened in July, 1872, in the north 
store room of the Wortham House block, with Mrs. Gentzler as postmistress 
At that time the fixed salary of the office was $12 a year. In April, 1874, Charles 
M. Fulton became postmaster and shortly after this he moved the office to a 
frame building on Walnut street. In September, 1886, Mr. Fulton was succeeded 
in the postoffice by George P. Neal. 

For the first two years the town grew rapidly and proceedings were then 
taken to incorporate it. C. M. Fulton. Marvel Wheelock, S. W. True, W. F. 
Hall and William Todd were the commissioners appointed and on May 25th, 


1874, an election was held on the question of incorporation, at which fifty-five 
votes were cast "for" and seventeen "against." The first officers elected were: 
Mayor, C. M. Fulton; members of the council, George W. Merrill, O. E. Hohbie. 
Robert Foster, Theo. Crilly and A. T. Lewis; recorder, W. I 7 . Hall. James R. 
Smith was appointed marshal, but declined, and Augustus Darrow was named in 
his place. R. H. Hanna was the first town attorney. The present officers are as 
follows: Mayor, D. S. Buffington ; clerk. M. D. Hanft ; marshall, J. M. Green: 
assessor, J. D. Darrow; councilmen. J. B. Johnson, J. J. Stapp, T. J. Bolenbeck, 
R. J. Reaney, and O. M. Cavin. 

The first public school taught in Columbus Junction was in a small house 
built for that purpose a couple of years after the town was started. Before that, 
however, Miss Kitty Truesdell had taught a select school. Among the early 
school teachers were Miss Sarah White, Mr. Slater and A. W. Hall. At one 
time the building owned by Asa Merrill was used for school purposes. This was 
in 1874. Afterward the building which was erected for a court house was used 
for a few years for school purposes and in the fall of 1882 a fine school build- 
ing was erected on Front street. Professor Edwards was the first principal in 
the new building and afterwards Professor J. EC. Pickett was principal, next Pro- 
fessor G. H. Mullen, who has been one of the noted educators of the state, but 
is now retired. The present superintendent of the Columbus Junction schools is 
Professor G. W. Weber and the schools use both the building once erected for 
a court house and the school building. 

Beginning about 1872 there was considerable agitation in the north end of the 
county for a removal of the county seat from Wapello to Columbus Junction. 
A petition was finally circulated for an election and at the same time the citizens 
of the north end of the county subscribed a fund of about $25,000 and erected a 
fine two-story brick building suitable for a court house and placed the title in 
five trustees, namely: Francis Springer, N. M. Letts and F. A. Duncan. W. W. 
( iarner and O. E. Hobbie. 

A long and bitter contest ensued between Columbus Junction and Wapello, 
and much ill feeling was generated and many harsh and uncalled for things were 
said by people on each side about people on the other, but it would serve no use- 
ful purpose to recite them here. 

A number of elections were had, at various times. Some were authorized 
by law and some turned out not to be legal. Much litigation was indulged in 
on both sides. The election held on October 12th, 1875. was a lively one in 
every sense of the word ; it was attended by every legal voter in the county, and 
possibly a few more. Wapello was victorious at the election by twenty majority, 
which showed that the people of the county were pretty evenly divided. It was 
freely charged that the Columbus Junction folks had imported a lot of illegal 
voters especially for this election, but in view of the vote polled at the ensuing 
election, in 1876, impartial history must refute the charge. It appears that the 
total vote cast in Columbus City township at the county seat election in 1875 
was 717, and the total vote there in the following year was 704. Had there been 
a very large illegal vote in 1875 the "shrinkage" in 1876 would have been much 
more than thirteen. 

Following is the vote by townships on the county seat question in 1875. also 
the total vote of that year, and the total vote of each township at the presidential 
election in 1876: 




Columbus City township 18 

Concord township 5 

Elliott township 82 

Elm Grove township 10 

Grandview township 158 

Jefferson township 200 

Marshall township 133 

Morning Sun township 322 

Oakland township 3 

Port Louisa township 158 

Union township 

Wapello township 506 






vote, 1876 



































1604 1584 3188 2966 

Columbus City Lodge No. 107, Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, was 
instituted under a dispensation of the Iowa Grand Lodge February 24, 1857, 
with W. D. Trebilcock, W. M. ; J. F. Reiner, S. W. ; William S. Allen. J. W. 
Meetings were first held in the hall over the store of Harrison & Barrett, in 
Columbus City. It next met in the second story of the drug store building of 
Clark & Coleman, and afterwards was established in the third story of the 
brick building erected by Harrison & Barrett. In 1876 at was removed to 
Columbus Junction, and secured a hall over the store then kept by Easton & 
Brown, where it has held its meetings ever since. Since its removal to Colum- 
bus Junction the lodge has grown in numbers and strength and is recognized as 
one of the strongest Masonic institutions of the county. 

Columbus Junction has a Woodman Lodge, an Odd Fellows Lodge, and a 
K. of P. Lodge, but we have not the particulars as to their organization or 
officers. The K. of P. Lodge is named Liberty Lodge, No. 22, and was first 
organized at Columbus City. It was reorganized at Columbus Junction in 1880. 
One of the members of this lodge — Hon. F. M. Molsberry — was Grand Chan- 
cellor of the state a few years ago. 

The newspapers now published at the Junction arc the Safeguard and the 
Gazette ; the former was started by R. H. Moore at Columbus City, but later 
removed to the Junction. Paul Maclean and J. B. Hungerford, both prominent 
newspaper men of Iowa today, were at one time connected with the Safeguard. 
The Gazette was started by O. I. Jamison, and it was in this office that Hon. W. 
D. Jamison, now of the Shenandoah World, began his career as a journalist. 

Some years ago the Columbus Junction Herald was published there. Samuel 
Crocker, J. G. Sehorn, and, we believe, W. S. Jarboe. were connected with it. 

Columbus Junction also has its full share of churches, the Methodist, Presby- 
terian and Evangelical being the best represented there. 

One of the institutions in which the people of Columbus Junction and the 
surrounding country take great pride, is the Columbus Junction Chautauqua. 

Rock Islam] Bridge 

Looking North on Main Street 

High School 

Methodist Episcopal Church 

" i 

W 11 **- 


tffc« -*! 


a^ ... 


Gilbert House 

Rock Island Bridge 



This is one of the pioneers in this line of work in southeastern Iowa, and has 
been a marked success, both as a source of entertainment, and as a means of 
promoting the moral and intellectual development of the community. The 
association owns a beautiful grove covering some twenty acres, which is recog- 
nized as an ideal location. 

The population of Columbus Junction, as shown by recent enumerations, 
has been as follows: 1885 — 965; 1890 — 953; 1895 — 1,048; 1900 — 1,099; 1905 — 


This was so long a part of Columbus City township that it has very little 
early history not already given. In addition to the early settlers named, this 
township has furnished a number of men well known in the county. The Colton 
family first settled in Union township and so did Andrew Gamble. During the 
ten years that we had a supervisor from each township. Union township was rep- 
resented by Robert A. White, James Harmon. Robert Carson and S. N. Spurgeon. 
Peter Rinely was for many years a justice of the peace, and so was John Het- 
field. Others whose names are associated with Union township affairs, are 
Wm. T. Blair, Nelson Alloway, Joshua Lucky, Adam Crim, Thomas Ogier. Geo. 
W. Duncan, Asher Dennis, Josiah Orr, Mathew Edmundson. 

The only town ever platted in Union township is Gladwin, situated in the 
central part of the southeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section 28, 76-5, 
on the south side of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul railroad. It was laid out 
by W. I. Blanchard and J. L. Giesler, Sept. 18, 1903. 


was laid out by Abe and Harry T. Parsons, December 11, 1891, on the north- 
west quarter of the northwest quarter of section 25, township 73 north, range 
2 west, south of the Iowa Central railroad. The original town consisting of 
three blocks, containing in all thirty-five lots. Since then additions to Oakville 
have been laid out as follows : Downey's addition, by John and Elizabeth 
Downey, May 6, 1895; Elrick's addition, laid out by James W. Elrick, December 
19, 1895; Elrick's second addition laid out by James W. Elrick, May 28, 1897; 
Brader's addition laid out by John H. Brader, May 7, 1898; and Downey's sec- 
ond addition laid out by John and Elizabeth Downey, October 21, 1898; Parson's 
addition to Oakville laid out by Abe Parsons, June 18, 1901 ; Waterhouse's ad- 
dition to Oakville laid out by Alice M. Waterhouse, June 29. 1901 ; Roderick's 
addition to Oakville laid out by John L. Roderick, May 9, 1902; Carter's ad- 
dition to Oakville laid May 4. 191 1; and Williams' addition to Oakville laid out 
by W. B. Williams, September 4, 191 1. 

The Oakvillian who promised a history of that flourishing and enterprising 
town, has failed us. The first postoffice in that vicinity was Palo Alto. Oakville 
was incorporated by the District Court on petition of Geo. L. Seevers and 29 
others, filed Sept. 5th. 1902. The court appointed M. P. Cook, E. J. McFadden, 
H. T. Parsons, E. M. Bell and J. C. Thomson, commissioners, and they held an 
election on Sept. 30 on the question of incorporation. The vote was 45 for to 
28 against. The first election for officers was held on Oct. 21, 1902, at which 


the following were chosen: Mayor, II. T. Parsons; clerk, E. M. Bell; treasurer, 
E. J. McFadden ; council. W. E. Lynn, W. D. Carter, J. A. Duncan, D. D. Mar- 
shall, W. T. Waterhouse, Bert Gawthrop. 

Oakville has two railroads, two banks, good schools, good churches, and is a 
splendid trading point, whether one wants to buy or sell, and its people, and the 
people of the country around it, average up with the best in the county. 

The population of Oakville in 1895 was given at 87, in 1905, at 317, and in 
iQ 10, at 389. 

Two other town-- have been laid out in Eliot township, as follows : 


laid out by Jacob W. Elrick, October 3, 1891, on the west half of the southwest 
quarter of section 28, and the east half of the southeast quarter of section 29, 
all in township 73-2. The greater part of this town has since been vacated. 
This town of Elrick was laid out immediately east of Smith creek where the 
Iowa Central railway crosses it. and 

Elrick Junction, laid out by H. O. Weaver, March 7, 1899. It is in the 
north half of the northwest quarter of section 29, jy2, north of the Iowa Central 
railway track. 

The town of Elrick is practically abandoned ; Elrick Junction is located at 
the place where the M. N. & S. Ry. connects with Iowa Central, and has a good 
general store, and a hotel. 

Other towns, not already referred to. are : 


laid out by R. B. Cannon on the northwest quarter of the northeast quarter 
of section 28, township 74 north, range 5 west, surveyed by John Huston, April 
2, 1856. This was an "Air Line" town. J. E. Nesbit had a store here, but the 
"town" lias long since passed away. 


laid out by Moses Chilson, December 10, 1884, situated on the northeast quarter 
of section 30, 73-4, and it adjoins the Iowa Central railway right of way on the 


laid out by Harriet H. Briggs. December 23, 1885, on the northwest part of the 
southwest quarter of the southeast quarter of section 27, 73-3. 


laid out by T. W. Barhydt, trustee, in the northwest quarter of the northeast 
quarter and the northeast quarter of the northwest quarter of section 30, 74-5. 
Wyman is the only town in Elm Grove township, and is a good trading point, 
especially since the establishment of the new bank there. 



To write the story of the rise and fall of Burris City seems almost like delv- 
ing- into the musty archives of ancient or medieval history and tracing- the 
growth and decline of a Babylon or Ninevah. But Burris City was a real and 
pretentious city of more than a thousand souls, but little more than a half century 
ago; now, the casual visitor finds only here and there a broken fragment of 
stone or pottery, a slight mound or depression to mark the spot where once 
stood this thriving village. Seldom, indeed, has so short a time witnessed so 
complete an obliteration of so extensive and costly a monument of man's ambi- 

Burris City was laid out and platted in 1855, and in the two following years 
the most of the building was done. 

[n 1857 Burris City was at the zenith of its glory; there were five or six- 
good stores, a large warehouse, a drug store owned by Dr. B. G. Neal. The 
Ellsworth Hotel, a brick structure two stories high, was the best hotel building 
at that time in the count}-. All the products of the surrounding country found 
here a ready market ; several hundred men engaged in grading the Air Line 
Railroad were quartered here, many with their families. A sawmill was cutting 
the native timber into building and bridge material, and the town was humming 
with industry. 

On April 6, 1855, a city election was held and the following officers elected: 
Lysander Wicks, mayor ; J. F. Howard, marshal ; Martin Mason, recorder ; 
Chas. S. McLane, treasurer ; aldermen, first ward, A. M. Steward ; Henry M. 
Debolt, Jay Martin : aldermen, second ward, Frederick Gruber, C. P. Norton, 
and S. L. Hauk; aldermen, third ward, A. Moon, J. Moon, and M. Norris. 

July 24, 1857. the Burris City Hotel Company was incorporated, with an 
authorized capital stock of not exceeding forty thousand dollars. Incorporators 
were: N. W. Burris, J. M. Bloomfield, A. Key, J. T. Burris, B. G. Neal, A. 
Millen, John Eichelberger, Lysander Wicks. J. M. Albert, R. W. 'Wilson, and 
Franklin Bras. 

September 16, 1857, The Burris Manufacturing Company filed articles of 
incorporation, with authorized capital stock of two hundred thousand dollars ; 
shares, five hundred dollars each, with a provision that said company could 
commence operation after twenty-five shares were taken by as many individuals. 
Among the stockholders whose names are recorded are James Harlan, Francis 
Springer, Alfred T. Burris, G. A. Ellsworth, Wm. Baker, Frank Bras, Wm. L. 
Toole. J. L. Grubb, Jno. R. Sisson, C. R. Dugdale. 

The assessment of lots owned by N. W. Burris in Burris City as certified 
to by J. M. Bloomfield, consists of tzt'o thousand, eight hundred and forty-eight 
lots, ranging in value from three hundred dollars to four hundred and fifty 
dollars each, and amounting to the aggregate sum of one million, one hundred 
and fifty-eight thousand, one hundred dollars. On the tax books for 1859 the 
greater part of these lots were assessed to "unknown owners," at from twenty- 
five dollars to fifty dollars each. 

Certificates to the 1855 assessment are as follows : 

"I, J. M. Bloomfield, of the City of Burris, Louisa County, Iowa, hereby 
certify that the foregoing is a true copy of the assessments of the lots in said 


city belonging to X. W. Burris as it appears by record and which was assessed 
by me. Witness my hand this 27th of May, 1857. 

J. M. Bloomfield, 


"I, L. Wicks, mayor of the city of Burris, Louisa Co., Iowa, hereby cer- 
tify that J. M. Bloomfield, which name appears on the foregoing certificate and 
who with the same as assessor of said city of Burris, was duly elected and 
qualified and is now assessor and his acts as such is entitled to true credit. I 
also certify that the signature purporting to be his is Jenuwine. Witness my hand 
this 27th da} - of May, 1857. 

L. Wicks, 
Attest : Mayor. 

M. Mason, 

State of Iowa, Louisa County, ss. 

"I, John Hale, Clerk of the District Court of said county, do hereby certify 
that L. Wicks, and J. M. Bloomfield, whose names are subscribed to the foregoing 
certificate as mayor and assessor of the city of Burris. were on the 6th day of 
April, A. D. 1857, elected to said office as appears of record in my office. In testi- 
mony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name and affixed the seal of said 
Court at Wapello, this 4th day of June, 1857. 

John Hale, Clerk Dist. Court, Louisa County, Iowa." 

A map of Louisa County, issued by C. R. Dugdale in 1858, shows the Air Line 
railroad running through the county, also the Keokuk, Mt. Pleasant and Musca- 
tine Railroad running north through Marshall township, just west of the old 
W. A. Helmick place, to Columbus City; this was said to be under contract and 
partly completed. 

Many persons still living in the county and their descendants have cause to 
remember this costly "mirage" which they followed as many had done before, 
and man}- have done since, to disaster and ruin. 

In justice to the promoters of the Burris City enterprise it may be truly said 
that they all went down together ; not one, so far as the records show, but came 
out of the speculation a loser. 

Burris, as it was originally called, was laid out by X. W. Burris in 1855, and 
contained over five thousand lots. It was incorporated by a special act of the 
Legislature, approved January 28, 1857, and after this it was known as Burris 

Rut for the fatal defect of nature's creation — the lack of sufficient elevation — 
the location of Burris City was geographically ideal ; situated midway between 
the cities of Burlington and Muscatine, on the bank of the great Mississippi river, 
and at the mouth of the Iowa river, its riparian advantages were equalled by but 
few, and surpassed by no inland city in the United States. 

But the much vaunted strength of Burris City proved its weakness in the 
end; the melting snows from thousands of square miles of rolling prairies, joined 


with the abundant spring rains, brought the annual overflow and Burris City, 
sub-aqueous, aquatic Burris City, like the securities issued by its founder, failed 
from a superabundance of water. 

The exodus of the settlers of Burris City in 1858 and 1859 was as rapid as had 
been their incoming. The failure of the Air Line railroad, and the overflow of 
the waters disheartened the promoters and created a veritable panic among the 
inhabitants ; many forsook their houses and in many cases, penniless, fled to more 
favored locations. Some of the frame buildings were sold to the farmers and 
others and were cut in sections and hauled away to all parts of the county. The 
abandoned town site, once valued more than a million dollars, was picked up by 
piece meal at tax sales, and is now used for grazing purposes. 

Sic transit gloria mundi. 

[The foregoing article on Burris City was written by Mr. }. R. Smith, who, 
as a boy, often visited it and traded at its stores.] 

The following, from another eye witness, was printed in the Humming Bird, 
a small monthly paper published in Muscatine. The issue we quote from is dated 
June, 1874. 



"A passenger on one of our Mississippi packets will see nothing to indicate 
that a few short years ago a lively and prosperous town of 600 to 700 inhabitants 
and supporting a city charter with Mayor (Lysander Weeks) and other metro- 
politan officials, occupied the broad, flat, marshy region embracing about a sec- 
tion of land bounded by a high bluff on the west, on the east by the Mississippi 
river and by the Iowa on the south, in Louisa County, this State. The most reck- 
less speculator would not for a moment entertain the thought of locating a town 
there now. Even 'Coal Oil Johnny' could not be induced to purchase the land 
if it were offered at $10 per acre. Yet we know parties who paid $10 per foot 
(front) for desirable lots on Second street, and refused an advance on the pur- 
chase price. At this time (in i857-'8) there was considerable excitement in Burris 
City in anticipation of the 'early completion of the Great American Central Rail- 
way,' which was partially graded and on which Burris was to be an important 
point. Maps were printed and distributed all over the country at an immense ex- 
pense, showing the city as a second New York in size and importance. It is need- 
less to say that the map was slightly overdrawn. It is said that a drunken man sees 
'double.' Taking this to be true, we conclude that fifteen or twenty engravers, 
all drunk, had each a hand in preparing the stone upon which the map was printed. 

"Mr. Nathan Burris, proprietor of the town, was a young man of probably 
36 to 40 years, very active, large hearted, and above all, honest in his dealings with 
his fellow men. He was firmly impressed with the belief that he had 'struck 
oil' — that the place would of necessity be one of the largest and most prosperous 
in the Mississippi Valley, and for a time many others were of the same opinion. 
Vain hope ! The town with its large brick hotels, general stores, drug stores, its 
mill, its printing office, furniture store, carpenter shops and numerous other estab- 


lishments, where are they now ? Where are the lawyers, and doctors, the me- 
chanics and laborers, and their wives, sons and daughters ? They are scattered 
like chaff in a gale. They may be found in all parts of the world. But there are 
many whom we will never meet again on earth. They have gone to a City whose 
corner lots will never depreciate, whose streets are never muddy and whose skies 
are ever bright ! Among these are the good wife of Nathan Burris, who departed 
thi> life in 1S58. Our readers must pardon us for the belief that her death was 
the death of the town whose obituary we feel called upon to write. Her husband's 
loss weighed heavily upon him. His ambition was gone, his energy had departed, 
anil he walked the streets, not as the active business man, not with the elastic step, 
the pleasant smile and bow and ready hand for the friends he met, but with a 
broken down, dejected air, paying little or no attention to those whom he met. He 
remained at Burris City only a short time after his wife died. After disposing of 
the greater portion of his property and settling up his business, he went west in 
the hope of recuperating his health and former physical strength rather than filling 
his depleted exchequer. From the day of his departure, the town seemed to be 
on a down grade, and it had grown beautifully less by degrees until in 1868 (I 
think) the last building — an old warehouse — was removed, leaving nothing to 
mark the spot where a few year- ago were heard the click of type, the ring 
of the anvil, the blowing of steam whistles, the hum of business in all its branches, 
and the hurried tread of the crowd that thronged the sidewalk. The locality has 
no attractions now save for the rattlesnake, crawfish and bullfrog, whose right and 
title to the place is undisputed, and whose musical accomplishments, so varied and 
yet so charmingly blended, render it a most inviting spot to those who are haunted 
by melancholy and desire to commit suicide. 

"A levee thrown up at great expense along the bank of the Iowa river to pre- 
vent the overflow of the low lands upon which the town was built was washed 
away by the high waters, and skiffs and flatboats were the fashionable vehicles 
of the denizens for several weeks, when the waters receded, leaving numerous 
beds of the finny tribe in the pools on every hand. The Stafford House, built of 
brick, was kept in good style by Charles W. Stafford, and had one time during 
the winter of i857-'s8, eighty-four regular boarders. About forty of these were 
wood choppers, who worked in the large timber a short distance below town. 

"A Guernsey press was purchased by Mr. Burris for Edward Stafford, who 
had proposed to publish a paper in Burris City, but failed to remove his office 
from New Boston before a mortgage sale removed it to the type foundry. The 
press stood in the old warehouse until it was purchased by John Mahin and 
brought to Muscatine. The Journal was printed upon this press until 1870. 

"A sawmill a short distance above town and the Brick Makers at Black Hawk 
did a good business while the town was being built 

"Our residence in Burris City was of short duration, and our individual ex- 
perience brief. We engaged to work in the winter of 1858 for Dunlap & Ells- 
worth, who, like many other sensible men have foolishly done, launched upon the 
literary sea, a 28-column weekly newspaper, known as the Burris Iowan. The 
town had at that time about 500 or 600 inhabitants, several dry goods, grocery 
and drug stores, and nearly every business usually represented in a town of that 
size. Mr. Dunlap was a lawyer, and Mr. George W. Ellsworth was a druggist, 
and by the way, proprietor of as fine an establishment of the kind as can be 


found in Muscatine today. Neither of the partners knew anything about the 
business, and Mr. D. being a lawyer, with more brains than money, and a [earful 
appetite for an article sometimes kept in drugstores, Mr. Ellsworth, as a natural 
result was compelled to pay all bills and gratuitously furnish fuel to run the edi- 
torial engine. Well, the Burris Iowan was born, blessed, buried and cursed, all 
within two short months. The writer of this article, then a youth of 19 summers, 
propelled the Burris Iowan, taking orders on the hotel and drugstore for pay, 
until forbearance ceased to be a virtue, when one day there was a 'strike' and the 
paper suspended. Previous to this time, however, sometime in 1857, a very re- 
spectable paper was printed at Burris. by the Robinson Bros. It was gotten up 
in good style neatly printed and filled with the choicest matter and newsy. I do 
not know how long it was printed, but probably not more than five or six months. 
In i856-'57 Ed. Stafford, a man of considerable talent and an immense area of 
cheek, and in whom few men had so much confidence as 'Nate' Burris, published 
the New Boston Reporter and Burris Commercial, a 32-column weekly paper at 
New Boston, 111., two miles below Burris City." 


What seems to be the plat of the original town of Columbus City is certified 
to by John Gilliland, county surveyor, but is not dated. It was laid out by 
David Mortimore as proprietor. The streets from north to south were named 
as follows : Utah, Mulberry, Church, Philadelphia, Market, Main, Jefferson, 
Washington and Spring. Beginning on the east side, the north and south streets 
were named as follows : Water. Pearl, Chestnut, Columbus, Iowa, Burlington 
and Hamilton. Market street was 150 feet wide, Alain, Philadelphia, Colum- 
bus, Iowa, Burlington, Chestnut and Pearl streets were 100 feet wide, and the 
others 75 feet wide. Most of the lots were 50x150 feet. The streets bore north 
twenty-nine degrees east, by north sixty-one degrees west. The plat does not 
state on what ground the town was laid out but on the back of it is a certified 
acknowledgment, dated June 18, 1840, made by John Gilliland, justice of the 
peace, which he certifies that on that day David Mortimore acknowledged the 
instrument to be the original plat and plan of Columbus City. 

Rice and Mortimore advertised a sale of lots in Columbus City to be held on 
Thursday, July 16, 1840. The notice of the sale which they had printed and 
circulated at the time is an interesting and valuable historical item and we are 
under obligations to Colonel J. W. Garner for one of the original copies. It is 
as follows : 

Columbus City — Yaluable Town Lots at Public Sale. 

There will be several hundred in-lots offered at Public Auction, commencing 
on Thursday, the 16th July, 1840, on the premises. 

This town is beautifully situated one and a half miles south of the forks 
of the Iowa and Cedar rivers, in Louisa County, Territory of Iowa, about 
half way from Iowa City to Burlington, immediately on the main Territorial 
roads, one running from Iowa City to Burlington, crossing the river at Sturges' 
Ferry, and the other running from Wapello to Iowa City, crossing the river 
at the Forks ; there are also several other roads crossing through this place. 


The location is upon a beautiful elevation where the timber and prairie 
intersect, it is also surrounded by a large body of choice farming land not sur- 
passed bv any other portion of the territory, and this portion of country is set- 
tling thick and fast. 

As regards health, Columbus City has the advantage of choice spring and 
well water and fine rolling prairies, varying from one to three miles in width, 
passing on the south and extending many miles up the river, and is bounded 
on the north by a large body of choice timber. 

There are several buildings now in progress, and there will be one or more 
mills in operation by next fall. 

Steam Boats have been and can run up to this point, which, with other 
advantages will doubtless make this one of the most flourishing and interesting 
towns in the Territory. 

Emigrants and others who wish to make investments of money in good town 
property are respectfully requested to attend this sale, as a view of the place, 
together with a knowledge of the Territory, will doubtless convince all that 
this is an important point. 

Terms of sale — one fourth of the purchase money in hand, the balance in 
two equal payments, six and twelve months. 

Levi Rice, 

David Mortimore, 

June 15th, 1840. Proprietors. 

The above plat was probably located chiefly in the northwest quarter of 
section 31, township 75 north, range 4 west, and possibly extended over north 
into the southwest quarter of section 30. David Mortimore and Levi Rice were 
interested together in what is known as the old town of Columbus City, and the 
records of original entries show that Levi Rice entered the west half of section 
31 and the southwest quarter of section 30. The angle of the bearing of the 
streets also points to the same conclusion, because it seems that the old road 
from Wapello to the ferry across the Iowa river had about the same bearing 
and direction as the north and south streets in this plat would have. It would 
also appear by the advertisement for the sale of lots in Columbus City as made 
and published by Edward F. Willson and others in 1841 that the town as laid 
out by Edward F. Willson was not in the same location as the one laid out by 
Mortimore and Rice. 

Edward F. Willson's plat of Columbus City, laid out March 23, 1841. The 
streets shown on this plat running east and west were as follows, beginning 
at the north: Mulberry, Church, Philadelphia, Market, Main, Jefferson, Wash- 
ington and Pring, and the north and south streets beginning at the east were 
Water, Pearl, Chestnut, Columbus, Iowa and Arlington. Most of the lots were 
50x150 feet and all streets were 75 feet wide except Main and Market streets, 
which were 100 feet in width. The plat does not state upon what particular 
ground it is located but we know it was located in the northeast quarter of sec- 
tion 36, township 75 north, range 5 west, being just a little west of the town 
as laid out by Mortimore and Rice. The land was entered by David Dix and 
conveyed to Edward F. Willson. who at that time lived in Burlington. 


Immediately after the laving out of Willson's addition, as it was then called, 
but Columbus City, as it is now called. Mr. Willson seems to have conveyed a 
large number of lots to the half dozen other men whose names are signed to 
the following notice, which seems to have been published in the Burlington 
Patriot not long after its date. 

''emigrants to iowa ! 

"The subscribers having located the plat of Columbus City upon a more 
elevated and advantageous site than heretofore, are now prepared to dispose of 
lots upon the most favorable terms. Viewing it as a matter of the highest import- 
ance that the youth of our Territory should enjoy the privilege of a thorough 
academic and collegiate education, arrangements are now in progress for the 
erection of a suitable building to be put up immediately for the reception of 
pupils of both sexes the present season. . . . Columbus City is situated in 
Louisa County, at the confluence of the Iowa and Cedar Rivers, on a beautiful 
rolling and healthy prairie, abounding with as fine springs of running water as 
are to be found in any of the Eastern States. ... As six or eight of the 
most public thoroughfares in the Territory centre at this point, it will conse- 
quently be the great deposits for pork, and produce generally, in this part of the 

Territory. . . . 

Edward F. Willson, 
J. M. Robertson, 
William Reynolds, 
C. M. McDaniel. 
William L. Toole, 
Samuel Hutchison, 

March 25, 1841." 

Rice and Mortimore had a great many lawsuits beginning about the time 
they laid out the old town of Columbus City. The result seems to have been 
that David Mortimore acquired the interest of Rice in the town plat. Mr. Morti- 
more was anxious to give his new town a good start by providing for a seminary 
of learning, and this resulted in a very interesting and curious incident of more 
than local importance. On December 1, 1840, William L. Toole, who was then 
a member of the territorial legislature from this county, introduced House File 
No. 41, entitled "A bill to establish a seminary of learning at Columbus City in 
Louisa county." On December 2d this bill was read a second time and on motion 
of David Hendershot, of Des Moines county, it was made the order of the day 
for Friday, December 4th. On December 4th, on motion of Mr. Toole the house 
resolved itself into a committee of the whole house for the purpose of consider- 
ing this bill. After some time spent in consideration of the bill. Mr. Teeple. 
chairman of the committee of the whole, reported that the committee had directed 
him to report the bill back to the house with certain amendments, which were 
then agreed to by the house. The journal of the house does not state what these 
amendments were but we may presume from the record which follows that these 
amendments were to strike out the lottery plan of selling certain lots to raise 
money for the erection of a seminary of learning and insert instead a provision 


to sell the lots by a public or private sale. After these amendments were agreed 
to it seems that Mr. Toole and the friends of the bill were not satisfied and the 
bill was referred to the committee on incorporations. This committee consisted 
of David Hendershot, of Des Moines county. James Brierly, of Lee county, and 
Timothy Mason, of Dubuque county. 

The committee soon after reported the bill without change and it was laid on 
the table. Mr. Hendershot from the minority of the committee made a report 
and submitted with this report a new bill, House File, No. 86. We may gather 
what the new bill contained from the report of Mr. Hendershot, from which we 
make the following extracts: "The objects of the bill are expressed in its title 
and the seminary proposed to be established is intended for the education of 
youth of both sexes. The bill provides for a donation of forty lots of ground in 
Columbus City, being a donation by Mr. David Mortimore, by the --ale of which, 
as provided in said bill, a fund is expected to be raised sufficient to put the 
seminary into immediate operation. To accomplish these objects, an act of in- 
corporation is asked for and in order to render this donation of town lots im- 
mediately available and also to enhance the fund derived from their sale, the bill 
asks the privilege to dispose of these lots by lottery. Objections to this clause of 
the bill led to its reference to your committee and to this subject the attention of 
the committee has been mostly directed."' 

The report then proceeds at some length to discuss the subject of iotteries, 
severely condemning the ordinary lottery schemes and the way in which they are 
usually carried out, and deprecating their tendency to produce undue excitement 
and to promote a spirit of gambling, etc., and then says "but the lottery asked for 
in this bill is of a very different character. ... Its capital is a limited number 
of town lots of a value that every one understands. There cannot lie any fraudu- 
lent scheme proposed, for there is no bonus to cover, no profits to be made but 
what grows out of the sale of the lots, and all this is for the benefit of the com- 
munity who are deeply interested in promoting the means of education . . . 
and the drawing of such a lottery for such a purpose your committee cannot sup- 
pose will ever be likely to ripen into an injurious custom or to introduce any 
gambling habits into the community. Lesides, your committee are of the opinion 
that if this privilege is not granted in this bill the only mode by which the trustees 
can dispose of these lots, the only capital on which they depend for establishing the 
institution must be a private sale, or a sale at auction to the highest bidder. The 
process of the first will be so slow as to prevent the seminary from going into 
operation for years to come, like most others that have been chartered in this 
territory — and the last would sacrifice the property and defeat the beneficent de- 
sign of the donor." 

The report estimated that, sold in either of these ways, the lots would bring 
from two to three thousand dollars, but disposed of by lottery they would bring 
from ten to twelve thousand dollars. The minority therefore recommended the 
passage of the bill with the privilege of disposing of the lots by lottery. 

Final action on this matter was taken on December 21st, at which time the 
house then again went into a committee of the whole on the new bill of House 
File 86. The committee of the whole recommended an amendment and Mr. Sum- 
mers, of Scott county, moved to strike out the words "lottery or otherwise" and 
insert "public or private sale." This motion was carried by a vote of fifteen to 

U. P. Church 

Christian Church 

Main Street 

Public School m. E. Church 



: I 


nine, as follows: Yeas: Avery, Box, Brierly, Isett, Lash, Lewis. Mason, Miller, 
Porter, Steel, Summers, Van Antwerp, Whitaker, Wilson of Henry county, and 
Wilson, of Jefferson county. Nays were Browning, Felkner, Hendershot Leffler, 
Robertson, Teeple, Toole, Walworth and Speaker Cox. 

This action of the house killed the lottery plan and we may infer that the pro- 
moters felt that no other plan would be of any immediate benefit, for on motion 
of Mr. Hendershot, the enacting clause of the bill was stricken out. 

There seems, however, to have been a Columbus City seminary organized in 
the year 1S41, for we find that Edward F. Willson deeded outlot No. 4 to the 
trustees of the Columbus City Seminary. This deed was dated October 22, 1841, 
and is recorded in Book B, Page 216. 

No seminary building was ever constructed on outlot No. 4 and nothing 
seems to have been done with it until in January, 1847, when the state legislature 
passed an act authorizing Wesley W. Garner, James M. Robertson and William 
L. Toole to sell outlot No. 4 in Columbus City and to execute a conveyance there- 
for. The act provided that the proceeds should first be applied to the payment on 
the date accorded by the trustees of the Columbus City Seminary and that if any 
money should remain after the payment it should be invested in books for the 
use of some public library in Columbus City. It is understood that the principal 
part of the proceeds went to pay a debt due Dr. James M. Robertson from the 
Columbus City Seminary. 

The earliest merchant mentioned in any Columbus City history is Italian 
Myler, who started a store there in 1842. His store sign was "I. Myler, Picayune 
Grocery." Mr. .Myler was a well digger and worked out at his trade much of 
the time, keeping his. store open on Saturdays and other days when there was 
likely to be a crowd in town. Myler was a noted character in Columbus City, 
and he often broke into county history by getting his name on the court docket. 
He continued in business until his death, in 1885, and at one time had quite a 
large business. 

But according to the county records there were store keepers in Columbus 
City much earlier than 1842. Some were in the old town. We find that on 
August 15, 1840, a license to sell merchandise was granted to Gildea & McGan- 
non, and their place of business was given as Columbus City. And on December 
11, 1840, a similar license was granted to G. B. Alexander & Company located 
at Columbus City. Charles Wightman. afterward a prominent citizen of Bur- 
lington, and at one time County Judge of Des Moines County, was either a clerk 
or a partner in the store of Alexander & Company. These two stores were in 
the old town, of course, as the other was not laid out until 1841. It is likely 
that the first real store, or at least among the first, at Columbus City, was kept 
by Philip Gore. Mr. Gore deserves honorable mention as one of the pioneers 
in the founding of Columbus City. He was postmaster from 1845 to 1849 and 
was justice of the peace for a number of years and also School Fund Commis- 
sioner. He was a man of good character and of much more than ordinary ed- 
ucation. He was not, however, as is generally supposed, the first postmaster at 
Columbus City. 

Following is a list of the postmasters at Columbus City, with the date of their 
appointment, as given by the postoffice department up to 1864 : Tobias Hammer, 
appointed March 3, 1843; Uriah Limbocker, June 14, 1844; Philip Gore. June 


14, 1845; John Gardner. February 19. 1849: J. A. Luckett, April 23, 1849; Ben- 
jamin G. Neal, June 10, 1854: William M. Clark, June 19, 1851 ; John Gardner. 
April 17, 1852; William A. Colton, June 24. 1854; William G. Allen. September 
8, 1857; William O. Kulp, June 9, 1859; William G. Allen, July 1, 1859; Elisha 
T. Williamson, May 4, 1861 ; James Goble, February 9, 1866. There was a time 
after the appointment of J. A. Luckett when Colonel W. W. Garner was in charge 
of the postoffice. but his name does not appear in the list furnished from the post- 
office department. There is a tradition that William H. R. Thomas was post- 
master at Columbus City at a very early day, supposed to have been prior to 1843, 
but it may well be doubted whether this tradition has any foundation. 

A little later there were some first-class stores in Columbus City and for many 
years it was one of the leading trading points in the county, its trade extending 
into Muscatine, Johnson, Washington and Henry counties. 

One of the leading firms for some years was Fitch & Luckett and X. G. Fitch 
& Company, and another was Harrison & Barrett. The first drug store was 
opened by the firm of Clark & Colton. both being doctors. 

The first physicians to locate in Columbus City were Dr. J. M. Robertson. Dr. 
E. H. Skillman, Dr. John Bell. Dr. John Cleaves, Dr. William M. Clark, Dr. B. 
( ,. Xeal. Dr. William A. Colton, and Dr. W. S. Robertson and they came in about 
the order named here. 

The earlv tavern keepers were Dr. Skillman, Philip Gore and John Gardner. 

The first hardware store was established by Colonel W. W. Garner in the 
year 1850 or 1 85 1. This was the first store of its kind in either Louisa or Wash- 
ington counties and commanded a very large trade. 

We have a number of shipping bills connected with the business of Colonel 
Garner, which throw some light on the means of transportation in those days, 
the freight charged, etc. The first is dated April 22, 1851, and is as follows: 

"Mr. W. W. Garner, to Steamer Black Hawk. Dr. 

To Freight on 8732 lb. Iron at 40c pr. 100 $34-93 

To Freight on Lot from Burlington I -°° 

April 22d. 1851. Rec'd Pay't, W. M. Zalzell, Clerk." 

The above does not state where the 8732 pounds of iron came from but we 
are informed it came from St. Louis. 

Another shipping bill is dated April 17, 1852, from John Phillips & Company 
of St. Louis, by the steamboat called the Black Hawk, of some iron and steel at 
forty cents per hundred pounds, to be delivered near Columbus City. 

Another shipping bill is from the same firm, October 19, 1852, by the steam- 
boat Milton— a shipment of hardware to be delivered at Port Louisa, consigned 
to Lockwood & Williamson at the rate of fifty cents a hundred. 

Another bill is for goods shipped by Colonel W. W. Garner from Todd's 
Landing. June 6, 1853, by the steamboat Daniel Hillman, for Brown, Phillips & 
Company," of St. Louis. The shipment was for thirty-six sacks of flaxseed at 
the rate of fourteen cents per bushel. 


The project of building a bridge across the Iowa river at or near the forks 
■of the Cedar and Iowa was broached as early as 1850 by the people of Columbus 
City who were greatly interested in it. The first meeting toward this end of 
which we have any knowledge was held March 27, 1850. At least we may pre- 
sume it was so held, because of the following notice : 


"It is in contemplation tc build a Bridge across the Iowa river, at or near the 
forks of Cedar and Iowa. In this project the whole State has an interest; but 
those more immediately interested, on the west side of the river, are persons re- 
siding between English river and Virginia Grove, and as far west as Keokuk and 
Mahaska counties. A general meeting will be held at Columbus City, on Wed- 
nesday, 27th of March inst, at noon of the day, to talk about it and see how 
much money can be raised. Let everybody come. 

"Columbus City, March 11, 1850." 

The above notice is copied from one of the original bills printed and circulated 
at the time. 

Another project that interested the people of Columbus City in those days 
was the proposed extension of the plank road leading north from Burlington, 
and it would seem from the following notice, which is copied from one of the 
original bills, that a meeting was held for this purpose at Columbus City on 
March 12, 1852: 


"THERE will be a Plankroad meeting at the School House, in Columbus 
City, on Friday, the 12th day of March next, the object of which will be to make 
our arrangements for the extension of the Burlington and Louisa County Plank- 
road to Columbus City. All that feel an interest in such an enterprise are re- 
quested to attend. 

Philip Gore, 
Alfred Limbarker, 
W. W. Garner, 
Committee of Correspondence. 
"Columbus City, Feb. 27th, 1852." 

The name Limbarker is a misprint ; it should be Limbocker. 

The plank road from Eiurlington north was built by the Burlington & Vir- 
ginia Grove Plank Road Company, incorporated in 1851. We are not able to 
state just how far north from Burlington the road was actually built but it was 
at least as far as Dodgeville. The first officers of this company were : President, 
Hiram Leonard, Yellow Springs ; treasurer, John G. Foote, Burlington ; directors, 
William M. Graham, Honey Creek, Luke Palmer. Burlington, S. Fullenwider, 
Yellow Springs, Abner Leonard, Hint River and T. B. Crocker, Burlington, 
secretary. The capital stock of the company was fixed by the article at $60,000 
in shares of $50 each, and it was authorized to do business as soon as $5,000 of 
the stock was taken. 

We have before us a few copies of the Columbus City Courier edited by B. 


G. Neal, M. D. Number one of Volume I is dated April 8, 1856. This is said to 
be the first newspaper ever published in Columbus City. The writer is of the 
opinion that there was a paper published in Columbus City in 1855 and it may be 
that before this goes to press this fact can be definitely determined. The pros- 
pectus of the paper is dated April 3, 1856, and is signed by J. L. Grubb, W. M. 
Clark and B. G. Neal. styling themselves "committee of publication." .Many in- 
teresting items in regard to the Columbus City of that day and its hopes and 
prospects are to be found in this first issue. The first article in the editorial part 
of the paper is entitled "Salutation," and we make the following extracts from it : 

"In order to keep pace with our flourishing village and surrounding country, 
a company of gentlemen in this town formed themselves into an organized body 
for the purpose of procuring the material necessary for publishing a respectable 
paper in this place — which object being accomplished, with pride we lay before 
you today the first number. . . . Railroads are approaching us from all im- 
portant directions, and commercially our village will soon be connected with the 
great center of circulation — so that there is no more danger that Columbus City 
will become isolated and fall into decay. The gassing for a fine seminary has 
all been completed and the more substantial part put in a fair way of accomplish- 
ing the work. Our prairies are fast filling up with intelligent and enterprising 
men who think more of good houses and large fields than of dieir dogs and guns. 
So the idea of having a Newspaper in Columbus City cannot be considered pre- 
mature, but at the same time it is hoped that all good citizens will come 
up promptly to the support of their own paper. . . ." 

This e litorial is followed by another which is so full of interesting information 
in regard to the town and its prospects at that time that we copy substantially 
the entire article. It is as follows: 

"Columbus City is situated on an elevated tract of land about midway between 
the Iowa River and Long Creek. It forms the center of an area of country 
which for beauty of landscape scenery, fertility of soil and healthfulness of situ- 
ation, is rarely equaled. It is on the main travelled road leading from Muscatine 
west through the counties of Washington, Keokuk, Mahaska, Marion and so on 
to Council Bluffs. It is some twenty miles from Muscatine and about the same 
distance from Washington. It is also on the main road from Burlington to Iowa 
City, and nearlv equi-distant from each of those cities. It is convenient to large 
bodies of timber and to quarries of rock. Beds of coal have been found in the 
neighborhood. Dating the period of its growth about two years back, it contains 
now a population of near 500 inhabitants, and is rapidly growing. Besides being 
the central point of important roads from nearly every point of the compass, we 
possess the advantage of being on the line of the Keokuk. Mt. Pleasant and Mus- 
catine railroad — one of the most important roads we think in the western coun- 
try. In [une of last year a company was organized at Mt. Pleasant with a capital 
stock of two million dollars for the construction of this road. With less ex- 
penditure of noise and gas than any other company we know of, it has, we venture 
to say, made as much substantial progress as any other. Its able and efficient 
president. Col. Dewey, in a communication to the public, under date of October 
31, 1855. speaking of the formation of the company and the prospects of the 
road says : 


" "This road extends from the City of Keokuk, by way of Mt. Pleasant and 
Columbus City, to Muscatine, and thence connects by means of the Junction, 
and Davenport and Iowa City road, with the railroad bridge across the Missis- 
sippi river, at Rock Island. 'With these connections it traverses the counties of 
Lee, Henry, Louisa, Muscatine and Scott, five of the most productive and wealthy 
counties in the State of Iowa. It crosses and connects, directly and indirectly, 
with six railroads located across the State from East to West, and is intended 
to connect the permanently navigable waters of the Mississippi below the Des 
Moines rapids, with the river above the Rock Island obstructions. The construc- 
tion is therefore an enterprise of great importance to the people of the entire 
State, and to all others who are interested in the trade, present and prospective 
of the upper Mississippi. It is also regarded as a link of that chain of roads 
which must soon connect St. Paul in Minnesota, with the Mexican Gulf.' 

"From Davenport to Muscatine the road is finished and in operation. The 
section of the road from Muscatine to the Iowa river will be completed in Octo- 
ber next. This will bring the road within some three miles of our town. But 
it stops not there. Mr. Taylor, of Wisconsin, an enterprising and experienced 
railroad contractor, is understood to have the contract for building the bridge 
over the Iowa and for grading the road on this side of the river. He is on the 
ground making preparations for a vigorous prosecution of the work. A pre- 
liminary survey of the road from this point to Keokuk shows the distance to be 
about seventy miles. The estimates of the engineer gives the cost of clearing, 
grubbing, grading, bridging and masonry of the entire line to be $529,363 for a 
first class road. Of public subscription the city of Keokuk has taken $100,000, 
the county of Henry and the town of Mt. Pleasant $150,000, and the county of 
Louisa, $50,000. Xot to mention other subscriptions along the line of the road, 
we are informed that the private subscriptions in Keokuk, Montrose and St. 
Louis amount to $100,000. From Keokuk north, the work is progressing with 
vigor. Judge Nash, the secretary of the company, under date of February 19, 
1856, writes: 'We hope to have the road ready for freight and passengers in 
June, as far as Montrose. The engines, cars, spikes, etc. have already been 
purchased. The grading and masonry can be completed in six weeks after the 
spring opens. The ties are being delivered and all the means are now secured 
to complete this division without encumbering that or any other part of the road.' 

"This county we have said has authorized a subscription of $50,000 to the 
capital stock of this road. This is well as far as it goes, and shows the preva- 
lence of the right spirit among our people. Our efforts must not cease here. 
Much more is expected of us. The company will draw upon us for a private 
subscription of at least $25,000." 

This issue also contains the following business directory : 



Cottage House, corner of Columbus and Washington ; Columbus House, 
corner of Columbus and Jefferson. 



John Cleaves. West Side Market street: J. M & W. S. Robertson, southwest 
corner of town: Clark & Colton. south door Union building: B. G. Neal, west 
side of Market street ; Thomas Burns, Iowa street, north side. 


Clark & Colton, south door Union building. 


Harrison & Barratt. corner store Union building: Grubb & Allen, corner of 
Main and Columbus streets : X. G. Fitch, east side of Market street ; W. P. Miller, 
southeast corner of Main and Columbus street ; W. D. Moore, north side of 
Columbus street. 

Iro,n>, Stoves & Furniture. 

Garner & Reiner, corner of Columbus and Spring streets. 

Groceries & Prozrisions. 

H. Y. T. Huls, west side of Market street; Geo. T. Burroughs, east side 
Market street; J. O. Buffington & Co., corner of Columbus opposite Cottage 
House; Gamble & Wren, northeast corner Columbus and Main; I. M. Myler, 
Mechanics' Row. 

Carpenters & House Joiners. 

Warn & Kelley, corner of Columbus and Washington ; John Gentzler, west 
side of Market street ; M. M. Carson, corner of Main and Burlington streets ; 
John Orr. west side Main street ; Milton Richey, northwest corner of town. 

P. Rasley, Mechanics' Row; J. B. Freed, Mechanics' Row. 

Jacob Knott, east side Market street : Charles Johnson, Mechanics' Row. 

Wagon Makers. 

Darrow & Calhoun, south side Columbus street. 


Jacob Getts, south side Columbus street ; Shaum & Klotz, between Main and 
Market ; R. Stewart, west side Main street. 

. luctioneer. 

W. W. Paschal. Mechanics' Row." 

Joseph Manners, whose name is not in the directory, advertises that he will 
commence the boot and shoe business in the south room of Esquire Denham's 
residence on the 15th of April. 

In regard to the improvements that were in contemplation at this time, we 


cannot do better than to quote the following article, also found in the same paper : 

"On every hand we hear the busy notes of preparation for building, the 
coming season. Col. W. W. Garner will lead the way, as he has the material 
all on the ground for the erection of his new family residence. The seminary 
trustees are also collecting the material for the seminary building and there is 
no doubt but that the work will be put under contract in a short time and the 
building completed the present season. It is also in contemplation to build a new- 
district schoolhouse, the old one being unfit for further use. We earnestly hope 
that the citizens will vote a liberal tax for that purpose, that such a house will 
be built as will be an honor to the town and meet the wants of a rapidly increas- 
ing population. The Methodist church has also raised funds to build a house 
of worship, thirty-five feet wide by fifty feet in length. The house will be put 
under contract immediately and completed the present summer. Many of our 
citizens are making preparations to build family residences and numerous con- 
tracts are already let, so that we think we speak within the bounds of reason when 
we say that Columbus City will double its population within the next twelve, 
months. Why not? It is admitted on all hands that the country surrounding it 
is far in advance of the town, and a more fertile, beautiful and well cultivated 
country cannot be found in Iowa, and that is as much as need be said of any 
country. Add to this its beautiful location, its unrivalled healthfulness and the 
certainty that one of the best railroads in the state will pass through it, and 
another near enough for all practical purposes and then say if we have over- 
stated the bounds of probability or why Columbus City should not take rank 
with the best inland towns in Iowa." 

X umber 2 of this paper was published according to its date on May 22, 1856. 
Among the advertisements we notice nearly a cqdumn given to Levi J. North's 
National Circus, advertised as "the largest company in the world," and to exhibit 
at Columbus City on Friday. June 6th. 

The Wapello ferry, Charles Yanloon proprietor, also has an advertisement ; 
and there is an advertisement of a steam ferry at Keithsburg, S. H. Redmond, 
proprietor. There is an advertisement of. D. A. Chapman & Company of the 
Fredonia ferry, stating that they have a new boat. 

It would seem from the following advertisement that in those good old days 
the cook was expected to work in the kitchen : "Wanted — A good cook. None 
need apply that is too nice to work in the kitchen. I. Myler." 

We also notice in t lis paper Jesse Phillips' advertisement as a cooper: E. M. 
Ashford's advertisement as a brick and stone mason ; and T. Z. & D. M. Stark, 
as carpenters. 

Number 4 of this paper was published June 5, 1856. and it contains the salu- 
tatory of Andrew Gamble, as editor. This salutatory is such an able and patriotic 
document and so characteristic of the honest and fearless old pioneers who wrote 
it that we copy it in full : 

"Patrons of the Courier : The partiality of the Executive Committee who 
have charge of your paper, have selected me for its Editor. It is a new and 
untried field, in which I never have labored and I enter upon the discharge of 
my duties with the greatest reluctance. I shall not, therefore, make many pledges 


or promises as to the manner in which your paper shall be conducted; hut simply 
say that I will give it the best attention I can, consistent with my other duties. 
The paper, as the prospectus indicates, will be "Independent on all subjects — 
Neutral in Nothing;' consequently, whilst I express my own opinions of prin- 
ciples of measures and of men, the columns of the paper will be always open, 
to a reasonable extent, to every person, who may either feel aggrieved or wish 
to be heard on any question or subject, interesting to the readers of the paper. 
The local news of our town, county and state, will always be first considered and 
constitute a prominent feature in the Courier. In regard to politics I deem it 
almost unnecessary to speak. Old party lines are lost and blotted out, and the 
great question now is, shall freedom or slavery be dominant, in the United 
States. On such an issue I have no hesitancy in ranking myself on the side of 
Freedom. From my earliest youth up, I have been, from principle, a Democrat, 
and uniformly voted the Democratic ticket. ■ Many of you have been acquainted 
with me for the last nine years, and you will know I shrunk from no issue, pre- 
sented by the partv to which I belonged, but ever esteemed it no less a duty 
than a pleasure, to face the music, by whomsoever played, and advocate the 
principles of my party, as laid down by Jefferson and carried out in practice by 
Madison, Monroe and Jackson. But the great principles that were the guiding 
stars of those good men have been lost sight of, and ambitious and incompetent 
men are fast hurrying us on to destruction. Already the fires of civil discord 
are lighted up, and the children of the Republic are imbruing their hands in each 
others blood, a dark cloud has gathered and burst on our western frontier, a 
noble town has been sacked and pillaged, and defenseless women and children 
are now wandering houseless and homeless, on the banks of the Kansas. The 
government at Washington stretches forth no restraining hand, but her soldiers 
are compelled to be silent spectators, whilst the mob disarms the citizen and then 
butchers him. Such are a few of the reasons, dear reader, why I decline to act 
with what is termed the Democratic party at this time. But as I have said before, 
1 have ever been a democrat and I cling with all the tenacity of life to the old 
landmarks of the bygone days. But names have lost all their terrors for me, 
and it matters not what I may be called, I shall be ever ready to act with that 
party that strikes for Freedom and the right. Through the columns of the 
Courier, I expect to enunciate my principles to the public, for which I alone will 
be responsible, and which I ask no one to adopt unless they agree with their own 
convictions of right and duty." 

We copy the following item from this same issue in regard to the seminary: 

"What has become of our Seminary? We hear no more about it. Was it 
all fuss and feathers, or are you waiting for a 'good ready?' We wo'd like to 
hear from somebody who know